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Encyclopedia > Patalene
Sindh
Sindh Govt flag Sindh province map

Sindh in Pakistan
Provincial Capital Karachi
Languages Sindhi
Urdu
Revenue & NFC
 - Share in national revenue
 - Share receives

70% (contribution)
23% (from fed. govt)
Time zone PST, UTC +5
Number of Districts (Taluka) 23
Number of Towns 160
Number of UCs 1500
Governor Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan
Chief Minister Dr. Arbab Raheem
Govt of Sindh Official Website

Sindh (Sind) سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis and various other groups. Neighbouring regions are Balochistan to the west and north, Punjab in the north and Rajasthan (India) to the east. To the south are the Arabian Sea and the Rann of Kutch, Gujarat (India). The main languages are Sindhi and Urdu. Known by various names in the past, the name Sindh comes from the Indo-Aryans whose legends claimed that the Indus River flowed from the mouth of a lion or Sinh-ka-bab. In Sanskrit the province was dubbed Sindhu meaning an ocean. The Assyrians (as early as the seventh century BCE) knew the region as Sinda, the Persians Abisind, the Greeks Sinthus, the Romans Sindus, the Chinese Sintow, while the Arabs dubbed it simply Sind, which is what the province is now known as. Image File history File links Sindh_flag. ... Image File history File links Sindh_map. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Sindh Categories: GFDL images ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... Sindhi (سنڌي، سندھی, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Urdu (اردو) is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in the South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... A tax is a compulsory charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Pakistan Standard Time (sometime refer as PST) is Time zone enforced in 1950s after partition of Indian. ... UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, the basis for civil time, differs by an integral number of seconds from atomic time and a fractional number of seconds from UT1. ... Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... A street in Ynysybwl, Wales, relatively stereotypical of a small town A town is usually an urban area which is not considered to rank as a city. ... Union Council Union Council is a sub part of a district, usually it is a large village also including the nearby small villages. ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... Dr. Arbab Raheem is the chief minister of Sindh belongs to Tharparkaer district. ... Sindhi refers to an socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... The province of Balochistan (or Baluchistan) of Pakistan contains roughly the part of Balochistan that falls within the borders of present-day Pakistan. ... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... Rajasthan (राजस्थान) is the geographically largest state in northwestern India. ... Map of the Arabian Sea. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ... Gujarat (ગુજરાત in Gujarati) is the most industrialized state in India after Maharashtra and is located in western India, bordered by Pakistan to the northwest and Rajasthan to the north. ... Sindhi refers to an ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Urdu (اردو) is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in the South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Roma family in Smyrne, Turkey, photographed in 1904. ... The Indus (Sindh nadi), known as the Sindhu in Sanskrit, Sinthos in Greek, and Sindus in Latin, is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

Contents


Geography

Sindh is located at the northeastern corner of South Asia just before the Iranian plateau in the west. It is the third largest province geographically. Its size is about 579 km north-south and 442 km (extreme) or 281 km (average) east-west, with an area of 140,915 km². Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the center is the fertile plain where the Indus river runs through. Largely irrigated, the Indus' devastating floods are now under control. Composite satellite image of South Asia Map of South Asia. ... The Iranian plateau is major geologic formation in the Middle East and the southern Eurasian Plate. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed. ... Kirthar Mountains range is loacted in Balochistan andSindh provinces of Pakistan. ... Map of the Arabian Sea. ... The Indus (Sindh nadi), known as the Sindhu in Sanskrit, Sinthos in Greek, and Sindus in Latin, is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


Its capital is Karachi. Other important cities include Thatta, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Shahdadpur, Tando Adam, Tando Allahyar, Nawabshah, Larkana, Shikarpur, Khairpur, Badin. Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... Thatta, or Tatta, is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan. ... The Pacca Qilla or the Hyderabad Fort in all its glory in the year 1845 Hyderabad is a city in Sindh, a province of Pakistan (also formerly known as Neroon Kot). ... Sukkur is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus river (Pakistan). ... Mirpurkhas (میرپور خاص) with a population of 124,371 (1981), is a south eastern Pakistani city, fourth largest in the Sindh Province. ... Shahdadpur is a city in Sindh, a province of Pakistan. ... Nawabshah city (established in 1912) is located in center of Sindh, Pakistan, and is therefore often known as the Heart of Sindh. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Shikarpur is a town of in Sindh province of Pakistan, capital of a district of the same name. ... Khairpur (khīr´poor) is a city in the Sindh province in southeast Pakistan. ...


Demographics and society

Sindh Demographic Indicators
Indicator Statistic
Area 140914 km²
Total population (1998 census) 30,440,000
Urban pop. share 48.75%
Rural pop. share 51.25%
Population density 216.02 persons/km²
Population growth rate 2.80%
Sex ratio (male per 100 female) 112.24
Economically active pop. 22.75%
Unemployment rate 14.43%

The population is approximately 35 million while official source (1998 census) estimated 30.439 million, with over half being urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi. A large chunk of population speak Sindhi and Urdu languages. Other languages spoken include Siraiki, Balochi, Brohi, Punjabi, Pakhtu, Rajasthani and Gujarati. Urban areas of Sindh are multi-ethnic centres and sometimes highly polarized as a result. Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... Sindhi (سنڌي، سندھی, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Urdu (اردو) is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family which developed under Persian, Turkish, and Arabic influence in the South Asia during the time of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Saraiki is an old language spoken in central Pakistan. ... Balochi may refer to: Baloch people Balochi language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Brahui(brohi), An ancient language mostly spoken in Balochistan,Pakistan. ... Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The Rajasthani languages are a group of related languages spoken in India and Pakistan . ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી; also sometimes Gujrati) is a language native to the state of Gujarat in Northwestern India and Pakistan. ...


Sindh's population is predominantly Muslim and mainly of the Sunni variant as well as having a large Shia minority. Sindh is home to the vast majority of Hindus in Pakistan and they number roughly 1.5 million. Smaller groups of Christians, Parsis, Ahmadis and a tiny Jewish community (of around 200) can also be found in the province. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... a person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ... The global Muslim community has declared that the followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as outside of the fold of Islam, primarily due to their acceptance of his claim as a prophet. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


The Sindhis as a whole are composed of various sub-groups related to the Punjabis and Siraikis minorities as well as of Baloch origin. A small group either partially descended from or claiming descent from early Muslim invaders including Arabs, Turks, and Persians is also found in the province and are referred to as ashraf or high-born. For further information regarding the disparate origins of the Sindhis refer to Sindhi people. Punjabis are an Indo-Aryan people native to the Punjab region located in the north west corner of the Indian subcontinent. ... Saraiki is an old language spoken in central Pakistan. ... Major Ethnic Groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, 1980. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Sindhi refers to an socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ...


History

Indus — one of the oldest civilizations of the world. This is the famous Priest King statue of Indus Valley, made of fired steatite
Indus — one of the oldest civilizations of the world. This is the famous Priest King statue of Indus Valley, made of fired steatite

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 68 KB) Summary The image is found at official page of the National Fund for Cultural Heratage (NFCH Ministry of Culture) Pakistan - a non-commercial public organization. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x646, 68 KB) Summary The image is found at official page of the National Fund for Cultural Heratage (NFCH Ministry of Culture) Pakistan - a non-commercial public organization. ...

Ancient history

The first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh to the west expanded into Sindh and then by 3500 BCE the Mohenjodaro civilization (collectively referred to as the Indus Valley Civilization) emerged. Possibily founded by Elamo-Dravidian-speaking peoples, the civilization rivalled the then contemporary Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in both size and scope numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems. Speculation remains as to how and why the civilization declined and may have been a combination of natural disasters such as flooding and internecine conflicts. Early Indo-European invaders of the Indo-Aryan branch invaded the region having arrived in two waves around 2000 and 1400 BCE from Central Asia. These Indo-Aryans would ultimately merge with the native inhabitants in Sind and throughout northern India as well, while estalishing their language and, in part, their culture. (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) // Events Circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Hakra-Ghaggar river and their tributaries. ... The Elamo-Dravidian languages are a hypothesised language family which includes the living Dravidian languages of India and Pakistan, in addition to the extinct Elamite language of ancient Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE, and became part of the Persian satrapy (province) of Hindush centered in the Punjab to the north. Persian speech had a tendency to replace 'S' with an 'H' resulting in 'Sindu' being pronounced and written as 'Hindu'. They introduced the Kharoshti script and links to the west in the region. Subsequently conquered by Greeks led by Alexander the Great, the region came under loose Greek control for a few decades until Alexander's death and brief Seleucid rule and then was conquered by the Mauryans led by Chandragupta in 305 BCE. Later, during the reign of the Buddhist Indian king Ashoka the region would solidly become a Buddhist domain. Following a century of Mauryan rule which ended by 232 BCE, the region came under the Greco-Bactrians based in what is today Afghanistan and these rulers would also convert to and proliferate Buddhism in the region. The Scythians shattered the Greco-Bactrians fledgling empire and then the Tocharian Kushan Empire annexed Sindh by the 1st century CE. Though the Kushans were Zoroastrian, they were tolerant of the local Buddhist tradition and sponsorerd many building projects for local beliefs. The Huns and remnants of the Kushans, Scythians, and the Sassanian Persians all exercised some degree of control in Sindh until the coming of the Muslim Arabs in 711 CE. The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the... Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan Empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... For other meanings, see Ashoka (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Huns were a group of Central Asian nomadic tribes, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Arrival of Arabs

Conquered by Syrian Arabs led by Muhammad bin Qasim, Sindh became the easternmost province of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Arab province of Sindh is modern Pakistan. While the lands further east were known as Hind, modern India, to the Arabs. The defeat of the Brahmin ruler Dahir was made easier due to the tension between the Buddhist majority and the ruling Brahmins' fragile base of control. The Arabs redefined the region and adopted the term budd to refer to the numerous Buddhist idols they encountered, a word that remains in use today. The city of Mansura was established as a regional capital and Arab rule lasted for nearly 3 centuries and a fusion of cultures produced much of what is today modern Sindhi society. Arab geographers, historians and travellers also sometimes called the entire area from the Arabian Sea to the Hindu Kush, Sind. The meaning of the word Sindhu being water (or ocean) appears to refer to the Indus river. In addition, there is a mythological belief among Muslims that four rivers had sprung from Heaven: Neel (Nile), Furat (Euphrates), Jehoon (Jaxartes) and Sehoon (Sind or in modern times the Indus). this article has been edited to omit Qusams massacre of Hindus and non-Muslims. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... A Brahmin (pronunciation is Brahmann) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Dahir was the ruler of Sindh and parts of Punjab at the time of advent of Islam in South Asia. ... Mansura was the capital of the Arab empire in Pakistan. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Indus (Sindh nadi), known as the Sindhu in Sanskrit, Sinthos in Greek, and Sindus in Latin, is the principal river of Pakistan. ... The Nile (Arabic: النيل an-nÄ«l), in Africa, is one of the two longest rivers on Earth. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic Al-Furat الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ...

A historic image of Rohri - Sukkur
A historic image of Rohri - Sukkur

Arab rule ended with the ascension of the Soomro dynasty, who were local Sindhi Muslims and who controlled the province directly and as vassals from 1058 to 1249. Turkic invaders conquered the area by 977 CE and the region loosely became part of the Ghaznavid Empire and then the Delhi Sultanate which lasted until 1524. The Mughals seized the region and their rule lasted for another two centuries, while another local Sindhi Muslim group the Samma challenged Mughal rule from their base at Thatta. Sind, though part of larger empires, continued to enjoy certain autonomy as a loyal Muslim domain and came under the rule of the Arghun Dynasty and Turkhan or Tarkhan dynasty from 1519 to 1625. Sind became a vassal-state of the Afghan Durrani Empire by 1747. It was then ruled by Kalhora rulers. It remained under Baluchi Talpurs rule by 1783. Image File history File links Rohri_Town_Sukkur. ... Image File history File links Rohri_Town_Sukkur. ... Sukkur is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus river (Pakistan). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Soomro or Soomra dynasty ruled Sindh, Pakistan, from 1026-1350 AD a period of nearly 300 years. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind(سلطنتِ ہند)/Sulthanath-e-Dilli(سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Afghan dynasties that ruled in India from 1206 to 1526. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Samma dynasty ruled in Sindh and parts of Punjab and Balochistan from 1351-1551 A.D. The Samma dynasty declined and was replaced by Arghun Dynasty. ... Thatta, or Tatta, is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan. ... Arghun Dynasty was established in Sindh by Shah Beg a descendent of Genghiz Khan. ... Tarkhan can denote: Tarkhan or Tarkhaan is an ancient Turkic rank. ... The Durrani Empire was a state in present day Afghanistan. ... Kalhora dynasty ruled Sindh province of Pakistan from 1701 to 1783 AD. Kalhoras ruled Sindh for 85 years and there were twelve Kalhora rulers during this time. ... When referring to central asian peoples, Baluchi is an alernative spalling of Balochi (qv). ...


British Era

British arrived in Sindh in 19th century and conquest in it 1843. In 1843 British forces under General Charles Napier conquered Sindh. It is said that he sent back to the Governor General a one-word message, "Peccavi"Latin for "I have sinned". In actual fact, this pun first appeared as a cartoon in Punch magazine. The first Aga Khan helped the British in the conquest of Sindh and was granted a pension as a result. Sind was made part of British India's Bombay Presidency, and became a separate province in 1935. The British ruled the area for a century and Sindh was home to many prominent Muslim leaders including Muhammad Ali Jinnah who agitated for greater Muslim autonomy. 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... General Sir Charles James Napier Sir Charles James Napier (August 10, 1782 - August 29, 1853) was a British general and Commander-in-Chief in India. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... Aga Khan I (1800-1881), was the title accorded by general consent to Hasan Ali Shah (born in Persia, 1800), when, in early life, he first settled in Bombay under the protection of the British government. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in...


After creation of Pakistan

Following World War II, Britain withdrew from British India and Sind voted to join Pakistan in 1947 during partition as the largely Hindu educated elites were replaced by Muslim immigrants from India. Relations in the province have since been defined by power struggles between the immigrants and their descendents and the local Sindhis who have also resented the influx of Pashtun and Punjabi immigrants to Karachi. Nonetheless, traditional Sindhis families remained prominent in Pakistani politics and none have been more important than the Bhutto dynasty. In recent years Sindhi dissatisfaction has grown as larger and more influential ethnic groups in Pakistan have prompted the growth of a Sindhi separatist movement known as Sindhudesh which envisions an independent Sindhi entity based upon what is viewed as a unique local history and veneration of such local figures as Shah Abdul Latif. Dr. Safdar Sarki is a prominent activist for the independance of Sindh. At present, Sindh remains both an economic center of activity due to the prominence of Karachi and a potential cauldron of ethnic and religious strife in Pakistan. The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... A Hindu (also spelt Hindoo) is an adherent of philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, also known as Sanatan (सनातन) Dharma, the predominant religious, philosophical and cultural systems of Bharat (India) and Nepal and the island of Bali A popular name for India is Hindustan, or Land of the Hindus. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... Bhutto may refer to: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (Also spelled Bhuto) was former Pakistani Prime Minister, deposed by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1970s. ... Shah Abdul Latif, a great scholar, saint and spiritual poet, was born in Hala Haveli near the Khatiyan village of Hyderabad District, Sindh in 1689. ... Safdar Sarki is a prominent activist for the independence of Sindh. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ...


Administrative division

Historical populations
Census
year
Population

1951 6,047,748
1961 8,367,065
1972 14,155,909
1981 19,028,666
1998 30,439,893
2005 estimated 35 mn.

Province of Sindh is divided into following 23 districts. Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ...

  • Tando Muhammad Khan
  • Tharparkar
  • Thatta
  • Umerkot

Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the khan) is the ancient Mongol name for Beijing, the current capital of China. ... Ghotki is a city of southern Pakistan. ... The Pacca Qilla or the Hyderabad Fort in all its glory in the year 1845 Hyderabad is a city in Sindh, a province of Pakistan (also formerly known as Neroon Kot). ... Jacobabad is a city in the Sindh province of Pakistan, crossed by the Pakistan Western Railway and many main roads of the province. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... Khairpur (khīr´poor) is a city in the Sindh province in southeast Pakistan. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Mirpurkhas (میرپور خاص) with a population of 124,371 (1981), is a south eastern Pakistani city, fourth largest in the Sindh Province. ... Nawabshah city (established in 1912) is located in center of Sindh, Pakistan, and is therefore often known as the Heart of Sindh. ... Sanghar is a small town in Sanghar District situated in the province of Sindh in Pakistan. ... Shikarpur is a town of in Sindh province of Pakistan, capital of a district of the same name. ... Sukkur is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus river (Pakistan). ... Thatta, or Tatta, is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan. ...

Economy

Karachi Port - Keamari Flyover
Karachi Port - Keamari Flyover

Sindh is the backbone of Pakistan economy as it generates approximately 70% of the total national revenue whereas in return federal government pays back just 23% from financial divisible pool. Sindh government considers that the formula of financial resource distribution i.e NFC award is solely population denominated. Image File history File links Fatima Jinnahs House: Flagstaff House File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Fatima Jinnahs House: Flagstaff House File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... NFC award i. ...

Riverine Forest Ecosystem - River Indus
Riverine Forest Ecosystem - River Indus

Sindh is in many ways the main province of economic activity in Pakistan and has a highly diversified economy with heavy industry and finance centered in and around Karachi to a substantial agricultural base along the Indus. Pakistan's rapidly growing information technology sector (IT) is also centered in Karachi and manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods. ImageMetadata File history File links Riverine_Forest_ecosystem. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Riverine_Forest_ecosystem. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ...


Agriculture is also very important in Sind. The main crops are cotton, rice, wheat and sugar cane, with rice being the most important. Other crops include banana and mango. Mangos of Sind are sweet in taste and exported to all over the world. Picking cotton in Georgia Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. ... Binomial name Oryza sativa L. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a species of grass in the genus Oryza, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia, where it grows in wetlands. ... Species T. boeoticum T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Species Hybrid origin; see text A banana plant is a herb in the genus Musa, which because of its size and structure, is often mistaken for a tree. ... Species Mangifera altissima Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera foetida Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera siamensis The mango (Mangifera spp. ... Species Mangifera altissima Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera foetida Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera siamensis The mango (Mangifera spp. ...


Education

IBA Sukkur Campus
IBA Sukkur Campus

Education in the province is quite widespread and the province has a high literacy rate compared to other parts of Pakistan, mainly due to the importance of Karachi as it attracts Pakistan's best and brightest. The Aga Khan University, University of Karachi, Sindh University, IBA and Chandka Medical College are world renowned academic institutions. ImageMetadata File history File links IBAcampus. ... ImageMetadata File history File links IBAcampus. ... Sukkur is the third largest city of Sindh province, situated on the west bank of Indus river (Pakistan). ... The Aga Khan University (AKU) is the first private university in Pakistan, chartered in 1983, it is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... The University of Karachi, located in Karachi is Pakistans largest public university. ... The University of Sindh is the second-oldest university in Pakistan. ... The Institute of Business Administration of the University of Dhaka - commonly known as IBA - is one of the leading business-education institutions of Bangladesh. ... Sindh Chandka Medical College is a distinguished institute of medical sciences in Larkana, Sindh. ...


Art and culture

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Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...

Major attractions

Structure dubbed the "great bath" in the excavated Mohenjo-daro ruins.
Structure dubbed the "great bath" in the excavated Mohenjo-daro ruins.

Sindh has numerous tourist sites with the most prominent being the ruins of Mohenjodaro near the city of Larkana. Islamic architecture is quite prominent in the province with the Jama masjid built by the moghul emperor Shah Jehan inThatta and numerous mausoleums dot the province including the very old Shah Lal Baz Qalander mausoleum dedicated to the Iranian-born Sufi and the beautiful mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Jinnah known as the Mazar-e-Quaid in Karachi. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Mohenjo-daro (literally, mound of the dead), like Harappa, was a city of the Indus Valley civilization. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... This article or section should be merged with Shah Jahen—preferably maintaining this as the main entry. ... Thatta, or Tatta, is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in...

  • Shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai
  • Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
  • Ruins of Mohenjodaro & Museum
  • Aror (ruines of historical city)
  • Mazar-e-Quaid
  • Sadhu Bele Temple
  • Minaret of Masum Shah
  • Mohatta Palace Museum
  • Jama Masjid Thatta
  • Hyderabad Rani Bagh
  • Sukkur Barrage
  • Rohri Railway Junction

Personalities

There are many popular figures from Sind. The following is brief list:


Pre-Independence (pre-1947)

Post-Independence (post-1947) Shah Abdul Latif, a great scholar, saint and spiritual poet, was born in Hala Haveli near the Khatiyan village of Hyderabad District, Sindh in 1689. ... Sachal Sarmast (1739-1829) was a renowned Sindhi Muslim Sufi poet during the Kalhora era. ... office: 1st Governor-General of Pakistan Term of office: August 14, 1947 – September 11, 1948 Succeeded by: Khawaja Nazimuddin Date of birth: December 25, 1876 Place of birth: Wazir Mansion, Karachi Wives: Emibai1892-1893, Rattanbai Petit1918-1929 Children: daughter Dina Wadia Date of Death: September 11, 1948 Place of Death... Aga Khan III, founder of the Muslim League Aga Khan III (Arabic: آغا خان الثالث), PC (November 2, 1877 – July 11, 1957), also known as Sultan Mahommed Shah (Arabic: سلطان محمد شاه), was born in Karachi (then India, now Pakistan) and was the only son of Aga Khan II, and succeeded him on his death in... Miss Fatima Jinnah (1893 - 1967) was the sister of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan and ally of Gandhi against British rule. ...

Religious mythology and related articles This article needs to be wikified. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (January 5, 1928 - April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as President, from 1971 to 1973, and as Prime Minister, from 1973 to 1977, of Pakistan. ... Benazir Bhutto at a Pakistan Peoples Party event in Newark, CA, 28 September 2004. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ); born August 11, 1943 (near Delhi, India) is the President of Pakistan. ... Altaf Hussain, Leader of MQM Altaf Hussain is the leader of the Pakistans third largest political party, Muttahida Qaumi Movement formerly known as the Muhajir Qaumi Movement (MQM). ...

Jhulelal is the Lord of Sindhis. ... Sovira or Souveera was the territory which is now known as the Sindh Province in Pakistan . ...

External links

  • Khushboo - Online Sindh Magazine
  • Sindh WebSite
  • Images of Sindh
  • World Sindhi Congress
  • The Royal Talpurs of Sindh
  • Sindh.TV WebSite
  • Picture Gallery of Sindh
  • The Sindhi Nation's Story

See also


Sindhi refers to an socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Sindhi (سنڌي، سندھی, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Muhajir or Mohajir is essentially an ethnic group within Pakistan. ...

Provincial and Territorial Capitals in Pakistan Flag of Pakistan
Karachi(Sindh) | Lahore(Punjab) | Peshawar(North-West Frontier Province) | Quetta(Balochistan)
Islamabad (Capital Territory) | Muzaffarabad (Azad Kashmir)


Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan. ... Karachi (كراچى) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of the province of Sindh. ... South section of the Hazuri Bagh, looking south towards the Roshnai Gate The Minar-e-Pakistan, south-side view Lahore (لاھور) is a major city in Pakistan and is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... This article details the eastern Pakistani province of Punjab. ... Peshāwar (translates to City on the Frontier from Persian; known as Pai-khawar in Pashto; in ancient times known as Purushapura in Sanskrit) is a city in Pakistans North-West Frontier Province (pop. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Quetta is the capital of the province Balochistan in Pakistan. ... The province of Balochistan (or Baluchistan) in Pakistan contains most of historical Balochistan and is named after the Baloch. ... Islamabad (اسلام آباد, abode of Islam), population 955,629, is the capital city of Pakistan, located in the Potwar Plateau, north-east of the country. ... Muzaffarabad is the capital of the State of Azad Kashmir, located in the north of the state, which is part of the Pakistani-controlled part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, along with the Northern Areas. ...

Subdivisions of Pakistan Flag of Pakistan
Balochistan | North-West Frontier Province | Punjab | Sindh
Islamabad Capital Territory | Federally Administered Tribal Areas | Azad Kashmir | Northern Areas

  Results from FactBites:
 
Indo-Greek Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7897 words)
Patalene - the whole Indus delta region, with an apparent capital in "Demetrias-in-Patalene;" presumably founded by Demetrius (Ptolemy, Geographia, VII 1, 55/ Strabo 11.11.1)
Surastrene - Southeast of Patalene, comprised of the Kathiawar peninsula and parts of Gujerat to Bharuch (modern Saurashtra and Surat), with the city of "Theophila".
Sigerdis - a coastal region beyond Patalene and Surastrene, thought to correspond to Sindh.
Alexander the Great - Sources (4177 words)
Near Patalene is placed the country of Musicanus, that of Sabud,(2) whose capital is Sindomana, that of Porticanus, and other princes who inhabited the country on the banks of the Indus.
They were all conquered by Alexander; last of all he made himself master of Patalene, which is formed by the two branches of the Indus.
In Patalene is Patala, a considerable city, from which the island has its name.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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