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Encyclopedia > Pasteur Institute

The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. It is named after Louis Pasteur, its founder and first director and who, in 1885 had successfully developed the first antirabies serum. It was founded in June 4th, 1887 and inaugurated in November 14th, 1888. A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... I HATE BIOLOGY Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1888 is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ...


For over a century, the Pasteur Institute has been at the forefront of the battle against infectious disease. This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in 1983. Over the years, it has been responsible for breakthrough discoveries that have enabled medical science to control such virulent diseases as diphtheria, tetanus, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, influenza, yellow fever and plague. Since 1908, eight Pasteur Institute scientists have been awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology. In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Human immunodeficiency virus, commonly known by the initialism HIV, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (or acronym AIDS or Aids), is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tetanus is a serious and often fatal disease caused by the neurotoxin tetanospasmin which is produced by the Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. ... Tuberculosis (commonly shortened to TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Negatively stained flu virions. ... Look up plague in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents


History

The Pasteur Institute was founded in 1887 by Louis Pasteur, the French scientist whose early experiments with fermentation led to pioneering research in bacteriology. A giant in science, Pasteur discovered the principle of sterilization which came to be known as "pasteurization." His discoveries led to the universal practice of surgical antisepsis. He also developed techniques of vaccination to control bacterial infection, as well as a successful vaccine to treat rabies. In its strictest sense, fermentation (formerly called zymosis) is the anaerobic metabolic breakdown of a nutrient molecule, such as glucose, without net oxidation. ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Science For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Sterilization can mean: Sterilization (surgical procedure) - an operation which renders an animal or human unable to procreate Sterilization (microbiology) - the elimination of microbiological organisms It can also mean the death of sperm cells due to radiation. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ...


Louis Pasteur was committed both to basic research and its practical applications. As soon as his institute was created, Pasteur brought together scientists with various specialities. The first five departments were directed by two normaliens (graduates of the Ecole Normale Supérieure): Emile Duclaux (general microbiology research) and Charles Chamberland (microbe research applied to hygiene), as well as a biologist, Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (morphological microbe research) and two physicians, Joseph Grancher (rabies) and Emile Roux (technical microbe research). One year after the inauguration of the Pasteur Institute, Roux set up the first course of microbiology ever taught in the world, then entitled Cours de Microbie Technique (Course of microbe research techniques). The quadrangle at the main ENS building on rue dUlm is known as the Cour aux Ernests – the Ernests being the goldfish in the pond. ... Microbiology is the study of microbes or organisms at a micro level. ... Charles Chamberland was a French microbiologist who worked with Louis Pasteur. ... Hygiene is the maintenance of healthy practices. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья Ильич Мечников, also known as Eli Metchnikoff, May 16, 1845, Ukraine – July 16, 1916, Paris) was a Russian microbiologist best remembered for his pioneering research into the immune system. ... Physician examining a child A physician is a person who practices medicine. ... Emile Roux Pierre Paul Emile Roux (b. ...


Pasteur's successors have sustained this tradition, and it is reflected in the Pasteur Institute's unique history of accomplishment:

The biggest mistake by the Institute was ignoring a dissertation by Ernest Duchesne on the use of Penicillium glaucum to cure infections in 1897. The early exploitation of his discovery might have saved millions of lives, especially in World War I. Emile Roux Pierre Paul Emile Roux (b. ... Alexandre Emile John Yersin (September 22, 1863 - March 1, 1943) was a Swiss physician and bacteriologist. ... Binomial name Corynebacterium diphtheriae Kruse, 1886 Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. ... An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Doctor Schnabel von Rom (English: Doctor Beak of Rome) engraving by Paul Fürst (after J Columbina). ... Binomial name Yersinia pestis (Lehmann & Neumann, 1896) Yersinia pestis bacterium, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... Families Tungidae - Sticktight and Chigoe fleas (Chiggers) Pulicidae - Common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae - Carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae - Marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae - Rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae - Bird and rabbit fleas Ischnopsyllidae - Bat fleas Ceratophyllidae Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae - Rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name for any of the small... Léon Charles Albert Calmette (July 12, 1863 – October 29, 1933) was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist, and an important officer of the Pasteur Institute. ... Jean-Marie Camille Guérin (b. ... Tuberculosis (commonly shortened to TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zopf, 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ... Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis that has lost its virulence in humans by specially culturing in artificial medium for years. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Laveran won a Nobel Prize in 1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (June 18, 1845 _ May 18, 1922) (sometimes spelled Alfons or Alfonse) was a French physician who, in 1880, discovered that the cause of malaria is a protozoan, the first time that protozoa were shown to be a cause... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Red blood cell infected with Malaria ,derived from mala aria (Italian: bad air) and formerly called ague or marsh fever in English) is an infectious disease which causes about 350-500 million infections with humans and approximately 1. ... Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья Ильич Мечников, also known as Eli Metchnikoff, May 16, 1845, Ukraine – July 16, 1916, Paris) was a Russian microbiologist best remembered for his pioneering research into the immune system. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The immune system is the system of specialised cells and organs that protect an organism from outside biological influences. ... Karl Landsteiner (June 14, 1868 - June 26, 1943), was an Austrian biologist. ... -1... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Félix dHerelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949), French-Canadian microbiologist, one of the discoverers of bacteriophages (small viruses that only attack and kill bacteria), and inventor of phage therapy. ... A phage (also called bacteriophage) (in Greek phageton = food/consumption) is a small virus that infects only bacteria. ... Biography he sucks ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... In a medical sense, immunity is a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dr. Charles Jules Henry Nicolle (September 21, 1866 - February 28, 1936) was a bacteriologist who earned the 1928 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his identification of lice as the transmitter of epidemic typhus. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This is about the disease Typhus. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... A provirus is a retrovirus that has integrated itself into the DNA of a host cell. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Luc Montagnier (born 1932) is a French virologist. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (or acronym AIDS or Aids), is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Ernest Duchesne Ernest Duchesne (May 30, 1874–April 12, 1912) was a French physician who noted that certain moulds kill bacteria. ... Binomial name Penicillium notatum Westling Penicillium glaucum is a mold which is used in the making of many types of cheese including the french Bleu cheeses, Fourme dAmbert, Gorgonzola, and Stilton. ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world...


A new age of preventive medicine in France was made possible by such developments from the Pasteur Institute as vaccines for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, poliomyelitis, and hepatitis B. The discovery and use of sulfonamides in treating infections was another breakthrough. Some researchers will win fame by discovering antitoxins and Daniel Bovet received the 1957 Nobel Prize for his discoveries on synthetic anti-histamines and curarizing compounds. Preventive medicine is that part of medicine engaged with preventing disease rather than curing it. ... Tuberculosis (commonly shortened to TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Tetanus is a serious and often fatal disease caused by the neurotoxin tetanospasmin which is produced by the Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Originally known as serum hepatitis, hepatitis B has only been recognized as such since World War II, and has caused current epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa. ... Sulfonamides, also known as sulfa drugs, are synthetic antimicrobial agents derived from sulfonic acid. ... An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. ... Daniel Bovet (March 23, 1907 – April 8, 1992) was a Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist who won the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of drugs that block the actions of specific neurotransmitters. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 Curare refers to the alkaloid containing substance obtained from one of several plants, the purified products of which are used as skeletal muscle relaxants. ...


Since World War II, Pasteur researchers have sharply focused on molecular biology. Their achievements were recognized in 1965, when the Nobel Prize was shared by François Jacob, Jacques Monod and André Lwoff for their work on the regulation of viruses. In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was developed by Pierre Tiollais and collaborators. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ... François Jacob (June 17, 1920 Nancy, France -- ) is a French biologist, who together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells happens through feedback on transcription. ... Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976) was a French biologist and a Nobel Prize Winner in Physiology or Medicine in 1965. ... Andre Michael Lwoff (1902 - 1994) was a French microbiologist. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) A virus is a microscopic parasite that infects cells in biological organisms. ...


Pasteur Institute today

Today, the Pasteur Institute is one of the world's leading research centers; it houses 100 research units and close to 2,700 people, including 500 permanent scientists and another 600 scientists visiting from 70 countries annually. The Pasteur Institute is also a global network of 24 foreign institutes devoted to medical problems in developing countries; a graduate study center and an epidemiological screening unit. Santiago Ramón y Cajal Marie Sklodowska Curie This article is about the profession. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


The international network is present in the following cities and countries:

Map of Algeria showing Algiers province Algiers (French Alger, (Arabic: ولاية الجزائر) El-Jazair, The Islands) is the capital and largest city of Algeria in North Africa. ... Bangui, the only commune or federal district in the Central African Republic serves as its capital and largest city. ... Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (French: Bruxelles, Flemish: Brussel, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium, the French community of Belgium, the Flemish community and of the European Union. ... City motto: No motto City proper Province Phnom Penh Mayor Kep Chuktema ( ) Area 290 km² Population 862,000 Density 3446. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pointe-à-Pitre is the main town of the French Caribbean island and French département doutre-mer of Guadeloupe, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Cayenne is the capital of the French overseas région of French Guiana. ... French Guiana (French: Guyane) is an overseas département (département doutre-mer, or DOM) of France, located on the Caribbean coast of South America. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Quốc Ngữ Hà Ná»™i; Chữ Nôm 河内), estimated population 3,083,800 (2004), is the capital of Vietnam and was the capital of North Vietnam from 1954 to 1976. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran Tehran is a metropolis of 14 million situated at the foot of the towering Alborz range. ... Abidjan is the largest city and former capital of Côte dIvoire. ... Antananarivo, population 802,000 (1997), is the capital of Madagascar, in Antananarivo province. ... Casablanca from space Hassan II Mosque A view on the Boulevard de Paris in central Casablanca Parc de la Ligue Arabe Casablanca (Arabic: الدار البيضاء, transliterated ad-Dār al-Bayḍāʼ) is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. ... Orbital photo of Nouméa, New Caledonia, taken from the International Space Station. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athínai IPA ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world. ... Bucharest (Romanian: BucureÅŸti ) is the capital city and industrial and commercial centre of Romania. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... View of Yaoundé Yaoundé, «yah oon DAY», estimated population 1,430,000 (2004), is the capital city of Cameroon and second largest city in the country after Douala. ... Seoul (서울, â–¶ (help· info)) is the capital of South Korea (the Republic of Korea) and is one of the most populous cities in the world, located in the northwestern part of the country on the Han River. ... Official language(s) English Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ...

Research Centers

The Pasteur Institute Paris has twelve research departments:

In addition to the isolation of HIV-1 and HIV-2, in the recent past researchers at the Pasteur Institute have developed a test for the early detection of colon cancer, produced a genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B and a rapid diagnostic test for the detection of the Helicobacter pylori bacterium which is implicated in the formation of stomach ulcers. Other research in progress includes the study of cancer and specifically the investigation of the role of oncogenes, the identification of tumor markers for diagnostic tests and the development of new treatments. One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers are currently focusing on the development of various vaccines against many diseases including AIDS, malaria, dengue and the Shigella bacterium. Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology concerned with the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules--proteins and nucleic acids in particular—and what causes them to have the structures they have. ... Chemistry (derived from the Arabic word kimia, alchemy, where al is Arabic for the) is the science that deals with the properties of organic and inorganic substances and their interactions with other organic and inorganic substances. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Microbiology is the study of microbes or organisms at a micro level. ... Pathogenesis is the mechanism by which a certain etiological factor causes disease (pathos = disease, genesis = development). ... Cell biology (also called cellular biology or cytology, from the Greek kytos, container) is an academic discipline which studies cells. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Virology is the study of viruses and their properties. ... Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. ... Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. ... Neuroscience is a field of study that deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology of the nervous system, divided into the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), and the peripheral nervous system, consisting of the myriad nerve pathways running throughout the body. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... In ecology, the word ecosystem is an abbreviation of the term, ecological system. ... Epidemiology is the scientific study of factors affecting the health and illness of individuals and populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... An iconic image of genetic engineering; this 1986 autoluminograph of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene of the firefly strikingly demonstrates the power and potential of genetic manipulation. ... Binomial name Helicobacter pylori ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that infects the mucus lining of the human stomach. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... Tumor markers are specific substances found in the blood that arise from cancerous tissues. ... HPV is an initialism that can mean : Human Powered Vehicle Human papillomavirus a type of STD High Production Volume Chemicals Health Purchasing Victoria Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. ... Red blood cell infected with Malaria ,derived from mala aria (Italian: bad air) and formerly called ague or marsh fever in English) is an infectious disease which causes about 350-500 million infections with humans and approximately 1. ... For music group see Dengue Fever (rock band) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are acute febrile diseases, found in the tropics, with a geographical spread similar to malaria. ... Species Shigella boydii Shigella dysenteriae Shigella flexneri Shigella sonnei Shigella are Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonsporeforming rod-shaped bacteria. ...


Currently, an extensive line of research aims at determining the complete genome sequences of several organisms of medical importance, in the hope of finding new therapeutic approaches. The Institute has contributed to genome-sequencing projects of the common yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism which was so important for Louis Pasteur's history), completed in 1996, Bacillus subtilis completed in 1997, Mycobacterium tuberculosis completed in 1998. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Yeasts constitute a group of single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Bacillus subtilis Ehrenberg, 1835 Bacillus subtilis is a catalase-positive bacterium that is commonly found in soil, belonging to the genus Bacillus. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zopf, 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ...


Teaching Center

Since its founding, the Pasteur Institute has brought together scientists from many different disciplines for postgraduate study. Today, approximately 300 graduate students and 500 postdoctoral trainees from close to 40 different countries participate in postgraduate study programs at the Institute. They include pharmacists and veterinarians, as well as doctors, chemists and other scientists. Pharmacists are health professionals who practice pharmacy. ... In American and Canadian English, a veterinarian (from Latin veterinae, draught animals) is an animal doctor, a practitioner of veterinary medicine. ...


Epidemiological Reference Center

Strains of bacteria and viruses from many different countries are sent to the Institute's reference center for identification. In addition to maintaining this vital epidemiological resource, the Institute serves as advisor to the French government and the World Health Organization (WHO) of the United Nations. Pasteur scientists also help to monitor epidemics and control outbreaks of infectious diseases throughout the world. These activities have created a close collaboration between the Institute and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). WHO emblem The World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Main article: League of Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... An epidemic is generally a widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ...


Vaccines and Diagnostic Products

Production and marketing of diagnostic tests developed in the Institute laboratories are the responsibility of Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, a subsidiary of the French pharmaceutical firm Sanofi, while production and marketing of vaccines are the responsibility of Pasteur Mérieux, Sérums et Vaccins.


Structure and Support

As a private, non-profit organization, the Pasteur Institute is governed by an independent Board of Directors, currently chaired by Bernard Esambert, vice-president of Groupe Bolloré Technologies and president of Bank Arjil. The Director General of the Pasteur Institute is Alice Dautry.


By drawing financial support from many different sources, the Institute protects its autonomy and guarantees the independence of its scientists. The Institute's funding includes French government subsidies, consulting fees, licensing royalties, contract revenue and private contributions.


External links

  • Pasteur Institute official site
  • Monod, J.: The Pasteur Institute. The Nobel Foundation.

Source

  • Adapted from Pasteur Institute presentation
  • The History of Pasteur Institute

  Results from FactBites:
 
Louis Pasteur (1096 words)
Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822 in Dole, in the region of Jura, France.
Pasteur delivered the fatal blow to the doctrine of spontaneous generation, the theory held for 20 centuries that life could arise spontaneously in organic materials.
Louis Pasteur discovered the method for the attenuation of virulent microorganisms that is the basis of vaccination.
Pasteur Institute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1283 words)
The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines.
The Institut Pasteur was founded in 1887 by Louis Pasteur, the French scientist whose early experiments with fermentation led to pioneering research in bacteriology.
The biggest mistake by the Institute was ignoring a dissertation by Ernest Duchesne on the use of Penicillium glaucum to cure infections in 1897.
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