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Encyclopedia > Patagonia
Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange).
Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange).

Patagonia is a geographic region containing the southernmost portion of South America. Mostly located in Argentina and partly in Chile, it comprises the Andes mountains to the west and south, and plateaux and low plains to the east. The name Patagonia comes from the word patagon[1] used by Magellan to describe the native people who his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed the Patagons were actually Tehuelches and Aonikenk with an average height of 1.80 m (~5'11") compared to the 1.55 m (~5'1") average for Spaniards of the time.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (519x707, 34 KB) Summary Map indicating Patagonia area in Southern South America. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (519x707, 34 KB) Summary Map indicating Patagonia area in Southern South America. ... Patagonia may refer to: Patagonia, a region of South America Patagonia, a town located in Santa Cruz County, Arizona Patagonia, an outdoor clothing and gear company ARA Patagonia is an AOR supply ship of the Argentine Navy This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... The Patagones were a legendary tribe of native giants that Ferdinand Magellan and his crew claimed to have seen while exploring South America in the 1520s. ... Magellan may refer to: People Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition to travel around the world. ... Patagonian camp, 1838 Tehuelches is the collective name of the native tribes of Patagonia. ...


To the east of the Andes, it lies south of the Neuquén River and Colorado rivers, and, to the west of the Andes, south of (39°S), excluding the Chiloé Archipelago.[3] East of the Andes the Argentine portion of Patagonia includes the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz, and Tierra del Fuego, as well as the southern tips of the provinces of Buenos Aires, Mendoza and La Pampa. The Chilean portion embraces the southern part of the region of Los Lagos, and the regions of Aisén and Magallanes. It excludes those portions of Antarctica claimed by both countries. The Neuquén River is the second most important river of the province of Neuquén in the Argentine Patagonia, after the Limay River. ... The Colorado River (Spanish: Río Colorado) is a river in the south of Argentina. ... Chiloé Island Location of Chiloé in Chile Chiloé Island (Spanish: Isla de Chiloé), also known as Isla Grande de Chiloé Big Island of Chiloé, is a South American island off the coast of Chile, in the Pacific Ocean. ... Categories: Argentina geography stubs | Argentine provinces ... Categories: Argentina geography stubs | Argentine provinces ... Chubut is a province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the 42nd Parallel South (forming the border with the Río Negro Province) and 46th Parallel South (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range separating Argentina from Chile, and the Atlantic ocean. ... Map of Argentina highlighting the province Santa Cruz is a province of Argentina, located in the south of the country. ... Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands (Sp. ... The Buenos Aires province (IPA: , Spanish: Provincia de Buenos Aires) is the wealthiest and most populated province of Argentina. ... Mendoza is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region. ... La Pampa is a province of Argentina, located in the Pampas in the centre of the country. ... Los Lagos (Spanish The lakes) is Chiles tenth administrative region from north to south. ... Aysen (also spelled Aisén) is Chiles eleventh administrative region from north to south. ... ...

Contents

Population and land area

Population = 1,740,000 (2001 census).
Land Area = over 900,000 km² including Tierra del Fuego[3]
Population Density = 2.21 /km² (0.7 /km² in Santa Cruz Province)[4]
SPIRO Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... Map of Argentina highlighting the province Santa Cruz is a province of Argentina, located in the south of the country. ...


Physical geography

See also: Geography of Argentina and Geography of Chile

Patagonia is for the most part a region of vast steppe-like plains, rising in a succession of abrupt terraces about 100 metres (330 feet) at a time, and covered with an enormous bed of shingle almost bare of vegetation.[3] In the hollows of the plains are ponds or lakes of brackish and fresh water. Towards the Andes the shingle gives place to porphyry, granite, and basalt lavas, animal life becomes more abundant and vegetation more luxuriant, acquiring the characteristics of the flora of the western coast, and consisting principally of southern beech and conifers. The high rainfall against the western Andes and the low sea surface temperatures offshore give rise to cold and humid air masses, contributing to the ice-fields and glaciers, the largest ice-fields in the Southern hemisphere outside of Antarctica.[3] Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. ... Map of Chile Shaded relief map of Chile Topography This SeaWiFS image shows phytoplankton blooms running the length of the coast of Chile. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... A piece of porphyry Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... In Botany a Flora (or Floræ) is a collective term for plant life and can also refer to a descriptive catalogue of the plants of any geographical area, geological period, etc. ... Species   Nothofagus alpina - Rauli Beech   Nothofagus antarctica - Antarctic Beech   Nothofagus betuloides - Magallanes Beech   Nothofagus cunninghamii - Myrtle Beech   Nothofagus dombeyi - Coigüe Beech   Nothofagus fusca - Red Beech   Nothofagus gunnii - Tanglefoot Beech   Nothofagus menziesii - Silver Beech   Nothofagus moorei - Negrohead Beech   Nothofagus obliqua - Roble Beech   Nothofagus pumilio - Lenga Beech   Nothofagus solanderi - Black Beech... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


Among the depressions by which the plateau is intersected transversely, the principal are the Gualichu, south of the Río Negro, the Maquinchao and Valcheta (through which previously flowed the waters of lake Nahuel Huapi, which now feed the river Limay); the Senguerr (spelled Senguer on most Argentine maps and within the corresponding region), the Deseado River. Besides these transverse depressions (some of them marking lines of ancient inter-oceanic communication), there are others which were occupied by more or less extensive lakes, such as the Yagagtoo, Musters, and Colhue Huapi, and others situated to the south of Puerto Deseado, in the centre of the country. In the central region volcanic eruptions, which have taken part in the formation of the plateau from the Tertiary period down to the present era, cover a large part with basaltic lava-caps; and in the western third more recent glacial deposits appear above the lava. There, in contact with folded Cretaceous rocks, uplifted by the Tertiary granite, erosion, caused principally by the sudden melting and retreat of the ice, aided by tectonic changes, has scooped out a deep longitudinal depression, which generally separates the plateau from the first lofty hills, the ridges generally called the pre-Cordillera, while on the west of these there is a similar longitudinal depression all along the foot of the snowy Andean Cordillera. This latter depression contains the richest and most fertile land of Patagonia. Lake basins along the Cordillera were also excavated by ice-streams, including Lake Argentino and Lake Fagnano, as well as coastal bays such as Bahía Inútil.[3] For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... In Araucanian mythology Gualichu was an evil spirit or demon, comparable but not similar to the Devil. ... // Negro River (Spanish: Río Negro) is the most important river of the Argentine province of Río Negro. ... Cerro Ljungner (2000 m) and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi Nahuel Huapí is the oldest Argentinian national park. ... The Senguerr River is a river of the Argentine province of Chubut. ... Deseado River (Spanish: Río Deseado) is a river in the Argentine province of Santa Cruz. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... This article is about water ice. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Lake Argentino and Perito Moreno glacier Lake Argentino (in Spanish, Lago Argentino) is a freshwater lake located in the Patagonian province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, at . ... The Fagnano (Spanish: Lago Fagnano or Lago Cami) is a lake located on the main island of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, and shared by Argentina and Chile. ...


Geology

The geological constitution is in accordance with the orographic physiognomy. The Tertiary plateau, flat on the east, gradually rising on the west, shows Upper Cretaceous caps at its base. First come Lower Cretaceous hills, raised by granite and dioritic rocks, undoubtedly of Tertiary origin, as in some cases these rocks have broken across the Tertiary beds, so rich in mammal remains; then follow, on the west, metamorphic schists of uncertain age; then quartzites appear, resting directly on the primitive granite and gneiss which form the axis of the Cordillera. Porphyritic rocks occur between the schists and the quartzites. The Tertiary deposits are greatly varied in character, and there is considerable difference of opinion concerning the succession and correlation of the beds. They are divided by Wilckensi into the following series (in ascending order): Physiognomy (Gk. ... Categories: Mineral stubs | Igneous rocks ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Quartzite Quartzite (from German Quarzit[1]) is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ... Gneiss Gneiss (IPA: ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks, which most commonly forms on ancient seabeds. ... The Cordillera is a massive mountain range situated in the northern central part of the Philippines. ... A piece of porphyry Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ...

  1. Pyrotherium-Notostylops beds. Of terrestrial origin, containing remains of mammalia. Eocene and Oligocene.
  2. Patagonian Molasse. Partly marine, partly terrestrial. Lower Miocene.
  3. Santa Cruz series. Containing remains of mammals. Middle and Upper Miocene.
  4. Paranfl series. Sandstones and conglomerates with marine fossils. Pliocene. Confined to the eastern part of the region.

The Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits have revealed a most interesting vertebrate fauna. This, together with the discovery of the perfect cranium of a chelonian of the genus Myolania, which may be said to be almost identical with Myolania oweni of the Pleistocene age in Queensland, forms an evident proof of the connection between the Australian and South American continents. The Patagonian Myolania belongs to the Upper Chalk, having been found associated with remains of Dinosauria. One such dinosaur to be found in Patagonia is Argentinosaurus, which may be the largest of all dinosaurs. Other specimens of the interesting fauna of Patagonia, belonging to the Middle Tertiary, are the gigantic wingless birds, exceeding in size any hitherto known, and the singular mammal Pyrotherium, also of very large dimensions. In the Tertiary marine formation a considerable number of cetaceans has been discovered. In deposits of much later date, formed when the physiognomy of the country did not differ materially from that of the present time, there have been discovered remains of pampean mammals, such as Glyptodon and Macrauchenia, and in a cave near Última Esperanza Sound, a gigantic ground sloth (Grypoiherium listai), an animal which lived contemporaneously with man, and whose skin, well preserved, showed that its extermination was undoubtedly very recent. With the remains of Grypotherium have been found those of the horse (Onoshippidium), which are known only from the lower pampas mud, and of the Arciotherium, which is found, although not in abundance, in even the most modern Pleistocene deposits in the pampas of Buenos Aires. It would not be surprising if this latter animal were still in existence, for footprints, which may be attributed to it, have been observed on the borders of the rivers Tamangoand Pista, affluents of the Las Hefas, which run through the eastern foot-hills of the Cordillera in 47°S. Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Red Sandstone in Wyoming Layered sandstone Sandstone is an arenaceous sedimentary rock composed mainly of feldspar and quartz and varies in colour (in a similar way to sand), through grey, yellow, red, and white. ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Binomial name Bonaparte & Coria, 1993 Argentinosaurus (meaning Argentina lizard) was a herbivorous sauropod dinosaur that was quite possibly the largest, heaviest land animal that ever lived. ... Pyrotherium (fire beast) is an extinct genus of mammal. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Binomial name Owen, 1838 Macrauchenia patachonica (literally Big Neck (of) Patagonia) was a long-necked and long-limbed, three-toed South American ungulate mammal, typifying the order Litopterna. ... Mylodons Cave Cueva del Milodón Natural Monument is a Natural Monument located in the Chilean Patagonia, 24 km northwest of Puerto Natales and 270 km north of Punta Arenas. ... Última Esperanza Sound (Last Hope Sound) is a inlet stretching from the mouth of Eberhard Fjord to the outskirts of Monte Balmaceda. ... Families Rathymotheriidae Ameghino, 1904 Scelidotheriidae Ameghino, 1889 Mylodontidae Gill, 1872 Orophodontidae Ameghino, 1895 Megalonychidae Gervais, 1855 Megatheriidae Gray, 1821 Ground sloths are a diverse group of extinct edentate (Superorder Xenarthra) mammals that are believed to be relatives of tree sloths and three-toed sloths. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...

Satellite view of the Perito Moreno Glacier (Santa Cruz Province) and the Andean ice-sheet
Satellite view of the Perito Moreno Glacier (Santa Cruz Province) and the Andean ice-sheet

Glaciers occupy the valleys of the main chain and some of the lateral ridges of the Cordillera, and descend to lakes San Martín Lake, Lake Viedma, Argentino Lake and others in the same locality, strewing them with icebergs. In Patagonia an immense ice-sheet extended to the east of the present Atlantic coast during the first ice age, at the close of the Tertiary epoch, while, during the second glacial age in modern times, the terminal moraines have generally stopped, 30 miles (50 km) in the north and 50 miles (80 km) in the south, east of the summit of the Cordillera. These ice-sheets, which scooped out the greater part of the longitudinal depressions, and appear to have rapidly retreated to the point where the glaciers now exist, did not, however, in their retirement fill up with their detritus the fjords of the Cordillera, for these are now occupied by deep lakes on the east, and on the west by the Pacific channels, some of which are as much as 250 fathoms (460 m) in depth, and soundings taken in them show that the fjords are as usual deeper in the vicinity of the mountains than to the west of the islands. Several of the high peaks are still active volcanoes. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Patagonia Perito Moreno Glacier ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Patagonia Perito Moreno Glacier ... Patagonia, Argentina - Perito Moreno Glacier The Perito Moreno Glacier () is a glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in the south west of Santa Cruz province, Argentina. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,000 × 1,333 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,000 × 1,333 pixels, file size: 1. ... Patagonia, Argentina - Perito Moreno Glacier The Perito Moreno Glacier () is a glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in the south west of Santa Cruz province, Argentina. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... The lake known as OHiggins in Chile and San Martín in Argentina, is located around coordinates in the Patagonia, between the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region and the Santa Cruz Province. ... Lake Viedma from space, October 1994 Lake Viedma, approximately 50 miles (80 kilometers) long in extreme southwestern Argentina, is a major elongated trough lake formed from melting glacial ice (lake is located at ). The lake is fed primarily by the Viedma Glacier at the western end of the lake. ... Lake Argentino (in Spanish, Lago Argentino) is a freshwater lake located in the Patagonian province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, at 50°2′S 72°4′W. It is the biggest lake in Argentina, with a surface area of 1,466 km² (maximum width: 20 km). ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... A fathom is the name of a unit of length in the Imperial system (and the derived U.S. customary units). ...


Insofar as its main characteristics are concerned, Patagonia seems to be a portion of the Antarctic continent, the permanence of which dates from very recent times, as is evidenced by the apparent recent emergence of the islets around Chiloé, and by the general character of the pampean formation. Some of the promontories of Chiloé are still called huapi, the Araucanian equivalent for "islands"; and this may perhaps be accepted as perpetuating the recollection of the time when they actually were islands. They are composed of caps of shingle, with great, more or less rounded boulders, sand and volcanic ashes, precisely of the same form as occurs on the Patagonian plateau. From an examination of the pampean formation it is evident that in recent times the land of the province of Buenos Aires extended farther to the east, and that the advance of the sea, and the salt water deposits left by it when it retired, forming some of the lowlands which occur on the littoral and in the interior of the pampas, are much more recent phenomena; and certain caps of shingle, derived from rocks of a different class from those of the neighboring hills, which are observed on the Atlantic coasts of the same province, and increase in quantity and size towards the south, seem to indicate that the caps of shingle which now cover such a great part of the Patagonian territory recently extended farther to the east, over land which has now disappeared beneath the sea, while other marine deposits along the same coasts became converted into bays during the subsequent advance of the sea. There are besides, in the neighbourhood of the present coast, deposits of volcanic ashes, and the ocean throws up on its shores blocks of basaltic lava, which in all probability proceed from eruptions of submerged volcanoes now extinct. One fact, however, which apparently demonstrates with greater certainty the existence in recent times of land that is now lost, is the presence of remains of pampean mammals in Pleistocene deposits in the bay of Puerto San Julian and in Santa Cruz. The animals undoubtedly reached these localities from the east; it is not at all probable that they advanced from the north southwards across the plateau intersected at that time by great rivers and covered by the ice-sheet. With the exception of the discoveries at the inlet of Ultima Esperanza, which is in close communication with the Atlantic valley of Río Gallegos, none of these remains have been discovered in the Andean regions. Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... Chiloé Island Location of Chiloé in Chile Chiloé Island (Spanish: Isla de Chiloé), also known as Isla Grande de Chiloé Big Island of Chiloé, is a South American island off the coast of Chile, in the Pacific Ocean. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... This article is about the lowland plains in South America. ... Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Puerto San Julián, also known historically as Port St Julian, is a natural harbour in Patagonia in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina located at 49°20′S 67°45′W, near the entrance to the Strait of Magellan. ... Map of Argentina highlighting the province Santa Cruz is a province of Argentina, located in the south of the country. ... Río Gallegos is a city in Argentina and is the capital of the Santa Cruz Province. ... The word Andean refers to the geographic area in and around the Andes Mountains of South America, and to the indigenous peoples that inhabit the area, such as the Inca. ...


Provinces and regions

Argentine Patagonia

Regions
of Argentina
v  d  e
Argentine Northwest
Gran Chaco
Mesopotamia
Cuyo
The Pampas
Patagonia
Antártida Argentina
† Claim in suspension
by Antarctic Treaty

One of the several common geographical regions distributions of Argentina. ... The Argentine Northwest is a region of Argentina composed by the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca and Tucumán. ... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is a sparsely populated, hot and semi-arid lowland region of the Río de la Plata basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in... La Mesopotamia, Región Mesopotámica or Litoral (Littoral) is the humid and verdant area of north-east Argentina, comprising the provinces of Misiones, Entre Ríos and Corrientes. ... Cuyo is the name given to the wine-producing, mountainous area of north-west Argentina, comprising the provinces of San Juan, San Luis and Mendoza. ... This article is about the lowland plains in South America. ... Antarctic portion between meridians 25º West and 74º West Argentine Antarctica (in Spanish, Antártida Argentina) is a sector of Antarctica which Argentina considers part of its National Territory. ... For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ...

Neuquén
Main article: Neuquén Province

Neuquén covers 94,078 km² (36,324 sq. miles), including the triangle between the Limay River and Neuquén River, which extends southward to the northern shore of Lake Nahuel-Huapi (41°S) and northward to the Río Colorado. Neuquén is a province of Argentina, located in the west of the country, at the northern end of Patagonia. ... Categories: Argentina geography stubs | Argentine provinces ... The Limay River is an important river in the northwestern Argentine Patagonia (the region of Comahue). ... The Neuquén River is the second most important river of the province of Neuquén in the Argentine Patagonia, after the Limay River. ... View of the Nahuel Huapi lake and the city of Bariloche. ... The Colorado River (Spanish: Río Colorado) is a river in the south of Argentina. ...


On the upper plains of Neuquén territory thousands of cattle can be fed, and the forests around Lakes Traful and Nahuel-Huapi yield large quantities of valuable timber. The Neuquén river is not navigable, but as its waters are capable of being easily dammed in places, large stretches of land in its valley are utilized; but the lands on each side of its lower part are of little commercial value.


As the Cordillera is approached the soil becomes more fertile, and suitable districts for the rearing of cattle and other agricultural purposes exist between the regions which surround the Tromen volcano and the first ridges of the Andes. Chos Malal, the capital of the territory, is situated in one of these valleys. More to the west is the mining region, in great part unexplored, but containing deposits of gold, silver, copper and lignite. In the centre of the territory, also in the neighborhood of the mining districts, are the valleys of Norquín and Las Lajas, the general camp of the Argentine army in Patagonia, with excellent timber in the forest on the Andean slope. The wide valleys occur near Río Malleo, Lake Huechulafquén, the river Chimehuin, and Vega de Chapelco, near Lake Lacar, where are situated villages of some importance, such as Junín de los Andes and San Martín de los Andes. Close to these are the famous apple orchards supposed to have been planted by the Jesuits in the 17th and 18th centuries. These regions are drained by the river Collon Cura, the principal affluent of the river Limay. Lake Lacar is now a contributory of the Pacific, its outlet having been changed to the west, owing to a passage having been opened through the Cordillera. Tromen is a stratovolcano in western Argentina. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... The Lácar Lake (Lago Lácar) is a lake of glacial origin in the province of Neuquén, Argentina. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Limay may refer to Limay, a river in Patagonia Limay, a communue of Yvelines, France Limay, a municipality of Bataan, Philippines This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Río Negro
Main article: Río Negro Province

Río Negro covers 203,013 km² (78,383 sq. miles), extending from the Atlantic to the Cordillera of the Andes, to the north of 42°S. Río Negro is a province of Argentina, located at the northern edge of Patagonia. ... Categories: Argentina geography stubs | Argentine provinces ...


The Río Negro River runs along a wide transverse depression, the middle part of which is followed by the railway which runs to the settlement of Neuquén at the confluence of the rivers Limay and Neuquen. In this depression are several settlements, among them Viedma, the capital of the Río Negro territory, Pringles, General Conesa, Choele Choel and General Roca. To the south of the Río Negro the Patagonian plateau is intersected by the depressions of the Gualicho and Maquinchao, which in former times directed the waters of two great rivers (now disappeared) to the gulf of San Matias, the first-named depression draining the network of the Collon Cura and the second the Nahuel Huapi lake system. In 42°S there is a third broad transverse depression, apparently the bed of another great river, now perished, which carried to the Atlantic the waters of a portion of the eastern slope of the Andes, between 41° and 42°30;S. Viedma is the capital city of the Argentine province of Río Negro and the Adolfo Alsina Department of that province. ... Choele Choel is the capital of the department of Avellaneda in the Argentine province of Río Negro, and the most important settlement within the Valle Medio (Middle Valley) agricultural area of the Río Negro River in Patagonia Information Choele Choel, with a population of 9. ... General Roca is a city in the northeast of the Argentine province of Río Negro, northern Patagonia. ...


Chubut
Main article: Chubut Province

Chubut, covers 224,686 km² (86,751 sq. miles), embracing the region between 42° and 46°S; Chubut is a province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the 42nd Parallel South (forming the border with the Río Negro Province) and 46th Parallel South (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range separating Argentina from Chile, and the Atlantic ocean. ... Chubut is a province in the southern part of Argentina, that lies between the 42nd Parallel South (forming the border with the Río Negro Province) and 46th Parallel South (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range separating Argentina from Chile, and the Atlantic ocean. ...


Chubut territory presents the same characteristics as the Río Negro territory. Rawson, the capital, is situated at the mouth of the river Chubut on the Atlantic (42°30'S). The town was founded in 1865 by a group of colonists from Wales, assisted by the Argentine government; and its prosperity has led to the foundation of other important centres in the valley, such as Trelew and Gaiman, which is connected by railway with Puerto Madryn on Bahia Nueva. Here is the seat of the governor of the territory, and by 1895 the inhabitants of this part of the territory, composed principally of Argentines, Welsh and Italians, numbered 552,585. The valley has been irrigated and cultivated, and produces the best wheat of the Argentine Republic. Between the Chubut and the Senguerr there are vast stretches of fertile land, spreading over the Andean region to the foot of the Cordillera and the lateral ridges of the Pre-Cordillera, and filling the basins of some desiccated lakes, which have been occupied since 1885, and farms and colonies founded upon them. The chief of these colonies is that of 16 de Octubre, formed in 1886, mainly by the inhabitants of Chubut colony, in the longitudinal valley which extends to the eastern foot of the Cordillera. Rawson is the capital of the Argentine province of Chubut, in the Patagonia. ... The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ... Trelew is a city in the Chubut Province of Patagonia. ... Gaiman is a town in the Chubut Province of Patagonia in Argentina. ... Puerto Madryn (in Welsh, Porth Madryn) is a city in the province of Chubut in the Argentine Patagonia. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ...

Penguins at Punta Tombo, Chubut
Penguins at Punta Tombo, Chubut

Other rivers in this territory flow into the Pacific through breaches in the Cordillera, e.g. the upper affluents of the Futaleufú River, Palena and Río Cisnes. The principal affluent of the Palena, the Carrenleufu, carries off the waters of Lake General Paz, situated on the eastern slope of the Cordillera. Río Pico, an affluent of the same river, receives nearly the whole of the waters of the extensive undulating plain which lies between the Río Tecka and the Río Senguerr to the east of the Cordillera, while the remainder are carried away by the affluents of Río Jehua: the Cherque, Omkel, and Appeleg. This region contains auriferous drifts, but these, like the auriferous deposits, veins of galena and lignite in the mountains farther west which flank the Cordillera, have not been properly investigated. At Lake Fontana there are auriferous drifts and lignite deposits which abound in fossil plants of the Cretaceous age. The streams which form the rivers Mayo and Chalia join the tributaries of the Río Aisén, which flows into the Pacific, watering in its course extensive and valuable districts where colonization has been initiated by Argentine settlers. Colonies have also been formed in the basin of Lakes Musters and Colhué Huapi; and on the coasts near the Atlantic, along Bahia Camarones and the Gulf of San Jorge, there are extensive farms. Image File history File links Penguin couple garding the nests entrance at the Punta Tombo reservoir, Chubut, Argentina. ... Image File history File links Penguin couple garding the nests entrance at the Punta Tombo reservoir, Chubut, Argentina. ... The Futaleufú River is a river fed by the lakes in the Los Alerces National Park in Chubut Province, Argentina, crossing the Andes Mountains into Chile and opening into the Yelco Lake. ... For other uses, see Galena (disambiguation). ... Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... Strip mining lignite at Garzweiler, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ...


In addition it is one of the highest critically acclaimed group of rivers in the world for fly fishing. Every year thousands of fly fishermen flock there for the hope of catching "the big one". Fly rod and reel with a wild brown trout from a chalk stream. ...


Santa Cruz

Santa Cruz is the biggest province in Argentinan Patagonia. It covers 293,993 km2


Chilean Patagonia

Palena
Main article: Palena Province

Palena Province is one of the provinces of the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The capital of the Province is the town of Chaitén. The private Pumalín Park is located in the province as is the town and territory of Huinay which divides the park into two parts. Palena Province is one of the provinces of the Los Lagos Region, Chile. ... Los Lagos (Spanish The lakes) is Chiles tenth administrative region from north to south. ... Chaitén is a Chilean town and commune, capital of the Palena Province in Los Lagos Region. ... Pumalin Park (Spanish: Parque Pumalín) is a private park in the Palena Province of Chile owned by American businessman Douglas Tompkins. ... Huinay is a piece of land belonging to the San Ignacio del Huinay Foundation. ...


Aisén
Main article: Aisén Region

Aisén (also spelled Aysén) is Chile's eleventh administrative region. It is the least populated region in Chile and it remains a region with huge communication problems due to lack of good infrastructure. The region is known for its unique ecological characteristics including unspoiled habitat for numerous endemic species. Its terrain and form are very similar to those of the Alaska Panhandle, the northern Norwegian coast, and New Zealand's Milford Sound region. Laguna San Rafael National Park, reachable only by boat or plane, is one of its most popular tourist destinations. Until the construction of Route 7, the Southern Highway, in the 1980s, the only overland routes from north to south through the region were extremely primitive tracks. Aysen (also spelled Aisén) is Chiles eleventh administrative region from north to south. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 457 KB) Vista desde la carretera del lago General Carrera, con los Campos de Hielo Norte como telón de fondo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 457 KB) Vista desde la carretera del lago General Carrera, con los Campos de Hielo Norte como telón de fondo. ... Boat near Chile Chico, Chilean side. ... Chile is divided into fifteen regions (in Spanish, regiones; singular región), each of which is headed by an superintendent (intendente), appointed by the president. ... Laguna San Rafael National Park is a park located on the Pacific coast of southern Chile. ... The Carretera Austral (in English, Southern Highway), is the name given to Chiles Route 7. ...


The Spanish electric company Endesa has recently proposed building a series of hydro-electric dams in Aisén, based on water rights the company acquired before privatization during the military rule of Pinochet. The dams would first be built on the Baker and Pascua Rivers, but additional dams have been proposed on a number of other previously intact rivers in the area, including the Futaleufú. The power would be transported 1200 miles north, via a high-tension transmission line through a number of national parks and protected areas to supply power to the Santiago area where much of the power is used for heavy industry and mining. Baker River can refer to two rivers in the United States: Baker River (New Hampshire) Baker River (Washington) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Pascua River is a river located in the Aysen Region of Chile. ... The Futaleufú River is a river fed by the lakes in the Los Alerces National Park in Chubut Province, Argentina, crossing the Andes Mountains into Chile and opening into the Yelco Lake. ...


A number of local, national and international environmental organizations oppose the dams, claiming they would destroy the natural heritage of the area and would lead to greatly increased electrical costs for Chilean consumers.


Magallanes
Main article: Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region
View of Cuernos del Paine from Pehoé Lake, Chile
View of Cuernos del Paine from Pehoé Lake, Chile

Magallanes and Chilean Antártica Region is the southernmost, largest and second least populated region of Chile. Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region is the southernmost, largest and second least populated region of Chile. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 500 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1. ... Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region is the southernmost, largest and second least populated region of Chile. ...


This region has many globally known places and geographical accidents like Torres del Paine, Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego Island, and the Strait of Magellan. It also includes the Antarctic territory claimed by Chile. Torres del Paine, Chile A view of the Torres del Paine National Park The three Towers of Paine (Spanish: Torres del Paine) in southern Chile are gigantic granite monoliths shaped by the forces of glacial ice. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands (Spanish: Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur) is a province entirely separated by the Strait of Magellan from mainland Argentina on the Isla Grande of Tierra del Fuego, which it shares with Chile to the... A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ...


The low population and vastness makes this region a good place for many native animal and plant species. It is relatively easy to find penguins, ñandúes, guanacos, condors, and other animals in their natural environment. Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Species  Rhea americana  Rhea pennata Rheas, also known as ñandú (pronounced ) are large flightless birds native to South America. ... Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... Genera Vultur Gymnogyps For other uses, see Condor (disambiguation). ...


The main economic activities are sheep farming, oil extraction and tourism. This region is also home to the one of the world's spectacular adventure races, the Patagonia Expedition Race.


Tierra del Fuego

Main article: Tierra del Fuego
Satellite view of the archipelago
Satellite view of the archipelago

Tierra del Fuego is an archipelago at the southernmost tip of Patagonia, divided between Argentina and Chile. It consists of the 47,992 km² of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, and several minor islands. Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... A true colour image of Tierra del Fuego captured sunbathing by NASAs Terra satellite on March 28, 2003. ... A true colour image of Tierra del Fuego captured sunbathing by NASAs Terra satellite on March 28, 2003. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Tierra del Fuego Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (literally, Great Island of the Land of Fire) is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan. ...


Climate

The climate is less severe than was supposed by early travelers. The east slope is warmer than the west, especially in summer, as a branch of the southern equatorial current reaches its shores, whereas the west coast is washed by a cold current. At Puerto Montt, on the inlet behind Chiloé Island. the mean annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) and the average extremes 25.5 °C (78 °F) and −1.5 °C (29.5 °F), whereas at Bahia Blanca near the Atlantic coast and just outside the northern confines of Patagonia the annual temperature is 15 °C (59 °F) and the range much greater. At Punta Arenas, in the extreme south, the mean temperature is 6 °C (43 °F) and the average extremes 24.5 °C (76 °F) and −2 °C (28 °F). The prevailing winds are westerly, and the westward slope has a much heavier precipitation than the eastern in a rainshadow effect;[3] the western islands close to Torres del Paine receive an annual precipitation of 4,000 to 7,000 mm, whilst the eastern hills are less than 800 mm and the plains may be as low as 200 mm annual precipitation.[3] Puerto Montt Puerto Montt is a port city in southern Chile, located by the Reloncaví Sound, and is the capital of the Llanquihue Province and the Los Lagos Region, at . ... Bah a Blanca is a city in eastern Argentina in Buenos Aires Province and a seaport at the head of the Bah Blanca (White Bay - an arm of the Atlantic Ocean). ... A Rainshadow is an area which is unusally dry due to nearby geographic features. ... Torres del Paine, Chile A view of the Torres del Paine National Park The three Towers of Paine (Spanish: Torres del Paine) in southern Chile are gigantic granite monoliths shaped by the forces of glacial ice. ...


The depletion of the ozone layer over the South Pole has been reported as being responsible for blindness and skin cancer in sheep in Tierra del Fuego, and concerns for human health and ecosystems.[5] The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ...


Vegetation

Due to the wide variation in temperature, precipitation and altitude, there are clear vegetation patterns. Moorland with bogs and dwarf shrubs, termed Magellanic moorland, predominates along the south western coast where there are high winds and precipitation. Around the ice-fields, high rainfall in sheltered areas allows mixed evergreen temperate rain forest (Magellanic subpolar forests) of southern beech (Nothofagus betuloides). Mixed deciduous woodland (Valdivian temperate rain forests) is found in areas of lower precipitation, including Nothofagus pumilio, Berberis and Gunnera magellanica.[3] Moorland in the Pennines (England); Coarse grasses and bracken tend to dominate especially in high rainfall areas. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... A map showing the areas where temperate rain forest can be found Temperate rain forest in the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, United States. ... The Magellanic subpolar forests are a terrestrial ecoregion of southernmost South America, covering parts of southern Chile and Argentina, and is part of the Neotropic ecozone. ... Species   Nothofagus alpina - Rauli Beech   Nothofagus antarctica - Antarctic Beech   Nothofagus betuloides - Magallanes Beech   Nothofagus cunninghamii - Myrtle Beech   Nothofagus dombeyi - Coigüe Beech   Nothofagus fusca - Red Beech   Nothofagus gunnii - Tanglefoot Beech   Nothofagus menziesii - Silver Beech   Nothofagus moorei - Negrohead Beech   Nothofagus obliqua - Roble Beech   Nothofagus pumilio - Lenga Beech   Nothofagus solanderi - Black Beech... Nothofagus betuloides (Magellanes beech). ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... The Valdivian temperate rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion located on the west coast of southern South America, in Chile and extending into a small part of Argentina. ... Binomial name (Poepp. ...


On the eastern side of the mountains, there are also areas of rain forest and bog where precipitation is high. Beyond this zone on the wide steppe there is grassland with low shrubs, with tough Festuca tussock-grasses resistant to low precipitation and high winds.[3] In spring and summer, the grassland is interspersed with low plants covered in small blossoms.[4] This article is about the ecological zone type. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... Species See text Fescue (Festuca) is a genus of about 300 species of tufted grasses, belonging to the grass family Poaceae. ...


The calafate (Berberis buxifolia) is considered the symbol of Patagonia. An evergreen shrub, its berries are edible and used to make a popular jam. A legend tells that eating the berry makes people certain to return to Patagonia.[4] The large and long-living Alerce is an iconic tree of the Lake District, protected in Los Alerces National Park.[4] Binomial name Berberis buxifolia Lam. ... Binomial name Fitzroya cupressoides Alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides), also known as Patagonian Cypress, is a large tree in the cypress family (Cupressaceae) of conifers. ... The Los Alerces National Park is a national park in Chubut Province, Argentina, some 30 miles from Esquel. ...


Fauna

Guanacos near Torres del Paine, Chile
Guanacos near Torres del Paine, Chile

The guanaco, the cougar, the zorro or Brazilian fox (Canis azarae), the zorrino or Mephitis patagonica (a kind of skunk), and the tuco-tuco or Ctenomys magellanicus (a subterranean rodent) are the most characteristic mammals of the Patagonian plains. The guanaco roam in herds over the country and form with the rhea (Rhea americana, and more rarely Rhea darwinii) formerly the chief means of subsistence for the natives, who hunted them on horseback with dogs and bolas. Vizcacha (Lagidum spp.) and Mara (Dolichotis) are also characteristic of the steppe and the Pampas to the north. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Torres del Paine, Chile A view of the Torres del Paine National Park The three Towers of Paine (Spanish: Torres del Paine) in southern Chile are gigantic granite monoliths shaped by the forces of glacial ice. ... Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... For other uses, see Cougar (disambiguation) or Puma (disambiguation). ... Polecat redirects here. ... The tuco-tucos are members of a group of rodents that belong to the family Ctenomyidae. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... Species R. americana R. pennata The Rhea, also known as ñandú (pronounced ) in Spanish, or ema in Portuguese, is a large flightless ratite bird native to South America. ... Gaucho Bolas Bolas (from Spanish bola, ball, also known as boleadoras) are a throwing weapon made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, designed to capture animals by entangling their legs. ... Genera  Lagidium  Lagostomus The viscacha or vizcacha is a rodent of the chinchilla family Chinchillidae. ... Species , Patagonian Mara , Chacoan Mara The maras (Dolichotis) are a genus of the cavy family. ... The pampas (from Quechua for plain) are the fertile lowlands that extend across c. ...


Bird-life is often wonderfully abundant. The carancho or carrion-hawk (Polyborus tharus) is one of the characteristic objects of a Patagonian landscape; the presence of long-tailed green parakeets (Conurus cyanolysius) as far south as the shores of the strait attracted the attention of the earlier navigators; and hummingbirds may be seen flying amidst the falling snow. Of the many kinds of water-fowl it is enough to mention the flamingo, the upland goose, and in the strait the remarkable steamer duck. ... Budgerigar Parakeets A parakeet is a term for any one of a large number of unrelated small parrot species. ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Species See text For other uses, see Flamingo (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Chloephaga picta (Gmelin, 1789) The Magellan Goose or Upland Goose (Chloephaga picta) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Tachyeres is a genus of ducks in the bird family Anatidae. ...


Signature marine fauna include the Southern right whale, the Emperor penguin, the Orca and elephant seals. The Valdés Peninsula is a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its importance as a nature reserve. Species  Balaena mysticetus  Eubalaena australis  Eubalaena glacialis  Eubalaena japonica Northern Right Whale range Southern Right Whale range The right whales are marine mammals belonging to the family Balaenidae. ... Binomial name Gray, 1844 The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Species M. leonina M. angustirostris Elephant seals are large, oceangoing mammals in the genus Mirounga, in the earless seal family (Phocidae). ... Peninsula Valdés, photo taken during shuttle mission STS-68 eared seals The Valdes Peninsula (Spanish Península Valdés) is a peninsula along the Atlantic coast in Chubut Province, Argentina. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


History

See also: History of Argentina, History of Chile and Argentina-Chile relations

This article is about the history of Argentina. ... Map of Chile This is the history of Chile. ... Argentina - Chile relations refers to interstate relations between the Chilean Republic and the Argentine Federal Republic. ...

Pre-Columbine Patagonia (10,000 BCE-1520 CE)

Human habitation of the region dates back thousands of years, with some early archaeological findings in the area dated to at least the 13th millennium BC, although later dates of around the 10th millennium BC are more securely recognised. There is evidence of human activity at Monte Verde in Llanquihue Province, Chile dated to around 12,500 BC.[3] The glacial period ice-fields and subsequent large meltwater streams would have made settlement difficult at that time. The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... Monte Verde is an archaeological site in south-central Chile, which is suspected to date 12,500 years before present, making it one of the earliest inhabited sites in the Americas. ... Llanquihue is a province of Chile located in the southern Los Lagos Region. ...


The region seems to have been inhabited continuously since 10,000 BC, by various cultures and alternating waves of migration, the details of which are as yet poorly understood. Several sites have been excavated, notably caves in Última Esperanza in southern Patagonia, and Tres Arroyos on Tierra del Fuego, that support this date.[3] Hearths, stone scrapers, animal remains dated to 9,400-9,200 BCE have been found east of the Andes.[3] Map of Última Esperanza Province The Última Esperanza Province of Chile (in Spanish Provincia Última Esperanza, Last Hope Province) is located on the Chilean continental part of the Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region. ... Tres Arroyos is a city in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. ...


The Cueva de las Manos is a famous site in Santa Cruz, Argentina. A cave at the foot of a cliff, it has wall paintings, particularly the negative images of hundreds of hands, believed to date from around 8,000 BCE.[3] Canyon at the Pinturas River, view from the caves Cueva de las Manos (Spanish for Cave of the Hands) is a cave located in the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, 163 km south from the town of Perito Moreno, within the borders of the Francisco P. Moreno National Park, which...


Hunting of guanaco was the most important activity, and rhea (ñandu) to a lesser extent, it appears from artifacts.[3] It is unclear whether the megafauna of Patagonia, including the ground sloth and horse, were extinct in the area before the arrival of humans, although this is now the more widely accepted account. It is also not clear if domestic dogs were part of early human activity. Bolas are commonly found and were used to catch guanaco and rhea.[3] A maritime tradition appeared amongst the Yámana to the south of the Beagle Channel. Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... Species R. americana R. pennata The Rhea, also known as ñandú (pronounced ) in Spanish, or ema in Portuguese, is a large flightless ratite bird native to South America. ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... Families Rathymotheriidae Ameghino, 1904 Scelidotheriidae Ameghino, 1889 Mylodontidae Gill, 1872 Orophodontidae Ameghino, 1895 Megalonychidae Gervais, 1855 Megatheriidae Gray, 1821 Ground sloths are a diverse group of extinct edentate (Superorder Xenarthra) mammals that are believed to be relatives of tree sloths and three-toed sloths. ... Gaucho Bolas Bolas (from Spanish bola, ball, also known as boleadoras) are a throwing weapon made of weights on the ends of interconnected cords, designed to capture animals by entangling their legs. ... Yagán, also known as Yámana, Yaghan, and Háusi Kúta, is one of the indigenous languages of Tierra del Fuego, spoken by the Yagán people. ... Sea lions on La Isla de Los Lobos in the Beagle Channel Glacier on the north shore of the Beagle Channel Beagle Channel is a strait separating islands of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago, in extreme southern South America. ...


The indigenous peoples of the region included the Tehuelches, whose numbers and society were reduced to near extinction not long after the first contacts with Europeans. Tehuelches included the Gununa'kena to the north, Mecharnuekenk in south central Patagonia and the Aonikenk or Southern Tehuelche in the far South, north of the Magellan channel. On Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, the Selk'nam (Ona) and Haush (Mannekenk) lived in the north and south east respectively. In the archipelagos to the south of Tierra del Fuego were Yámana, with the Kawéskar (Alakaluf) in the coastal areas and islands in western Tierra del Fuego and the south west of the mainland.[3] These groups were encountered in the first periods of European contact with different lifestyles, body decoration and language, although it is unclear when this configuration emerged. The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Patagonian camp, 1838 Tehuelches is the collective name of the native tribes of Patagonia. ... Tierra del Fuego Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego (literally, Great Island of the Land of Fire) is an island near the southern tip of South America from which it is separated by the Strait of Magellan. ... The Selknam, also known as the Ona, a now-extinct people, lived in the Tierra del Fuego islands, in southern Chile and Argentina. ... The Alacaluf (also called Halakwulup, Kawésqar, Kaweskar) are a South American people living in Chile in the Strait of Magellan (Brunswick Peninsula, and Wellington, Santa Inés, and Desolación islands), Chile. ...


Around 1,000 BC, Mapuche-speaking agriculturalists penetrated the western Andes and from there across into the eastern plains and down to the far south. Through confrontation and technological ability, they came to dominate the other peoples of the region in a short space of time, and are the principal indigenous community today.[3] Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ...


Early European exploration and Spanish conquest attempts (1520-1584)

The region of Patagonia was to be first noted in European accounts in 1520 by the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan, who on his passage along the coast named many of the more striking features -- Gulf of San Matias, Cape of 11,000 Virgins (now simply Cape Virgenes), and others. However, it is also possible that earlier navigators such as Amerigo Vespucci had reached the area (his own account of 1502 has it that he reached its latitudes), however his failure to accurately describe the main geographical features of the region such as the Río de la Plata casts some doubt on whether he really did so. For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... Categories: Argentina geography stubs | Headlands | Geography of Argentina ... Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 - February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... This page is about the South American estuary. ...


Rodrigo de Isla, sent inland in 1535 from San Matias by Simón de Alcazaba Sotomayor (on whom western Patagonia had been conferred by Carlos V of Spain), is presumed to have been the first European to traverse the great Patagonian plain. If the men under his charge had not mutinied, he might have been able to cross the Andes to reach the Chilean side. For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...


Pedro de Mendoza, on whom the country was next bestowed, lived to found Buenos Aires, but not to carry his explorations to the south. Alonzo de Camargo (1539), Juan Ladrilleros (1557) and Hurtado de Mendoza (1558) helped to make known the western coasts, and Sir Francis Drake's voyage in 1577 down the eastern coast through the strait and northward by Chile and Peru was memorable for several reasons; but the geography of Patagonia owes more to Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1579–1580), who, devoting himself especially to the south-west region, made careful and accurate surveys. The settlement which he founded at Nombre de Dios and San Felipe were neglected by the Spanish government, and the latter was in such a miserable state when Thomas Cavendish visited it in 1587 that he called it Port Famine. Pedro de Mendoza (1487–1537) was a Spanish conquistador, and the first adelantado of the Río de la Plata. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1532 - 1592) was a Spanish explorer, author, historian, astronomer, scientist, and humanist. ... Nombre de Dios (Spanish: Name of God) is a town on the Atlantic coast of Panama, near the mouth of the Río Chagres. ... San Felipe (the Spanish-language name of Saint Philip) is a moderately common toponym in parts of the world where that language is or was spoken: Chile San Felipe, Valparaiso Region. ... Thomas Cavendish (1555-1592) was born in Trimley St. ... Puerto Hambre, also known as Puerto del Hambre and at one time as Port Famine, is a historic settlement site at Buena Bay on the west side of the Strait of Magellan approximately 58 km (36 miles) south of Punta Arenas in the Región de Magallanes y la Ant...


The district in the neighbourhood of Puerto Deseado, explored by John Davis about the same period, was taken possession of by Sir John Narborough in the name of King Charles II of England in 1669. Puerto Deseado, originally called Port Desire, is a fishing port in Patagonia in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina on the estuary of the Río Deseado, located at 47°22′S 63°49′W. It was named Port Desire by the privateer Thomas Cavendish in 1586 after the name... For other persons named John Davis, see John Davis (disambiguation). ... Sir John Narborough (d. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Patagonian giants: early European perceptions

According to Antonio Pigafetta,[1] one of the Magellan expedition's few survivors and its published chronicler, Magellan bestowed the name "Patagão" (or Patagón) on the inhabitants they encountered there, and the name "Patagonia" for the region. Although Pigafetta's account does not describe how this name came about, subsequent popular interpretations gave credence to a derivation meaning 'land of the big feet'. However, this etymology is questionable. Antonio Pigafetta. ... Etymologies redirects here. ...


The main interest in the region sparked by Pigafetta's account came from his reports of their meeting with the local inhabitants, who they claimed to measure some nine to twelve feet in height —"...so tall that we reached only to his waist"—, and hence the later idea that Patagonia meant "big feet". This supposed race of Patagonian giants or Patagones entered into the common European perception of this little-known and distant area, to be further fuelled by subsequent reports of other expeditions and famous-name travellers like Sir Francis Drake, which seemed to confirm these accounts. Early charts of the New World sometimes added the legend regio gigantum ("region of the giants") to the Patagonian area. By 1611 the Patagonian god Setebos (Settaboth in Pigafetta) was familiar to the hearers of The Tempest. The Patagones or Patagonian giants are a mythical race of people, who first began to appear in early European accounts of the then little-known region and coastline of Patagonia. ... The Patagones were a legendary tribe of native giants that Ferdinand Magellan and his crew claimed to have seen while exploring South America in the 1520s. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ...


The concept and general belief persisted for a further 250 years, and was to be sensationally re-ignited in 1767 when an "official" (but anonymous) account was published of Commodore John Byron's recent voyage of global circumnavigation in HMS Dolphin. Byron and crew had spent some time along the coast, and the publication (Voyage Round the World in His Majesty’s Ship the Dolphin) seemed to give proof positive of their existence; the publication became an overnight best-seller, thousands of extra copies were to be sold to a willing public, and other prior accounts of the region were hastily re-published (even those in which giant-like folk were not mentioned at all). British Commodore Sleeve Rank Command flag Commodore is a rank of the Royal Navy that dates to the mid-17th century: it was first used in the time of William III. There was a need for officers to command squadrons, but it was not deemed desirable to create new admirals. ... John Byron (November 8, 1723 – April 10, 1786) was a British vice-admiral. ... “Round the world” redirects here. ... HMS Dolphin was a 24-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. ...

1840s illustration (somewhat idealised) of indigenous Patagonians from near the Straits of Magellan; from "Voyage au pole sud et dans l'Oceanie ....." by French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville
1840s illustration (somewhat idealised) of indigenous Patagonians from near the Straits of Magellan; from "Voyage au pole sud et dans l'Oceanie ....." by French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville

However, the Patagonian giant frenzy was to die down substantially only a few years later, when some more sober and analytical accounts were published. In 1773 John Hawkesworth published on behalf of the Admiralty a compendium of noted English southern-hemisphere explorers' journals, including that of James Cook and John Byron. In this publication, drawn from their official logs, it became clear that the people Byron's expedition had encountered were no taller than 6-foot 6 inches, tall perhaps but by no means giants. Interest soon subsided, although awareness of and belief in the myth persisted in some quarters even up into the 20th century.[6] Image File history File links Urville-Patagonians2. ... Image File history File links Urville-Patagonians2. ... The Patagones were a legendary tribe of native giants that Ferdinand Magellan and his crew claimed to have seen while exploring South America in the 1520s. ... The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. ... This article is about the French explorer. ... John Hawkesworth (c. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Scientific exploration (1764-1842)

In the second half of the 18th century, European knowledge of Patagonia was further augmented by the voyages of the previously-mentioned John Byron (1764–1765), Samuel Wallis (1766, in the same HMS Dolphin which Byron had earlier sailed in) and Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1766). Thomas Falkner, a Jesuit who resided near forty years in those parts, published his Description of Patagonia (Hereford, 1774); Francesco Viedma founded El Carmen, and Antonio advanced inland to the Andes (1782); and Basilio Villarino ascended the Rio Negro (1782). (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Samuel Wallis (c. ... Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, by Jean-Pierre Franquel Louis-Antoine, comte de Bougainville (November 12, 1729 Paris - August 20, 1811 Paris) was a French navigator and military commander. ... Basilio Villarino, captain of the Spanish Royal Navy, travelled around the southern tip of South America. ...


Two hydrographic surveys of the coasts were of first-rate importance: the first expedition (1826–1830) including HMS Adventure and HMS Beagle under Phillip Parker King, and the second (1832–1836) being the voyage of the Beagle under Robert FitzRoy. The latter expedition is particularly noted for the participation of Charles Darwin; however nothing was observed of the interior of the country except for 200 miles (320 km) of the course of the Santa Cruz river. Hydrography is the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ... Admiral Philip Parker King, F.R.S. (13 December 1793-1856) was an early explorer of the Australian coast. ... A watercolour by HMS Beagles draughtsman, Conrad Martens. ... Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwins famous voyage, and as a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate weather forecasting a reality. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Santa Cruz River (Spanish: Río Santa Cruz) is a river from the Argentine province of Santa Cruz. ...


Chilean and Argentine expansion (1843-1902)

Following the last instructions of Bernardo O'Higgins, the Chilean president Manuel Bulnes sent an expedition to the Strait of Magellan and founded Fuerte Bulnes in 1843. Five years later, the Chilean government moved the main settlement to the current location of Punta Arenas, the oldest permanent settlement in Southern Patagonia. The creation of Punta Arenas was instrumental in making Chile's claim of the Strait of Magellan permanent. Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ... Manuel Bulnes Prieto Manuel Bulnes Prieto (December 25, 1799 - October 18, 1866) was a Chilean political figure. ... A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... Chilean fort located by the Strait of Magellan, 62 km due South from Punta Arenas. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Memorial to Hernando de Magallanes in Punta Arenas. ...


In the mid-19th century the newly-independent nations of Argentina and Chile began an aggressive phase of expansion into the south, increasing confrontation with the indigenous populations. In 1860, a French adventurer Orelie-Antoine de Tounens proclaimed himself king of The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia of the Mapuche. Captain George Chaworth Musters in 1869 wandered in company with a band of Tehuelches through the whole length of the country from the strait to the Manzaneros in the north-west, and collected a great deal of information about the people and their mode of life. In the 1870s the Conquest of the Desert was a controversial campaign by the Argentine government, executed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca, to subdue or, some claim, to exterminate the native peoples of the South. By the mid-1880s the campaign's objectives had largely been achieved. Orelie-Antoine I, would-be-King of Araucania and Patagonia. ... The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia (also called New France) was a micronation founded by a French lawyer and adventurer named Orelie-Antoine de Tounens in southern South America in the mid 19th century. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Patagonian camp, 1838 Tehuelches is the collective name of the native tribes of Patagonia. ... The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. ... Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz (July 17, 1843 - October 19, 1914) was an army general who served as President of Argentina from 12 October 1880 to 12 October 1886 and again from 12 October 1898 to 12 October 1904. ...


In 1885 a mining expeditionary party under the Romanian adventurer Julius Popper landed in southern Patagonia in search of gold, which they found after travelling southwards towards the lands of Tierra del Fuego. This further opened up some of the area to prospectors. Julius Popper. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...


European missionaries and settlers arrived through the 19th and 20th centuries, notably the Welsh settlement of the Chubut Valley. The Welsh settlement in Argentina began in the 19th century. ... The Chubut valley in Patagonia, Argentina forms the heart of the Chubut Province, the third largest province of Argentina. ...


During the first years of the 20th century, the border between the two nations in Patagonia was established by the mediation of the British crown. But it has undergone a lot of modifications since then, and there is still one place (50 km long) where there is no border established (Southern Patagonia Icefield). The field is an important fresh water reserve View to the ice field from the Perito Moreno Glacier Tourism map of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, note the undefined part near Viedma Lake The Southern Patagonia Ice Field (Spanish: Hielos Continentales or Campo de Hielo Sur) is the third biggest...


Until 1902 most of Patagonia was settled by Chilotes who worked in cattle farming. Before and after 1902, when the boundaries were drawn, a lot of Chilotes were expelled from the Argentinian side. These workers founded the first inland Chilean settlement in what is now the Aisén Region;[7][8] Balmaceda. Lacking good grasslands on the forest-covered Chilean side, the immigrants burned down the forest, setting fires that could have lasted more than two years.[8] Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Chiloé Island Location of Chiloé in Chile Chiloé Island (Spanish: Isla de Chiloé, or Isla Grande de Chiloé [Big Island of Chiloé]) is an island off the Pacific coast of South America, part of Chile. ... Aysen (also spelled Aisén) is Chiles eleventh administrative region from north to south. ... Balmaceda is Chilean town located south east of Coyhaique in Aysen Region. ...


Economy

As described above by province, principal economic activities have been mining, whaling, agriculture (notably sheep in the south, and wheat and fruit to the north), and oil after its discovery near Comodoro Rivadavia in 1907.[4] Energy production is also a crucial part of the local economy. Railways were planned to cover continental Argentine Patagonia to serve the oil, mining, agricultural and energy industries, and a line was built connecting San Carlos de Bariloche to Buenos Aires. Portions of other lines were built to the south, but the only lines still in use are La Trochita in Esquel, the 'Train of the End of the World' in Ushuaia, both heritage lines, [9] and a short run Tren Histórico de Bariloche to Perito Moreno. Comodoro Rivadavia is a city in the Patagonian province of Chubut in southern Argentina, located on the Gulf of San Jorge, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, at the foot of the Cerro Chenque mountain. ... San Carlos de Bariloche is a city in the province of Río Negro, Argentina, situated on the foothills of the Andes, surrounded by lakes (Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez Lake, Moreno Lake and Mascardi Lake) and mountains (Tronador, Cerro Catedral, Cerro López). ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... La Trochita, in English known as the Old Patagonian Express, is a narrow gauge railway in Patagonia, Argentina using steam locomotives. ... A view of a lake near Esquel. ... The Southern Fuegian Railway or the End of the World Train (Spanish: Ferrocarril Austral Fueguino (FCAF) or El Tren del Fin del Mundo) is a narrow gauge railway in Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina using steam locomotives. ... Ushuaia (pronounced ) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego, and claims to be the worlds southernmost city (see discussion below). ... A scene on a heritage railway. ... San Carlos de Bariloche is a city in the province of Río Negro, Argentina, situated on the foothills of the Andes, surrounded by lakes (Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez Lake, Moreno Lake and Mascardi Lake) and mountains (Tronador, Cerro Catedral, Cerro López). ...


In the second half of the 20th century, tourism became an ever more important part of Patagonia's economy. Originally a remote backpacking destination, the region has attracted increasing numbers of upmarket visitors, cruise passengers rounding Cape Horn or visiting Antarctica, and adventure and activity holiday-makers. Principal tourist attractions include the Perito Moreno glacier, the Valdés Peninsula, Torres del Paine national park, the Argentine Lake District and Ushuaia and Tierra del Fuego. Tourism has created new markets locally and for export for traditional crafts such as Mapuche handicrafts, guanaco textiles, and confectionery and preserves.[4] Cape Horn from the South. ... Patagonia, Argentina - Perito Moreno Glacier The Perito Moreno Glacier () is a glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in the south west of Santa Cruz province, Argentina. ... The Valdes Peninsula (Spanish Península Valdés) is a peninsula along the Atlantic coast in the Biedma Department in the north east of Chubut Province, Argentina. ... The Cordillera del Paine is a small but spectacular mountain group in Chilean Patagonia. ... Ushuaia (pronounced ) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego, and claims to be the worlds southernmost city (see discussion below). ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ...


At the urging of the Chilean government, the Spanish company Endesa hopes to build a number of large hydro-electric dams in the Chilean Patagonia. The first dams would be built on the Baker and Pascua rivers, but dams have also been proposed on others, including the famed Futalefu. The dams are thought to threaten the fishing, wilderness-tourism and agricultural interests along the river. The electricity would be fed into high-tension lines (to be built by a Canadian company) and taken 1200 miles north to the industry and mining hub around Santiago. The lines would cut through a number of previously pristine national parks and protected areas. The Chilean government considers the power to be essential for economic growth, while opponents claim it will destroy Patagonia's growing tourism industry. No evidence has been produced from the experience in other nations that the presence of electrical transmission lines has significantly affected tourism. In fact, opponents of the program have utilized billboard advertising in Chile which superimposes images of power lines over scenes of Torres del Paine national park, where no proposals for such lines have been made.


A spin-off from increased tourism has been the buying of often enormous tracts of land by foreigners, often as a prestige purchase rather than for agriculture. Buyers have included Sylvester Stallone, Ted Turner and Christopher Lambert, and most notably Luciano Benetton, Patagonia's largest landowner.[4] His Compañia de Tierras Sud has brought new techniques to the ailing sheep-rearing industry and sponsored museums and community facilities, but has been controversial particularly for its treatment of local Mapuche communities.[10] Sylvester Stallone (born Sylvester Gardenzio Stallone on July 6, 1946) is a two-time Academy Award-nominated American actor, director, producer and screenwriter. ... For other persons named Ted Turner, see Ted Turner (disambiguation). ... Christopher Lambert (born March 29, 1957 as Christophe Guy Denis Lambert) is an American-born French actor. ... Born on May 13, 1935, Luciano Benetton, chairman of Italian fashion company Benetton, was at the helm of the company for 38 years. ...


Argentine Patagonian cuisine is largely the same as the cuisine of Buenos Aires - grilled meats and pasta - with extensive use of local ingredients and less use of those products which have to be imported into the region. Lamb is considered the traditional Patagonian meat, grilled for several hours over an open fire. Some guide books have reported that game, especially guanaco and introduced deer and boar, are popular in restaurant cuisine. However, since the guanaco is a protected animal in both Chile and Argentina, it is unlikely to appear commonly as restaurant fare. Trout and centolla (king crab) are also common, though over-fishing of centolla has made it increasingly scarce. In the area around Bariloche, there is a noted Alpine cuisine tradition, with chocolate bars and even fondue restaurants, and tea rooms are a feature of the Welsh communities in Gaiman and Trevelin as well as in the mountains.[4] For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Alp redirects here. ... Fondue refers to several French Swiss communal dishes shared at the table in an earthenware pot (caquelon) over a small burner (rechaud). The term fondue comes from the French fondre (to melt), referring to the fact that the contents of the pot are kept in a liquid state so that... For tea rooms used in Japanese tea ceremony, see Japanese tea house The gallery in The Willow Tearooms. ... Gaiman is a town in the Chubut Province of Patagonia in Argentina. ... Trevelin is a town in Chubut Province, Argentina. ...


Foreign land buyers issue

Foreign investors, including Italian multimillionational Benetton group, are currently buying major land fields. This situation implies several collateral damage, including certain conflicts with natives and natural resources expropriation.


Further reading

  • Patagonia : a forgotten land : from Magellan to Perón, 2007, ISBN 9781845640613
  • The wild shores of Patagonia : the Valdés Peninsula and Punta Tombo, 2000, ISBN 0810943522
  • Birds of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego & Antarctic Peninsula : the Falkland Islands & South Georgia = Aves de Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego y Península Antártica : Islas Malvinas y Georgia del Sur, 2003, ISBN 9568007040
  • The South American table : the flavor and soul of authentic home cooking from Patagonia to Rio de Janeiro, with 450 recipes, 2003, ISBN 1558322485
  • Chatwin, Bruce "In Patagonia" (1977)
  • Theroux, Paul "The Old Patagonian Express" (1979)
  • The Last Cowboys at the End of the World: The Story of the Guachos of Patagonia,2002, ISBN 0609810049

See also

The Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia (also called New France) was a self-proclaimed independent state or micronation founded by a French lawyer and adventurer named Orelie-Antoine de Tounens in southern South America in the mid 19th century. ... The Araucanization (Spanish: Araucanización) was the process of expansion of Mapuche culture and language into the patagonic plains. ... Mount Hudson is a stratovolcano in Chile, and the site of one of the largest eruptions in the twentieth century. ... The Conquest of the Desert (Spanish: Conquista del desierto) was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, which was inhabited by indigenous peoples. ... This is a list of deserts in the world ordered by area. ... The Patagonian Ice Sheet was a large ice sheet that covered all of Chile south of approximately present-day Puerto Montt during the Last Glacial Maximum. ... Map that frames the area named Southern Cone The term Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) refers to a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, below the Tropic of Capricorn. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ a b Antonio Pigafetta, Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo, 1524: "Il capitano generale nominò questi popoli Patagoni." The original word would probably be in Magellan's native Portuguese (patagão) or the Spanish of his men (patagón). It has been interpreted later as "big foot" but the etymology is unclear.
  2. ^ Fondebrider, Jorge (2003). "chapter 1 (Ámbitos y voces)", Versiones de la Patagonia, 1st edition (in Spanish), Buenos Aires, Argentina: Emecé Editores S.A., 29. ISBN 950-04-2498-3. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Patagonia: Natural History, Prehistory and Ethnography at the Uttermost End of the Earth, C. McEwan, L.A. Borrero and A. Prieto (eds), Princeton University Press with British Museum Press, 1997. ISBN 0-691-05849-0
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Time Out Patagonia, Cathy Runciman (ed), Penguin Books, 2002. ISBN 0-14-101240-4
  5. ^ Southern Chile warned of high radiation levels under ozone hole, CNN.com, October 10, 2000, accessed 2006-08-11
  6. ^ Carolyne Ryan. European Travel Writings and the Patagonian giants. Lawrence University. Retrieved on August 15, 2005.
  7. ^ http://www.turistel.cl/v2/secciones/destinos/ciudad_pueblo/sur/undecima/coihaique.htm
  8. ^ a b Luis Otero, La Huella del Fuego: Historia de los bosques y cambios en el paisaje del sur de Chile (Valdivia, Editorial Pehuen)
  9. ^ History of the Old Patagonian Express, La Trochita, accessed 2006-08-11
  10. ^ 'The Invisible Colours of Benetton', Mapuche International Link, accessed 2006-08-11

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Antonio Pigafetta. ... Magellan may refer to: People Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition to travel around the world. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... CNN.com is the news website maintained by CNN. The website debuted on August 30, 1995, and it describes itself as the first major news and information website on the Internet. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mapuche International Link (MIL) is an organization which campaigns on behalf of the Mapuche people of southern Chile and Argentinia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the southern hemisphere and mostly in the Antarctic south polar region, is the largest of the worlds five major landmassesic divisions and the deepest. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Patagonia | Definition | Information | Explanation | Review | WikiCity.com - Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, Free ... (2680 words)
Patagonia is that portion of South America which, to the east of the Andes, lies mainly south of the Rio Negro (41°S), and, to the west of the Andes, south of (42°S).
The general character of the Argentine portion of Patagonia is for the most part a region of vast steppe-like plains, rising in a succession of abrupt terraces about 100 meters (330 feet) at a time, and covered with an enormous bed of shingle almost bare of vegetation.
In so far as its main characteristics are concerned, Patagonia seems to be a portion of the Antarctic continent, the permanence of which dates from very recent times, as is evidenced by the apparent recent emergence of the islets around Chiloe, and by the general character of the pampean formation.
Patagonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5079 words)
Patagonia is the portion of South America in Argentina and Chile made up of the Andes mountains to the west and south, and plateaux and low plains to the east.
Patagonia is for the most part a region of vast steppe-like plains, rising in a succession of abrupt terraces about 100 meters (330 feet) at a time, and covered with an enormous bed of shingle almost bare of vegetation
In so far as its main characteristics are concerned, Patagonia seems to be a portion of the Antarctic continent, the permanence of which dates from very recent times, as is evidenced by the apparent recent emergence of the islets around Chiloé, and by the general character of the pampean formation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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