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Encyclopedia > Patani (region)
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For other uses, see Pattani (disambiguation)
Patani

Flag of separatist movement

Patani (in Malay, Patani, also sometimes Patani Raya, or "Greater Patani") is a term that has been used to describe a region in South Thailand consisting of the province of Pattani proper along with the neighbouring Yala Province , Narathiwat Province and much of the northern part of modern Malaysia. Historically similar to many smaller kingdoms such as Lanna, Luang Phrabang and Vientiane, they were under the overlord Ayutthaya., a separatist movement has sought the establishment of a Malay and Islamic state, Patani Darussalam, encompassing these three provinces. This campaign has taken a violent turn in recent years, prompting a state of insurgency across South Thailand and the imposition of martial law. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links Patani-unitat. ... Image File history File links Thailand_Pattani_region. ... The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, parts of the coast of Borneo and even in the Netherlands[1]. It is an... Pattani (Thai ปัตตานี) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... Yala (Thai ยะลา) is the southernmost province (changwat) of Thailand. ... Narathiwat (Thai นราธิวาส) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or separation of their land or region from the country that governs them. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Combatants  Thailand Muslim separatists Pattini Raya Commanders Gen. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early history

Main article: Patani kingdom

Pattani is the post 15th century rendition of Langkasuka, the oldest Malay Kingdom of the Malay Peninsula. Pattani is the true cradle of Malay civilisation, with culture and artforms emulated to this day in other Malay states of modern day Malaysia. Pattani was already a bustling entrepôt with diplomatic ties to China, Japan and Srivijaya at a time when Malacca was still an uninhabited jungle-clad estuary.[citation needed] Ironically, Pattani today lies under the jurisdiction of Thailand, a sober reflection of the Kingdom's turbulent relationship with old Siam and present-day Thailand. The Kingdom of Patani (Pattani) was a Malay state approximately covering the area of the modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... An entrepôt is a trading centre, or simply a warehouse, where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, often at a profit. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ...


According to many historical sources, the ancient Hindu-Malay empire of Langkasuka was centred in Pattani, today's southern Thailand, which encompasses of modern Malaysia states Kelantan, Terengganu and northern Kedah, as well as modern Thai provinces of Pattani (Patani in Malay), Yala (Jala), Narathiwat (Menara), Songkhla (Singora) and Satun (Setul). This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pattani (or Patani in Malay spelling) may refer to the town Pattani in southern Thailand the Pattani Province the region Pattani, which includes the above province. ... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... State motto: Islam Hadhari Terengganu Bestari State anthem: Terengganu State Anthem Capital (and royal capital) Kuala Terengganu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin1  - Menteri Besar Idris Jusoh History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 12,955 km² Population  - 2005... State motto: no State motto Capital Alor Star Royal Capital Anak Bukit Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Chief Minister Dato Hj Mahdzir Bin Khalid Area 9,426 km2 Population  - Est year 2003 1 778 188 State anthem Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Kedah (Jawi:قدح, pop. ... Pattani (Thai ปัตตานี) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... Yala (Thai ยะลา) is the southernmost province (changwat) of Thailand. ... Narathiwat (Thai นราธิวาส) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... Songkhla (Thai: ) is the one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... á Satun (Thai สตูล) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ...


While when exactly Pattani was Islamised is in debate; it was certainly one of the earliest Malay kingdoms to adopt the Middle Eastern religion around mid-13th century. The kingdom adopted the name "Patani" under the rule of Sultan Ismail Shah. According to local folklore, he was finding a spot for the kingdom's new capital, and when he arrived to the place he liked best, he shouted “Pantai Ini!” which means in Malay, "This beach!"[1] According to most accounts, this capital is thought to be today's modern Kru Se (Kampung Grisek). The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, parts of the coast of Borneo and even in the Netherlands[1]. It is an...


It is widely believed that Pattani was one of the oldest kingdoms on the Malay peninsula. Pattani was known to the Western world, especially in 1516 when Portuguese explorer Godinho de Eredia landed on its port. The fall of Malacca five years before that increased Pattani's popularity with Indian-Muslim traders; competing viciously with northern Sumatra kingdom of Aceh. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ...


During the massive Burmese attack from the north against the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya, Pattani's Sultan Muzaffar Shah took this advantage and launched an attack on Ayutthaya in 1563. He however died mysteriously during battle. The kingdom of Ayutthaya was a Thai kingdom that existed from the 1350 to 1767. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ...


Pattani's golden age was during the reign of its four successive queens from 1584, known as Raja Hijau (The Green Queen), Raja Biru (The Blue Queen), Raja Ungu (The Purple Queen) and Raja Kuning (The Yellow Queen), where the kingdom's economic and military strength was greatly increased to the point that it was able to fight off four major Siamese invasions with the help of the eastern Malay kingdom of Pahang and the southern Malay Sultanate of Johore. 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... State motto: no State motto Capital Kuantan Royal Capital Pekan Sultan Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Chief Minister Dato Seri Adnan Yaakob Area 35,964 km2 Population  - Est year 2005 1,372,500 State anthem Pahang State Anthem Pahang (Jawi: Ú¨Ù‡Ú ) is the largest state on Peninsular Malaysia, occupying the huge Pahang... The Sultanate of Johor was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ...


Thai Annexation

During the period of Pattani's last queens in the 17th Century, the kingdom fell into disarray and went into gradual decline. After the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, the Siamese king Taksin succeeded in driving the Burmese invaders from Siam. His successor, Rama I, established the Chakri Dynasty, which still rules Thailand today. However, the Siamese army faced another Burmese raid and demanded assistance from Pattani. The Sultan refused to provide any men. Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is... Statue in Wat Welurachin, Thonburi Taksin the Great (Thai: ตากสินมหาราช; 鄭昭; pinyin: Zhèng Chāo; April 17, 1734 - April 7, 1782) was king of Thailand from 1767-1782. ... His Majesty King Rama I of Siam (portrait in the National History Museum, Bangkok) Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke or Rama I the Great, was king of Thailand from 1782 to 1809. ... The Chakri dynasty have ruled Thailand since king Taksin was declared mad in 1782. ...


In retaliation, Prince Surasi, Rama I's younger brother and vice-king, invaded Pattani. Sultan Muhammad was killed in battle and his capital razed to the ground. According to Pattani sources, about 4,000 Malay men were enslaved and made to work on Bangkok's system of khlongs. To further humiliate Pattani, the symbols of its military strength – the Seri Patani and Seri Negara cannon - were brought to Bangkok. (The Phaya Thani is on display today in front of the Ministry of Defence.) Boworn Maha Surasinghanat (Thai: ) was the first Vice-King of the Bangkok era of Thailand. ... Floating market of Damnoen Saduak, Ratchaburi province A khlong (also commonly but less correctly called a klong; Thai คลอง) is a canal in the central plain of Thailand spawned by the Chao Phraya, the Ta Chi and the Mae Klong rivers. ... Cannon in front of the Ministry of Defence Phraya Tani (Thai พญาตานี) or Sri Patani (Malay) is a historical siege cannon from Pattani in southern Thailand. ...


In 1791 and 1808, there were rebellions within Pattani against Siamese rule, following which Pattani was divided into 7 largely autonomous states (Mueang) – Pattani, Nongchik, Saiburi (Teluban), Yala (Jala), Yaring (Jambu), Ra-ngae (Legeh) and Reman. All were ruled by the King of Ligor. Mueang (Thai: ) or Muang (Lao ເມືອງ) were semi-independent city-states or principalities in present-day Thailand, Laos and the Shan State of Myanmar. ... Nakhon Si Thammarat (Thai นครศรีธรรมราช) is a town in southern Thailand, capital of the Nakhon Si Thammarat province. ...


In 1902, Pattani was formally annexed by Siam. Seven years later, the Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was signed between Great Britain and Siam. The British recognised Siam sovereignty over Pattani, and in return Siam gave up its claims to Kelantan. All seven mueang were reunited into a monthon and incorporated into the kingdom. Later, the central government in Bangkok renamed certain localities with Thai versions of their names and merged some of the mueang. When the monthon system was dissolved in 1933, three provinces remained - Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat. The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a treaty between the British and Siam. ... A monthon (English circle, Thai มณฑล) was a subdivision of Thailand in the beginning of the 20th century. ...


Greater Malay Patani State

On 8 December 1941, during the Second World War, the Japanese invaded Thailand and crossed Pattani to invade British Malaya. The Thai government later even became a reluctant ally of Japan. Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, a prominent Pattani leader and the son of the last Raja of Pattani, allied himself with the British in the hopes that Pattani would be granted independence after an Allied victory. His main support came from ethnic Malays displeased by the nationalistic policies of the Phibun regime, which forced for them to give up their own language and culture. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram (July 14, 1897–June 11, 1964) (Thai แปลก พิบูลสงคราม or ป. พิบูลสงคราม, lastname sometimes spelled Phibunsongkhram, Phibul Songkhram or Pibul Songgram) was Prime Minister and military dictator of Thailand from 1938 to 1944 and 1948 to 1957. ...


Mahyuddin assisted the British by launching guerrilla attacks against the Japanese. In 1945, a petition by Malay leaders led by Tengku Abdul Jalal demanded that Britain guarantee independence for the southernmost provinces of Thailand. At the war's end, the Greater Malay Pattani State (Negara Melayu Patani Raya) flag did fly briefly inPattani. However, the British broke their promises and allowed continued Thai rule over Pattani, determined to keep Thailand stable as a counterweight to the communist insurgency then being fought in Malaya. This caused the formation of several insurgent groups seeking the independence of Pattani.


Resistance movements in Patani

During World War II, along with the Greater Patani Malay Movement lead by Tengku Mahmud Mahyuddin, another resistance force under the leadership of Islamic scholar Haji Sulong Tokmina fought alongside against the Japanese. Their stated goal is to create an Islamic republic in Patani, which frequently put it at odds with Tengku Mahmud who wants to reestablish the Pattanese Sultanate (being a prince himself).


Today, the goals and ideas of Haji Sulong Tokmina is still carried on by minor resistance groups interested in creating an Islamic republic. After the war though, hopes of any independent republic in Pattani was quickly dashed by the British and the Thais.


Current insurgency

Patani separatist groups, most notably the Patani United Liberation Organization (PULO), began to use violent tactics in 2001. There have been suggestions of links between PULO and foreign Islamist groups such as al-Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah. A number of Pattani Muslims are reported to have received training at al-Qaida centres in Pakistan, and the Pattani insurgents have forged links with groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Philippines and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) in Indonesia. Estimates of rebel strength vary widely from only 500 to more than 15,000. Combatants  Thailand Muslim separatists Pattini Raya Commanders Gen. ... The Patani United Liberation Organization (also spelled Pattani United Liberation Organisation) or PULO is one of the active militant groups calling for a free and independent Patani. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Jemaah Islamiyah[1] (JI, Arabic phrase meaning Islamic Group or Islamic Community) is a Southeast Asian militant Islamic organization dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah[2] (Islamic State) in Southeast Asia incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei[3]. JI was added to the United Nations... In a show of force during peace negotiations with the Philippine government, members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front parade during a press conference June 4, 2005, on the island of Mindanao. ... ASNLF Flag The Free Aceh Movement (Indonesian: Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or simply GAM), also known as the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front (ASNLF), is an armed separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region on Sumatra from Indonesia. ...


See also

Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is... Combatants  Thailand Muslim separatists Pattini Raya Commanders Gen. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

External links

Patani-Malay teaching initiative brings hope to children of deep South [1]

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tranung Kite - Thailand Perpetuating the Taming of Islam in Patani (1154 words)
Muslims in Patani, once the berth of Malay prosperity in the region, are currently accusing the government in Bangkok of perpetuating a long war against Islam and the Muslims.
Patani leaders and teachers, who fought the system with the opening of Islamic schools and furious complaints in parliament in Bangkok, were charged with treason during the early 1990s.
Patani remembers this period (1930-1950) as the period of genocide against Malay-Muslim leaders in the region.
HIMAL SOUTH ASIAN | January 2003 | Asia Special | Southeast Asia: Imagining the region (3498 words)
In this sense, the region was ‘east by south’, that is, east of India and south of China, an expression that was as much a cultural statement as a geographic fact.
He wrote, “The region’s leaders...have been thrust into intimate contact with their neighbours, often through conflict: the communications developed as a result are one factor which perhaps more than anything else compels us to accept the fact that a sense of ‘region’ does now exist in Southeast Asia”.
Increased regionalism, at the level of governments and civic organisations, is the only hope for the region to remain an entity in the face of dark clouds that have gathered on its horizons since the outbreak of the Asian economic crisis in 1997.
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