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Encyclopedia > Pastoral
Giorgione's The Pastoral Concert

Pastoral, as an adjective, refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and feed. "Pastoral" also describes literature, art and music which depicts the life of shepherds, often in a highly idealised manner. It may also be used as a noun (a pastoral) to describe a single work of pastoral poetry, music or drama. An alternative name for the literary "pastoral" (both as an adjective and a noun) is bucolic, from the Greek βουκóλος, meaning a "cowherd". This reflects the Greek origin of the pastoral tradition. Pastoral can refer to: Pastoral, the lifestyle of shepherds, and also an artistic style. ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Pastoral Concert, by Titian The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Pastoral Concert, by Titian The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... A purported self-portrait of Giorgione, represented in the guise of David. ... In a draw in a mountainous region, a shepherd guides a flock of about 20 sheep amidst scrub and olive trees. ... Pastoralists are people whose main source of livelihood is livestock with which they move seasonally in search of fresh pasture and water. ...

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Pastoral literature

Pastoral literature in general

In literature, the adjective 'pastoral' refers to rural subjects and aspects of life in the countryside among shepherds, cowherds and other farm workers that are often romanticized and depicted in a highly unrealistic manner. Indeed, the pastoral life is sometimes depicted as being far closer to the Golden age than the rest of human life.[1] A typical mood is set by Christopher Marlowe's well known lines from "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love": For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Shepherd in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... A cowboy (Spanish vaquero) tends cattle and horses on cattle ranches in North and South America. ... Romantics redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Passionate Shepherd to His Love The Passionate Shepherd to His Love is a poem written by the English poet Christopher Marlowe in the 1590s. ...

Come live with me and be my Love,
And we will all the pleasures prove
That hills and valleys, dale and field,
And all the craggy mountains yield.
There will we sit upon the rocks
And see the shepherds feed their flocks,
By shallow rivers, to whose falls
Melodious birds sing madrigals.

Pastoral shepherds and maidens usually have Greek names like Corydon or Philomela. Pastoral poems are set in beautiful rural landscapes, the literary term for which is "locus amoenus" (Latin for "beautiful place"), such as Arcadia, a rural region of Greece, mythological home of the god Pan, which was portrayed as a sort of Eden by the poets. The tasks of their employment with sheep and other rustic chores is held in the fantasy to be almost wholly undemanding and is left in the background, abandoning the shepherdesses and their swains in a state of almost perfect leisure. This makes them available for embodying perpetual erotic fantasies. The shepherds spend their time chasing pretty girls — or, at least in the Greek and Roman versions, pretty lads as well. The eroticism of Virgil's second eclogue, Formosum pastor Corydon ardebat Alexin ("The shepherd Corydon burned with passion for pretty Alexis") is entirely homosexual. This article is about a region of Greece. ... Marble sculpture of Pan copulating with a goat, recovered from Herculaneum Pan (Greek Παν, genitive Πανος) is the Greek god who watches over shepherds and their flocks. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An eclogue is a poem in a classical style on a pastoral subject. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...


Pastoral poetry

Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican
Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican

Pastoral literature began with the poetry of the Hellenistic Greek Theocritus, several of whose Idylls are set in the countryside (probably reflecting the landscape of the island of Cos where the poet lived) and involve dialogues between herdsmen.[2] Theocritus may have drawn on authentic folk traditions of Sicilian shepherds. He wrote in the Doric dialect but the metre he chose was the dactylic hexameter associated with the most prestigious form of Greek poetry, epic. This blend of simplicity and sophistication would play a major part in later pastoral verse. Theocritus was imitated by the Greek poets Bion and Moschus. The Roman poet Virgil adapted the genre into Latin with his highly influential Eclogues. Virgil presented a more idealised vision of rural life than Theocritus and was the first to set his poems in Arcadia, the favourite location of subsequent pastoral literature. He also included elements of political allegory.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1981, 350 KB) Description: Title: de: Die Georgica des Vergil, III. Buch, Szene: Schäfer bei ihren Herden Technique: de: Pergament Dimensions: de: 22 × 22,5 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x1981, 350 KB) Description: Title: de: Die Georgica des Vergil, III. Buch, Szene: Schäfer bei ihren Herden Technique: de: Pergament Dimensions: de: 22 × 22,5 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Rom Current location (gallery): de... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Theocritus (Greek Θεόκριτος), the creator of ancient Greek bucolic poetry, flourished in the 3rd century BC. Little is known of him beyond what can be inferred from his writings. ... Port and city view of Kos town on the island Kos. ... Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Β:This article refers to the Greek poet. ... Moschus, Ancient Greek bucolic poet and student of the Alexandrian grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace, was born at Syracuse and flourished about 150 BC. He was also known for his grammatical work, nothing of which survives. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... The Eclogues is one of three major works by the Latin poet Virgil. ... This article is about a region of Greece. ...


Italian poets revived the pastoral from the 14th century onwards, first in Latin (examples include works by Petrarch, Pontano and Mantuan) then in the Italian vernacular (Boiardo). The fashion for pastoral spread throughout Renaissance Europe. In Spain, Garcilaso de la Vega was an important pioneer. Leading French pastoral poets include Marot and Ronsard. From the c. ... Jovianus Pontanus (Italian Giovanni Gioviano Pontano) (1426 ‑ September 17, 1503) was an Italian humanist and poet. ... Baptista Spagnuoli Mantuanus (Italian: Battista Mantovano) (English: Mantuan) (17 April 1447 – 20 March 1516) was an Italian Carmelite reformer, humanist, and poet. ... Matteo Maria Boiardo (c. ... Garcilaso de la Vega (c. ... Clément Marot (1496–1544), was a French poet of the Renaissance period. ... Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 - December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ...


The first pastorals in English were the Eclogues (c.1515) of Alexander Barclay, which were heavily influenced by Mantuan. A landmark in English pastoral poetry was Spenser’s The Shepheardes Calender, first published in 1579. Spenser's work consists of twelve eclogues, one for each month of the year, and is written in dialect. It contains elegies, fables and a discussion of the role of poetry in contemporary England. Spenser and his friends appear under various pseudonyms (Spenser himself is "Colin Clout"). Spenser's example was imitated by such poets as Michael Drayton (Idea, The Shepherd's Garland) and William Browne (Britannia's Pastorals). The most famous pastoral elegy in English is John Milton's Lycidas (1637), written on the death of Edward King, a fellow student at Cambridge University. Milton used the form both to explore his vocation as a writer and to attack what he saw as the abuses of the Church. The formal pastoral in English died out in the 18th century, one of the last notable examples being Alexander Pope's Pastorals (1709). The form was parodied by writers such as John Gay (in his Shepherd's Week), criticised for its artificiality by Doctor Johnson and attacked for its lack of realism by George Crabbe, who attempted to give a true picture of rural life in his poem The Village (1783). Pastoral nevertheless survived as a mood rather than a genre, as can be seen from such works as Matthew Arnold's Thyrsis (1867), a lament on the death of his fellow poet Arthur Hugh Clough. Alexander Barclay (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shepheardes Calendar was Edmund Spensers first attempt at poetry. ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... Drayton, 1628 Michael Drayton (1563 – December 23, 1631) was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. ... William Browne (1590?‑1645?) was an English poet, born at Tavistock, educated at Oxford, after which he entered the Inner Temple. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Lycidas is a major poem by John Milton, written in 1637 as a pastoral elegy, first appearing in a 1638 collection of elegies entitled Justa Edouardo King Naufrago dedicated to the memory of Edward King, a collegemate of Miltons at Cambridge who had been drowned when his ship sank... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... George Crabbe (December 24, 1754 - February 3, 1832) was an English poet and naturalist. ... Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ...


Pastoral romances

Italian writers invented a new genre, the pastoral romance, which mixed pastoral poems with a fictional narrative in prose. Although there was no classical precedent for the form, it drew some inspiration from ancient Greek novels set in the countryside, such as Daphnis and Chloe . The most influential Italian example of the form was Sannazzaro's Arcadia (1504). The vogue for the pastoral romance spread throughout Europe producing such notable works as Montemayor's Diana (1559) in Spain, Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia (1590) in England, and Honoré d'Urfé's Astrée (1607-27) in France. Longus was a Greek sophist and romancer, and author of Daphnis and Chloe. ... Jacopo Sannazaro (1458 - April 27, 1530), the Neapolitan poet, humanist and epigrammist, wrote easily in Latin, in Italian and Napuletano, but is best remembered for his humanist classic Arcadia a masterwork that illustrated the possibilities of poetical prose in Italian and instituted the themes of Arcadia in European literature: see... Jorge de Montemayor (or Montemor) (1520? - February 26, 1561), Spanish novelist and poet, of Portuguese descent, was born at Montemor o Velho (near Coimbra), whence he derived his name, the Spanish form of which is Montemayor. ... Philip Sidney Sir Philip Sidney (November 30, 1554 - October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Ages most prominent figures. ... Honoré dUrfé, marquis de Valromey, comte de Châteauneuf (February 11, 1568 - June 1, 1625), French novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born at Marseille, and was educated at the Collège de Tournon. ...


Pastoral plays

Pastoral drama also emerged in Renaissance Italy. Again, there was little Classical precedent, with the possible exception of Greek satyr plays. Poliziano's Orfeo (1480) shows the beginnings of the new form, but it reached its zenith in the late 16th century with Tasso's Aminta (1573) and Guarini's Il pastor fido (1590). John Lyly's Endimion (1579) brought the Italian-style pastoral play to England. John Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess and Ben Jonson's The Sad Shepherd are later examples. Some of Shakespeare's plays contain pastoral elements, most notably As You Like It (whose plot was derived from Thomas Lodge's pastoral romance Rosalynde) and The Winter's Tale, of which Act 4 Scene 4 is a lengthy pastoral digression. Papposilenus playing the crotals, theatrical type of the satyr play, Louvre Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar to the modern-day burlesque style. ... Angelo Poliziano. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Battista Guarini Giovanni Battista Guarini (December 10, 1538 – October 7, 1612) was an Italian poet, dramatist, and diplomat. ... John Lyly (Lilly or Lylie) (c. ... John Fletcher (1579-1625) was a Jacobean playwright. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Walter Deverell,The Mock Marriage of Orlando and Rosalind, 1853 William Shakespeares As You Like It is a pastoral comedy written in 1599 or early 1600. ... Thomas Lodge (c. ... Florizel and Perdita by Charles Robert Leslie. ...


Pastoral music

Theocritus's Idylls include strophic songs and musical laments, and, as in Homer, his shepherds often play the syrinx, or Pan flute, considered a quintessentially pastoral instrument. Virgil's Eclogues were performed as sung mime in the 1st century, and there is evidence of the pastoral song as a legitimate genre of classical times. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The pastoral genre was a significant influence in the development of opera. After settings of pastoral poetry in the pastourelle genre by the troubadours, Italian poets and composers became increasingly drawn to the pastoral. Musical settings of pastoral poetry became increasingly common in first polyphonic and then monodic madrigals: these later led to the cantata and the serenata, in which pastoral themes remained on a consistent basis. Partial musical settings of Giovanni Battista Guarini's Il pastor fido were highly popular: the texts of over 500 madrigals were taken from this one play alone. Tasso's Aminta was also a favourite. As opera developed, the dramatic pastoral came to the fore with such works as Jacopo Peri's Dafne and, most notably, Monteverdi's L'Orfeo. Pastoral opera remained popular throughout the 17th-century, and not just in Italy, as is shown by the French genre of pastorale héroïque, Englishman Henry Lawes's music for Milton's Comus (not to mention John Blow's Venus and Adonis), and Spanish zarzuela. At the same time, Italian and German composers developed a genre of vocal and instrumental pastorals, distinguished by certain stylistic features, associated with Christmas Eve. For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The Shepherdess (translated from the French Pastourelle) is a painting by William-Adolphe Bouguereau completed in 1889. ... For other uses, see Troubadour (disambiguation). ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Giovanni Battista Guarini (December 10, 1538 – October 7, 1612) was an Italian poet and diplomat. ... Torquato Tasso (March 11, 1544 - April 25, 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered; 1575), in which he describes the imaginary combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Jacopo Peri Jacopo Peri (August 20, 1561 – August 12, 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. ... Dafne is the earliest known work that, by modern standards, could be considered an opera. ... For the composer see Claudio Monteverdi For the Swiss automobile brand created by Peter Monteverdi, see Monteverdi (car) Monteverde Monte Verde Category: ... LOrfeo (LOrfeo, favola in musica, SV 318, or La Favola dOrfeo, or The Legend of Orpheus) is one of the earliest works recognised as an opera, composed by Claudio Monteverdi with text by Alessandro Striggio for the annual carnival of Mantua. ... Pastorale héroïque is a genre of French Baroque opera. ... Henry Lawes (December 5, 1595 - October 21, 1662) was an English musician and composer. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Comus (also known as Comus: A masque and The Masque of Comus and The Masque at Ludlow) is a masque in celebration of chastity, written by John Milton and first presented on Michaelmas, 1634, before the Earl of Bridgewater at Ludlow Castle. ... John Blow John Blow (1649 – October 1, 1708) was an English composer and organist. ... A painting of Venus and Adonis by Cornelis van Haarlem, 1614 Venus and Adonis is an opera in three acts and a prologue by the English Baroque composer John Blow, composed c. ... For other uses, see Zarzuela (disambiguation). ...


The pastoral, and parodies of the pastoral, continued to play an important role in musical history throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. John Gay may have satirized the pastoral in The Beggar's Opera, but also wrote an entirely sincere libretto for Handel's Acis and Galatea. Rousseau's Le Devin du village draws on pastoral roots, and Metastasio's libretto Il re pastore was set over 30 times, most famously by Mozart. Rameau was an outstanding exponent of French pastoral opera.[4] Beethoven also wrote his famous Pastoral Symphony, avoiding his usual musical dynamism in favour of relatively slow rhythms. More concerned with psychology than description, he labelled the work "more the expression of feeling than [realistic] painting". The pastoral also appeared as a feature of grand opera, most particularly in Meyerbeer's operas: often composers would develop a pastoral-themed "oasis", usually in the centre of their work. Notable examples include the shepherd's "alte Weise" from Wagner's Tristan und Isolde, or the pastoral ballet occupying the middle of Tchaikovsky's The Queen of Spades. The 20th-century continued to bring new pastoral interpretations, particularly in ballet, such as Ravel's Daphis and Cloe, Nijinsky's use of Debussy's Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune, and Stravinsky's Le sacre du printemps and Les Noces.[5] John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... Painting based on The Beggars Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Acis and Galatea is a pastoral opera or masque composed by George Frideric Handel while he was living in Cannons (the seat of James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos, during the summer of 1718, and later revised and expanded to three acts in 1732, to words by John Gay, Alexander... Rousseau is a French surname. ... Le Devin du Village is an opera by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, first performed before the court at Fontainbleau on 18 October 1752. ... Pietro Trapassi (January 13, 1698 - April 12, 1782), Italian poet, is better known by his pseudonym of Metastasio. ... Il rè pastore is an opera, K. 208, written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in 6 weeks in 1775. ... Jean-Philippe Rameau (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ... Grand Opera is a style of opera mainly characterized by many features on a grandiose scale. ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Prélude à laprès-midi dun faune (or Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun) is a musical composition for orchestra by Claude Debussy that was first performed in 1894. ... Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky () (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a composer of modern classical music. ... The Rite of Spring is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. ...


Pastoral art

Idealised pastoral landscapes appear in Hellenistic and Roman wall paintings. Interest in the pastoral as a subject for art revived in Renaissance Italy, partly inspired by the descriptions of pictures Sannazzaro included in his Arcadia. The Fête champêtre (Pastoral Concert) attributed to Giorgione is perhaps the most famous painting in this style. Later, French artists were also attracted to the pastoral, notably Claude, Poussin (e.g. Et in Arcadia ego) and Watteau (in his Fêtes galantes).[6] A purported self-portrait of Giorgione, represented in the guise of David. ... Claude Lorrain. ... Et in Arcadia ego by Nicolas Poussin. ... Et in Arcadia ego is a Latin phrase that most famously appears as the title of two paintings by Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665). ... Jean-Antoine Watteau (October 10, 1684 - July 18, 1721) was a French painter. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pastoral

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The pastorela is a poetic genre used by the troubadours, which was the genesis of the pastourelle. ... The Shepherdess (translated from the French Pastourelle) is a painting by William-Adolphe Bouguereau completed in 1889. ... An eclogue is a poem in a classical style on a pastoral subject. ... An idyll is a short poem, descriptive of rustic life, written in the style of Theocrituss short pastoral poems, the Idylls. ... Arcadia is a poetical name for fantasy land (having more or less the same notation as Utopia ), named after the Greek land. ...

References

  1. ^ Bridget Ann Henish, The Medieval Calendar Year, p96, ISBN 0-271-01904-2
  2. ^ Introduction (p.14) to Virgil: The Eclogues trans. Guy Lee (Penguin Classics)
  3. ^ Article on "Bucolic poetry" in The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (1989)
  4. ^ See Cuthbert Girdlestone Jean-Philippe Rameau: His Life and Work, particularly p.377 ff.
  5. ^ General reference for this section: Geoffrey Chew and Owen Chander. "Pastoral", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed 11 August 2007), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
  6. ^ Article on "Pastoral" in The Oxford Companion to Art (ed. H. Osborne)

The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2001 The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians, considered by most scholars to be the best general reference source on the subject in the English language. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Pastoral Poetry (769 words)
Shakespeare's knowledge of pastoral conventions was drawn both from his humanist education (which included Virgil and possibly Theocritus) and from his familiarity with the works of contemporaries who imitated the ancients by writing pastoral poetry in English.
An important subgroup of the pastoral eclogue or monologue is the elegy, which expresses the poet's grief at the loss of a friend or an important person.
Examples of English pastoral dramas include John Fletcher's The Faithful Shepherdess (Fletcher, 1579-1625, is the poet who collaborated with Shakespeare on Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen) and Ben Jonson's The Sad Shepherd (left unfinished at Jonson's death in 1637).
Pastoral - LoveToKnow 1911 (3441 words)
pastor, a shepherd), the name given to a certain class of modern literature in which the "idyll" of the Greeks and the "eclogue" of the Latins are imitated.
Pastoral, as it appeared in Tuscany in the 16th century, was really a developed eclogue, an idyll which had been expanded from a single scene into a drama.
This is the principal pastoral play in the language, and, in spite of its faults in moral taste, it preserves a fascination which has evaporated from most of its fellows.
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