FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Passover" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Passover
Passover
Passover
Machine-made matzo, the traditional substitute for bread taken on Passover.
Official name Hebrew: פסח (Pesach)
Observed by Jews, Samaritans
Type One of the Three Pilgrim Festivals
Significance Celebrates the Exodus, the freedom from slavery of the Children of Israel from ancient Egypt that followed the Ten Plagues.

Beginning of the 49 days of Counting of the Omer Passover may mean: Passover, one of the 3 Torah / biblical Jewish holidays. ... Moritz Pasch (8 November 1843, Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland) -- 20 September 1930 Bad Homburg, Germany) was a German mathematician specializing in the foundations of geometry. ... Pasch is a German surname. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1776x1136, 492 KB) Summary Photo of machine-made Shmura Matzo eaten during Passover week. ... Machine-made shmura matza Matza (also Matzah (better Matsah) Hebrew , in Ashkenazi matzo or matzoh, and in Yiddish, matze, Greek - Masa, or Massa) is a cracker-like flatbread made of white plain flour, and water. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... The Three Pilgrim Festivals, known as the Shalosh Regalim in Hebrew, are three major festivals in Judaism when the Children of Israel living in ancient Israel and Judea, and later the Jews, were commanded by the Torah to make an actual physical pilgrimage to Jerusalem and participate in the festivities... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Slave redirects here. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Archaeological evidence indicates that a distinct culture was developing in the Nile valley from before 5000 BC. What is now called the Pharaonic Period is dated from around 3100 BC, when Egypt became a unified state, until its survival as an independent state ceased in 332 BC, with its conquest... The book of Exodus (שמות), chapters 7:14 - 12:42, recounts the story of ten plagues (Eser Ha-Makot עשר המכות in Hebrew): 10 disasters, executed against Egypt by God, in order to convince Pharaoh to let the Hebrews go. ... Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ...

Begins 15th day of Nisan
Ends 21st day of Nisan in Israel, and among some liberal Diaspora Jews; 22nd day of Nisan outside of Israel among more traditional Diaspora Jews.
2007 date sunset of April 2 to nightfall of 9 April / 10 April
2008 date sunset of April 19 to nightfall of 26 April / 27 April
Celebrations In Jewish practice, one or two festive Seder meals - first two nights in Ashkenazic tradition, first and seventh nights in Sephardic tradition, only first night for other Jews in modern Israeli tradition; in the times of the Temple in Jerusalem, the Korban Pesach. In Samaritan practice, men gather for a religious ceremony on Mount Gerizim that includes the ancient Passover Sacrifice.
Related to Shavuot ("Festival [of] Weeks") which follows 49 days from the second night of Passover.

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on any of the eight nights of the Jewish holiday of Passover (which begins on the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question about Jewish identity. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim) · Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha · Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah · Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Main article: Mitzvah i know year 11 stella girls are looking at this right. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic diversity
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Language(s) Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Arabs, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · USA · Russia/USSR · Iraq · Spain · Portugal · Poland · Germany · Bosnia · Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Venezuela)  · France · England · Canada · Australia · Hungary · India · Turkey · Africa · Iran · China
Republic of Macedonia · Romania
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... The Jewish community of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a rich and varied history, surviving World War II, Communism and the Yugoslav Wars, after having been been born as a result of the Spanish Inquisition, and having been almost destroyed by the Holocaust. ... For a list of individuals of Jewish origin by country in Latin America, see List of Latin American Jews. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... African Jew has a variety of meanings: Scattered African groups who have not historically been part of the international Jewish community, but who claim ancestry to ancient Israel or other connections to Judaism and who practice Jewish rituals or those bearing resemblance to Judaism. ... The history of Jews in the territory of the present-day Republic of Macedonia began in Roman times, when Jews first arrived in the region in the first century BC. Today, no more than 200 Jews reside in the Republic of Macedonia, almost all in the capital, Skopje. ... List of Jewish historians List of Jewish scientists and philosophers List of Jewish nobility List of Jewish inventors List of Jewish jurists List of Jews in literature and journalism List of Jews in the performing arts List of Jewish actors and actresses List of Jewish musicians List of Jews in... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform · Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite · Humanistic · Renewal  · Alternative Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian · Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile · Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline) · Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms · Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars · Relationship with Christianity; with Islam · Diaspora · Middle Ages · Sabbateans · Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation · Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History) · Arab conflict · Land of Israel · Baal teshuva Jewish history is the history of the Jewish people, faith, and culture. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... Baal teshuva movement (return [to Judaism] movement) refers to a worldwide phenomenon among the Jewish people. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
History of antisemitism · New antisemitism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism · Religious Zionism · General Zionism · The Bund · World Agudath Israel · Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

v  d  e

Passover (Hebrew, Yiddish: פֶּסַח, Pesach, Tiberian: pɛsaħ, Israeli: Pesah, Pesakh) is a Jewish and Samaritan holy day and festival commemorating the Exodus from Egypt and the liberation of the Israelites from slavery. It is also known as Festival of the Unleavened Bread (חַג הַמַּצּוֹת, ħaɣ ham:asʕ:oθ, "Chag/Khag Hamatzot/s"). [1] Hebrew redirects here. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Passover begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan, the first month of the Hebrew calendar, in accordance with the Hebrew Bible.[2] The Exodus of the Jews from Egypt took place in the spring and so Passover is celebrated in the spring for seven or eight days. Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...


In the story of Moses, God set ten plagues upon the Egyptians to convince Pharaoh to release the Israelites. The tenth plague was the killing of the firstborn sons. However, the Israelites were instructed to mark the doorposts of their homes with the blood of a spring lamb, and upon seeing this, the spirit of the Lord passed over these homes, hence the term "passover".[3] When Pharaoh then freed the Israelites, it is said that they left in such a hurry that they could not wait for bread to rise. In commemoration, for the duration of Passover, no leavened bread is eaten, for which reason it is also called "The Festival of the Unleavened Bread" [4]. Instead, matzah is eaten, and is the primary symbol of the holiday.[5] Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The book of Exodus (שמות), chapters 7:14 - 12:42, recounts the story of ten plagues (Eser Ha-Makot עשר המכות in Hebrew): 10 disasters, executed against Egypt by God, in order to convince Pharaoh to let the Hebrews go. ... Leaven is a raising agent for bread. ... Matza (also Matzoh, Matzah, Matzo, Hebrew מַצָּה maṣṣā), an unleavened bread, is the official food of Passover. ...


Together with Sukkot ("Tabernacles") and Shavuot ("Pentecost"), Passover is one of the three pilgrim festivals (Shloshet Ha'Regalim) during which the entire Jewish populace historically made a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem. Samaritans still make this pilgrimage to Mount Gerizim, but only men participate in public worship. Sukkot (Hebrew:  ; booths. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... The Three Pilgrim Festivals, known as the Shalosh Regalim in Hebrew, are three major festivals in Judaism when the Children of Israel living in ancient Israel and Judea, and later the Jews, were commanded by the Torah to make an actual physical pilgrimage to Jerusalem and participate in the festivities... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...

Contents

Date in the spring and length

Passover begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan, the first month of the Hebrew calendar, in accordance with the Hebrew Bible.[6] The Exodus of the Jews from Egypt took place in the spring and so Passover must be celebrated in the spring. One of the secondary names of Passover חג האביב, Chag Ha'aviv, translated as "Holiday of the Spring." As the Torah demands that Passover occur in the springtime, it is imperative that the shorter lunar calendar that is used to calculate the Jewish months be synchronized with the longer solar calendar that defines the seasons to prevent Passover from shifting into the winter. To prevent this, a method of intercalating the two calendars was devised, known as מחזור קטן, Machzor Katan, "Small Count," by which an extra month is added to make seven leap years every nineteen years. The extra month is a doubling of the month of Adar, the month prior to Nissan in which Passover takes place. [7] Nisan (Hebrew: נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān ; from Akkadian , from Sumerian nisag First fruits) is the first month of the civil year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ...


In Israel, Passover is a seven-day holiday, with the first and last days observed as legal holidays and as holy days involving abstention from work, special prayer services, and holiday meals; the intervening days are known as Chol HaMoed ("festival days"). While modern Israeli Jews observe a seven-day holiday wherever they are, Diaspora Jews historically observed the festival for eight days, and most still do—the exceptions usually being found among Reform and Reconstructionst Jews. The reason for this extra day is not known. It is thought by many scholars that Jews outside of Israel could not be certain if their local calendars fully conformed to practice of the temple at Jerusalem, so they added an extra day. But as this practice only attaches to certain (major) holy days, others posit the extra day may have been added to accommodate people who had to travel long distances to participate in communal worship and ritual practices; or the practice may have evolved as a compromise between conflicting interpretations of Jewish Law regarding the calendar; or it may have evolved as a safety measure in areas where Jews were commonly in danger, so that their enemies could not be certain on which day to attack.[8] Chol HaMoed is a Hebrew phrase which means weekdays of the festival and refers to the intermediate days of one of the following Jewish Holidays: Passover, or Sukkot During Chol HaMoed the usual Yom Tov restrictions are relaxed, but not entirely eliminated. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ...


Origins of the festival

See also: The Exodus

Passover is a biblically-mandated holiday, in which Jews are commanded to recount the story of The Exodus (Deuteronomy 16:3 "that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life,"[9], also 16:12, "And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt; and thou shalt observe and do these statutes"[10]) to eat matzah and maror and to abstain from eating chametz. Exodus 12:14 commands, in reference to God's sparing of the firstborn from the Tenth Plague, "And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD; throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever. Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; howbeit the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. And in the first day there shall be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convocation; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done by you. And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; therefore shall ye observe this day throughout your generations by an ordinance for ever. In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a sojourner, or one that is born in the land. 20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.'[11] The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... Matza (also Matzoh, Matzah, Matzo, Hebrew מַצָּה maṣṣā), an unleavened bread, is the official food of Passover. ... Maror are traditionally Jewish bitter herbs eaten on Passover, symbolizing the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. ... Chametz or Chometz (חמץ) is the Hebrew term for leavened bread. The word is used generally in regard to the Jewish holiday of Passover. ... The book of Exodus (שמות), chapters 7:14 - 12:42, recounts the story of ten plagues (Eser Ha-Makot עשר המכות in Hebrew): 10 disasters, executed against Egypt by God, in order to convince Pharaoh to let the Hebrews go. ...


Leviticus 23:5-8 states, "In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at dusk, is the LORD'S passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD; seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread. In the first day ye shall have a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work. And ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD seven days; in the seventh day is a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work."[12]


Origin of the name

"The Jews' Passover"—facsimile of a miniature from a 15th century missal, ornamented with paintings of the School of Van Eyck
"The Jews' Passover"—facsimile of a miniature from a 15th century missal, ornamented with paintings of the School of Van Eyck

The verb "pasàch" (Hebrew: פָּסַח) is first mentioned in the Torah account of the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12:23), and there is some debate about its exact meaning: the commonly-held assumption that it means "He passed over", in reference to God "passing over" the houses of the Israelites during the final plague of the Ten Plagues of Egypt, stems from the translation provided in the Septuagint (παρελευσεται in Exodus 12:23, and εσκεπασεν in Exodus 12:27). Judging from other instances of the verb, and instances of parallelism, a more faithful translation may be "he hovered over, guarding." Indeed, this is the image used by Isaiah by his use of this verb in Isaiah. 31:5: "As birds hovering, so will the Lord of hosts protect Jerusalem; He will deliver it as He protecteth it, He will rescue it as He passeth over" (כְּצִפֳּרִים עָפוֹת--כֵּן יָגֵן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת, עַל-יְרוּשָׁלִָם; גָּנוֹן וְהִצִּיל, פָּסֹחַ וְהִמְלִיט.) (Isaiah 31:5) Download high resolution version (1765x2254, 470 KB)Based on Image:The Jews Passover. ... Download high resolution version (1765x2254, 470 KB)Based on Image:The Jews Passover. ... The Missal, by John William Waterhouse Missal, in the Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: ), the Biblical Plagues or the Ten Plagues (Hebrew: ) are the ten calamities foisted upon Egypt by God in the Bible (as recounted in the book of Exodus, chapters 7 - 12), in order to convince Pharaoh[1] to let the Israelite slaves go. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... Parallelism means to give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ...


The English term "Passover" came into the English language through William Tyndale's translation of the Bible, and later appeared in the King James Version as well. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ...


The term Pesach (Hebrew: פֶּסַח) may also refer to the lamb or kid which was designated as the Passover sacrifice (called the Korban Pesach in Hebrew). Four days before the Exodus, the Israelites were commanded to set aside a lamb or kid (Exodus 12:3) and inspect it daily for blemishes. During the day on the 14th of Nisan, they were to slaughter the animal and use its blood to mark their lintels and door posts. Up until midnight on the 15th of Nisan, they were to consume the lamb. Each family (or group of families) gathered together to eat a meal that included the meat of the Korban Pesach while the Tenth Plague ravaged Egypt. Hebrew redirects here. ... Sheep redirects here. ... For other uses of the term, see goat (disambiguation). ... Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


In subsequent years, during the existence of the Tabernacle and later the Temple in Jerusalem, the Korban Pesach was eaten during the Passover Seder on the 15th of Nisan. However, following the destruction of the Temple, no sacrifices may be offered or eaten. The story of the Korban Pesach is therefore retold at the Passover Seder, and the symbolic food which represents it on the Seder Plate is usually a roasted lamb shankbone, chicken wing, or chicken neck. The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on any of the eight nights of the Jewish holiday of Passover (which begins on the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... Traditional arrangement of items on the Passover Seder Plate. ...


Historic offering, "Korban Pesach"

Main article: Korban Pesach

When the Temple in Jerusalem was standing, the focus of the Passover festival was the Korban Pesach (lit. "Pesach sacrifice," also known as the "Paschal Lamb"). Every family large enough to completely consume a young lamb or Wild Goat was required to offer one for sacrifice at the Jewish Temple on the afternoon of the 14th day of Nisan[13], and eat it that night, which was the 15th of Nisan [14]. If the family was too small to finish eating the entire offering in one sitting, an offering was made for a group of families. The offering could not be slaughtered while one was in possession of leaven [15], and had to be roasted [16] and eaten together with matzo (unleavened bread) and maror (bitter herbs) [17]. One had to be careful not to break any bones from the offering [18], and none of the meat could be left over by morning. [19] Korban Pesach (Hebrew: קרבן פסח sacrifice [of] Passover) also known as the Paschal Lamb, is the Korban God commanded the Children of Israel to offer during the night before the Exodus from Egypt,and which they ate with special ceremonies according to divine direction. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Binomial name Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Subspecies Capra aegagrus aegagrus Capra aegagrus blythi Capra aegagrus chialtanensis Capra aegagrus cretica Capra aegagrus hircus Capra aegagrus turcmenica The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a common type of goat species, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to central Asia and... Machine-made shmura matza Matza (also Matzah (better Matsah) Hebrew , in Ashkenazi matzo or matzoh, and in Yiddish, matze, Greek - Masa, or Massa) is a cracker-like flatbread made of white plain flour, and water. ... Maror are traditionally Jewish bitter herbs eaten on Passover, symbolizing the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. ...


Because of the Korban Pesach's status as a sacred offering, the only people allowed to eat it were those who have the obligation to bring the offering. Among those who can not offer or eat the Korban Pesach are: An apostate (Exodus 12:43), a servant (Exodus 12:45), an uncircumcised man (Exodus 12:48), a person in a state of ritual impurity, except when a majority of Jews are in such a state (Pesahim 66b). The offering must be made before a quorum of 30 (Pesahim 64b). In the Temple, the Levites sing Hallel while the Kohanim perform the sacrificial service. Men and women are equally obligated regarding the Korban Pesach (Pesahim 91b). Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... Brit milah (Hebrew: [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant of circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish boys into a covenant between God and the Children of Israel through ritual circumcision performed by a... Tohorot (The Order of Purities) is the sixth order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud). ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לוי Attached, Standard Hebrew Levi, Tiberian Hebrew Lēwî) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Cohen (disambiguation) Position of the kohens hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, priest, pl. ... Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ...


Women were obligated, as men, to perform the Korban Pesach and to participate in a Seder.


Today, in the absence of the Temple, the mitzvah of the Korban Pesach is memorialized in the form of a symbolic food placed on the Passover Seder Plate, which is usually a roasted shankbone. Many Sephardic Jews, however, have the opposite custom of eating lamb or goat meat during the Seder in memory of the Korban Pesach. This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Traditional arrangement of items on the Passover Seder Plate. ... The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from...


Modern observance and preparation

Many Jews observe the positive Torah commandment of eating matzo on the first night of Passover at the Passover Seder, as well as the Torah prohibition against eating chametz - certain leavening and fermenting agents, and things made with them, such as yeast breads, certain types of cake and biscuit, and certain alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages—but wine is an essential component of Passover, notwithstanding it is a fermented, yeast-bearing beverage. Karaite Jews are not bound by the oral law, under which "chametz" includes not only leavening agents but the grains from which bread is commonly made. Specifically, five grains, and products made from them, may not be used during Passover—wheat, rye, barley, oats, and spelt—except for making matzo, which must be made from one of these five grains. This is because the oral law decrees they begin to ferment within eighteen minutes of contact with water. So, despite pasta not being a leavened product, macaroni products cannot be owned or used during Passover under this interpretation of Jewish Law. Ashkenazic rabbinical tradition also forbids the use of rice, most legumes and new world grains like maize (unknown to the old world when the Bible was written), because they might be made into bread (such as cornbread). Sephardic and other rabbinical traditions do not have this prohibition. Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on any of the eight nights of the Jewish holiday of Passover (which begins on the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... Chametz or Chometz (חמץ) is the Hebrew term for leavened bread. The word is used generally in regard to the Jewish holiday of Passover. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...


Chametz

Main article: Chametz

Chametz (חמץ, "leavening") refers either to a grain product that is already fermented (e.g. yeast breads, certain types of cake, and most alcoholic beverages) or a substance that can cause fermentation (e.g. yeast or sourdough). The specific definition varies between religious and ethno-cultural traditions. The consumption of chametz and, under the oral law, its possession, are forbidden during Passover in most Jewish traditions. Chametz or Chometz (חמץ) is the Hebrew term for leavened bread. The word is used generally in regard to the Jewish holiday of Passover. ... Fermentation in progress Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Sourdough starter made with flour and water refreshed for 3 or more days Sourdough (or, more formally, natural leaven or levain) refers to the process of leavening bread by capturing wild yeasts in a dough or batter, as opposed to using a domestic, purpose-cultured yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...


In Ashkenazic and certain Sephardic applications of Jewish Law, "chametz" does not include baking soda, baking powder or like products. Although these are leavening agents, they leaven by chemical reaction whereas the prohibition against chametz is understood to apply only to fermentation. Thus, bagels, waffles and pancakes made with baking soda and matzo meal are considered permissible, while bagels made with yeast, sourdough pancakes and waffles, and the like, are prohibited. Karaite Jews and many non-Ashkenazic Jewish traditions do not observe a distinction between chemical leavening and leavening by fermentation. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ... [[Image:PIPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPEPbe caused by ingredients like buttermilk, lemon, yoghurt, citrus, or honey. ...


The Torah commandments regarding chametz are:

  • To remove all chametz from one's home, including things made with chametz, before the first day of Passover. (Exodus 12:15). It may be simply used up, thrown out (historically, destroyed by burning, since there was no weekly garbage pickup in ancient times), or given or sold to non-Jews (or non-Samaritans, as the case may be).
  • To refrain from eating chametz or mixtures containing chametz during Passover. (Exodus 13:3, Exodus 12:20, Deuteronomy 16:3).
  • Not to possess chametz in one's domain (i.e. home, office, car, etc.) during Passover (Exodus 12:19, Deuteronomy 16:4).

Spring Mega-Cleaning

Observant Jews typically spend the weeks before Passover in a flurry of thorough housecleaning, to remove every morsel of chametz from every part of the home. The oral Jewish law (Halakha) requires the elimination of olive-sized or larger quantities of leavening from one's possession, but most housekeeping goes beyond this. Even the cracks of kitchen counters are thoroughly scrubbed, for example, to remove any traces of flour and yeast, however small. Chametz or Chometz (חמץ) is the Hebrew term for leavened bread. The word is used generally in regard to the Jewish holiday of Passover. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ...


Traditionally, Jews do a formal search for remaining chametz ("bedikat chametz") after nightfall on the evening before Passover (which is also the evening that precedes the Fast of the Firstborn). A blessing is read (על ביעור חמץ - al biyur chametz, "on the removal of chametz") and one or more members of the household proceed from room to room to ensure no crumbs remain in any corner. In very traditional families, the search may be conducted by the head of the household; in more modern families, the children may be the ones who do the search, under the careful supervision of their parents.


It is customary to turn off the lights and conduct the search by candlelight, using a feather and a wooden spoon: candlelight effectively illuminates corners without casting shadows; the feather can dust crumbs out of their hiding places; and the wooden spoon which collects the crumbs can be burned the next day with the chametz. For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ...


Because the house is assumed to have been thoroughly cleaned by the night before Passover, there is some concern that making a blessing over the search for chametz will be for nought ("bracha l'vatala") if nothing is found. Thus, ten pieces of bread smaller than the size of an olive are hidden throughout the house in order to ensure that there is chametz to be found.


Sale of Chametz

Chametz may be sold rather than discarded, especially in the case of relatively valuable forms such as liquor distilled from wheat, with the products being re-purchased afterward. In some cases, they may never leave the house, instead being formally sold while remaining in the original owners possession in a locked cabinet until they can be repurchased after the holiday. Although this practice dates back many years, some contemporary rabbinical authorities have come to regard it with disdain - since the supposed "new owner" never takes actual possession of the goods. Spirits redirects here. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate...


The sale of chametz may also be conducted communally via the rabbi, who becomes the "agent" for all the community's Jews through a halakhic procedure called a "kinyan" (acquisition). Each householder must put aside all the chametz he is selling into a box or cupboard, and the rabbi enters into a contract to sell all the chametz to a non-Jewish person (who is not obligated to observe the commandments) in exchange for a small down payment (e.g. $1.00), with the remainder due after Passover. This sale is considered completely binding according to Halakha, and at any time during the holiday, the buyer may come to take or partake of his property. The rabbi then re-purchases the goods for less than they were sold at the end of the holiday.[20] For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... The term down payment is used in the context of buying large expensive items like cars and houses, whereby a loan is required to make the full payment. ...


Observant Jewish store owners who stock leavened food products sell everything in their storeroom in this fashion with the full knowledge that the new owner is entitled to claim the property. In Eastern European shtetls, Jewish tavernkeepers, would sell their alcoholic chametz and risk having their neighbors enter their cellars to drink the liquor.[citation needed] Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A shtetl (Yiddish: , diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט, town, pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutiveStädtle, little town) was typically a small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Wine cellar is a storage room for wine in bottles or barrels, or more rarely in carboys, amphoras or plastic containers. ...


Burning

Following the formal search for chametz, any leavened products that were found during the search, along with 10 morsels of bread, are burned (s'rayfat chametz). The head of the household declares any chametz that may not have been found to be null and void "as the dust of the earth" (biyur chametz). Should more chametz actually be found in the house during the Passover holiday, it must be burnt.


Unlike chametz, which can be eaten any day of the year except during Passover, kosher for Passover foodstuffs can be eaten on Passover and year-round. They need not be burnt or otherwise discarded after the holiday ends. The sole exception is the historic sacrificial lamb, which is almost never part of the modern Jewish holiday but is still a principal feature of Samaritan observance. The meat of this lamb, which is slaughtered and cooked on the evening of Passover, must be completely consumed before the morning. {Exodus 12:15)


Matzo

Commandments and symbolism

Main article: Matzo
Machine-made matzo, the "official" food of Passover
Machine-made matzo, the "official" food of Passover

The Torah contains a divine commandment to eat matzo on the first night of Passover and to eat only unleavened bread (i.e. matzo) during the week of Passover.[21] Accordingly, the eating of matzo figures prominently in the Passover Seder. There are several explanations for this. Machine-made shmura matza Matza (also Matzah (better Matsah) Hebrew , in Ashkenazi matzo or matzoh, and in Yiddish, matze, Greek - Masa, or Massa) is a cracker-like flatbread made of white plain flour, and water. ... taken by User:Haham hanuka File links The following pages link to this file: Matzo Passover Categories: GFDL images ... taken by User:Haham hanuka File links The following pages link to this file: Matzo Passover Categories: GFDL images ... Machine-made shmura matza Matza (also Matzah (better Matsah) Hebrew , in Ashkenazi matzo or matzoh, and in Yiddish, matze, Greek - Masa, or Massa) is a cracker-like flatbread made of white plain flour, and water. ... Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on any of the eight nights of the Jewish holiday of Passover (which begins on the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ...


The Torah says that it is because the Hebrews left Egypt with such haste that there was no time to allow baked bread to rise; thus, flat bread, matzo, is a reminder of the rapid departure of the Exodus.[22]. Other scholars teach that in the time of the Exodus, matzo was commonly baked for the purpose of traveling because it preserved well and was light to carry, suggesting that matzo was baked intentionally for the long journey ahead.


Matzo has also been called Lechem Oni (Hebrew: "poor man's bread"). There is an attendant explanation that matzo serves as a symbol to remind Jews what it is like to be a poor slave and to promote humility, appreciate freedom, and avoid the inflated ego symbolized by leavened bread.[23].


Matzo baking

Handmade shmura matzo
Handmade shmura matzo

In the weeks before Passover, matzos are prepared for holiday consumption. In Orthodox Jewish communities, men traditionally gather in groups ("chaburas") to bake a special version of handmade matzo called "shmura matzo", or "guarded matzo", for use at the Seder. These are made from wheat that is guarded from contamination by chametz from the time of summer harvest to its baking into matzos five to ten months later.[24] Shmura matzo dough is rolled by hand, resulting in a large and round matzo. Chaburas also work together in machine-made matzo factories, which produce the typically square-shaped matzo sold in stores. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1772x1124, 556 KB) Summary Photo of handmade Shmura Matzo used at Passover seder. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1772x1124, 556 KB) Summary Photo of handmade Shmura Matzo used at Passover seder. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The baking of shmura matzo is labor-intensive, as only 18-22 minutes is permitted between the mixing of flour and water to the conclusion of baking and removal from the oven; however, most are completed by 5 minutes after first being kneaded.[25] Consequently, only a small amount of matzos can be baked at one time, and the chabura members are enjoined to work the dough constantly so that it is not allowed to ferment and rise. A special cutting tool is run over the dough just before baking to keep the matzos flat while baking; this creates the familiar dotted holes in the matzo.


After the matzos come out of the oven, the entire work area is scrubbed down and swept to make sure that no pieces of old, potentially leavened dough remain, as any stray pieces are now chametz, and can contaminate the next batch of matzo.


Passover dishware

Due to the strict separation between matzo products and chametz during Passover, observant families typically own complete sets of serving dishes, glassware and silverware that are reserved for use only during Passover. Under certain circumstances, some chametz utensils can be immersed in boiling water (hagalat keilim) to purge them of any traces of chametz they have accumulated throughout the year. Many Sephardic families thoroughly wash their year-round glassware and then use it for Passover, as the Sephardic position is that glass does not absorb enough traces of food to present a problem. In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... This article is about the material. ...


Fasting

Main article: Fast of the firstborn

On the morning before Passover, the fast of the firstborn takes place. This fast commemorates the salvation of the Israelite firstborns during the Plague of the Firstborn (according to the Book of Exodus, the tenth of ten plagues wrought upon ancient Egypt prior to the Exodus of the Children of Israel), when, according to Exodus (12:29): "...God struck every firstborn in the Land of Mitzrayim (ancient Egypt)...." Many authorities, including the Rema, note the custom that fathers of firstborn sons are required to observe the fast if their son has not yet reached the age of Bar Mitzvah. In practice, however, most firstborns only fast until the end of the morning prayer service in synagogue. This is due to the widespread custom for a member of the congregation to conduct a siyum (ceremony marking the completion of a section of Torah learning) right after services and invite everyone to partake in a celebratory meal. According to widespread custom, partaking of this meal removes one's obligation to fast. If the first born is a boy in a Jewish family, that boy will have to fast after he has his Bar Mitzva. Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ... Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ... The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: ), the Biblical Plagues or the Ten Plagues (Hebrew: ) are the ten calamities foisted upon Egypt by God in the Bible (as recounted in the book of Exodus, chapters 7 - 12), in order to convince Pharaoh[1] to let the Israelite slaves go. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Moses Isserles Moses Isserles (or Moshe Isserlis) (1530 - 1572), was a Rabbi and Talmudist, renowned for his fundamental work of Halakha (Jewish law), entitled HaMapah (lit. ... When a Jewish child reaches the age of maturity (12 years and one day for girls, 13 years and one day for boys) that child becomes responsible for him/herself under Jewish law; at this point a boy is said to become Bar Mitzvah (בר מצווה, son of the commandment... A siyum (completion) in Judaism is the completion of any unit of Torah study, or book of the Mishnah or Talmud. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ...


The Passover Seder

Main article: Passover Seder
Table set for the Passover Seder
Table set for the Passover Seder
It is traditional for a Jewish family to gather on the first night of Passover (first two nights outside the land of Israel) for a special dinner called a Seder (סדר—derived from the Hebrew word for "order", referring to the very specific order of the ritual). The table is set with the finest china and silverware to reflect the importance of this meal. During this meal, the story of the Exodus from Egypt is retold using a special text called the Haggadah. Four cups of wine are consumed at various stages in the narrative. The Haggadah divides the night's procedure into these 14 parts:
  1. Kadeish קדש (Recital of Kiddush blessing and drinking of the First Cup of Wine)
  2. Urchatz ורחץ (The washing of the hands - sans blessing)
  3. Karpas כרפס (Dipping of the Karpas in salt water)
  4. Yachatz יחץ (Breaking the middle matzo; the larger piece becomes the afikoman which is eaten later during the ritual of Tzafun)
  5. Maggid מגיד (Retelling the Passover story, including the recital of the "Four Questions" and drinking of the Second Cup of Wine)
  6. Rachtzah רחצה (Second washing of the hands - with blessing)
  7. Motzi-Matzo מוציא-מצה (Traditional blessing before eating bread products followed by the Blessing before eating matzo)
  8. Maror מרור (Eating of the maror)
  9. Koreich כורך (Eating of a sandwich made of matzo and maror)
  10. Shulchan Oreich שולחן עורך (lit. "set table"—the serving of the holiday meal)
  11. Tzafun צפון (Eating of the afikoman)
  12. Bareich ברך (Blessing after the meal and drinking of the Third Cup of Wine)
  13. Hallel הלל (Recital of the Hallel, traditionally recited on festivals; drinking of the Fourth Cup of Wine)
  14. Nirtzah נירצה (Conclusion)
Bronze matzo plate inscribed ""Ha Lachma Anya" ("This is the bread of affliction that our ancestors ate in Egypt,") the opening words of the "Maggid" (Retelling). Design: Maurice Ascalon.
Bronze matzo plate inscribed ""Ha Lachma Anya" ("This is the bread of affliction that our ancestors ate in Egypt,") the opening words of the "Maggid" (Retelling). Design: Maurice Ascalon.

The Seder is replete with questions, answers, and unusual practices (e.g. the recital of Kiddush which is not immediately followed by the blessing over bread, which is the traditional procedure for all other holiday meals) to arouse the interest and curiosity of the children at the table. The children are also rewarded with nuts and candies when they ask questions and participate in the discussion of the Exodus and its aftermath. Likewise, they are encouraged to search for the afikoman, the piece of matzo which is the last thing eaten at the Seder. The child or children who discover the hiding place of the afikoman are rewarded with a prize or money. Audience participation and interaction is the rule, and many families' Seders last long into the night with animated discussions and much singing. The Seder concludes with additional songs of praise and faith printed in the Haggadah, including Chad Gadya ("One Kid Goat"). Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on any of the eight nights of the Jewish holiday of Passover (which begins on the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (560 × 747 pixels, file size: 402 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo by Gila Brand. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (560 × 747 pixels, file size: 402 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photo by Gila Brand. ... Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on any of the eight nights of the Jewish holiday of Passover (which begins on the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Haggadah for Passover, 14th century Haggadah in Hebrew means Telling. ... Shabbat, or Shabbos (Ashkenazic pronunciation) (שבת shabbāṯ, rest), is a day of rest that is observed once a week, from sundown on Friday until nightfall on Saturday, by practitioners of Judaism, as well as by many secular Jews. ... Karpas is one of the traditional rituals in the Passover Seder. ... Afikoman (Hebrew language: אפיקומן, based on Greek, epikomen or epikomion, meaning that which comes after or dessert) is a piece of matzo which is hidden at the start of the Passover Seder and is eaten at the end of the festive meal. ... The Four Questions refers to the questions asked during the Passover seder. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Machine-made shmura matza Matza (also Matzah (better Matsah) Hebrew , in Ashkenazi matzo or matzoh, and in Yiddish, matze, Greek - Masa, or Massa) is a cracker-like flatbread made of white plain flour, and water. ... Maror are traditionally Jewish bitter herbs eaten on Passover, symbolizing the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. ... Afikoman (Hebrew language: אפיקומן, based on Greek, epikomen or epikomion, meaning that which comes after or dessert) is a piece of matzo which is hidden at the start of the Passover Seder and is eaten at the end of the festive meal. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Image File history File links Maurice_Ascalon_Pal-Bell_Seder_Plate. ... Image File history File links Maurice_Ascalon_Pal-Bell_Seder_Plate. ... Machine-made shmura matza Matza (also Matzah (better Matsah) Hebrew , in Ashkenazi matzo or matzoh, and in Yiddish, matze, Greek - Masa, or Massa) is a cracker-like flatbread made of white plain flour, and water. ... Maurice Ascalon at the Castello Sforzesco in Milan, Italy circa 1934 Maurice Ascalon hammering The Scholar, The Laborer, and The Toiler of the Soil for the 1939 New York Worlds Fair Maurice Ascalons The Scholar, The Laborer, and The Toiler of the Soil copper relief sculpture. ... Shabbat, or Shabbos (Ashkenazic pronunciation) (שבת shabbāṯ, rest), is a day of rest that is observed once a week, from sundown on Friday until nightfall on Saturday, by practitioners of Judaism, as well as by many secular Jews. ... Afikoman (Hebrew language: אפיקומן, based on Greek, epikomen or epikomion, meaning that which comes after or dessert) is a piece of matzo which is hidden at the start of the Passover Seder and is eaten at the end of the festive meal. ... Main article: Passover songs Chad Gadya (Aramaic: חַד גַדְיָה) is a playful cumulative song, written in Aramaic with Hebrew words interspersed. ...

Maror

Main article: Maror
Maror, one disallowed type and two acceptable kinds (L to R): "chrein" (Yiddish)- grated horseradish with cooked beets and sugar, not acceptable maror due to its sweetness; romaine lettuce; and whole horseradish root, often served grated.
Maror, one disallowed type and two acceptable kinds (L to R): "chrein" (Yiddish)- grated horseradish with cooked beets and sugar, not acceptable maror due to its sweetness; romaine lettuce; and whole horseradish root, often served grated.

A commandment to eat Maror, bitter herbs (typically, horseradish or romaine lettuce), together with matzo and the Passover sacrifice Exodus 12:8. In the absence of the Temple, Jews cannot bring the Passover sacrifice. This commandment is fulfilled today by the eating of Maror both by itself and together with matzo in a Koreich-sandwich during the Passover Seder. Maror are traditionally Jewish bitter herbs eaten on Passover, symbolizing the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1772x1132, 371 KB) Summary Photo of 3 types of maror used at the Passover seder. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1772x1132, 371 KB) Summary Photo of 3 types of maror used at the Passover seder. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Maror are traditionally Jewish bitter herbs eaten on Passover, symbolizing the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. ... Romaine lettuce Romaine or Cos lettuce (often called simply Romaine or Cos) (Lactuca sativa L. var. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Romaine lettuce Romaine or Cos lettuce (often called simply Romaine or Cos) (Lactuca sativa L. var. ... Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...

Recounting the Exodus

On the first night of Passover (first two nights outside Israel), a Jew must recount the story of the Exodus from Egypt. This commandment is performed during the Passover Seder. The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ...


The Four Cups of wine

There is a Rabbinic obligation to drink four cups of wine (or grape juice) during the Seder. This applies to both men and women. The Mishnah says (Pes. 10:1) that even the poorest man in Israel has an obligation to drink. Each cup is connected to a different part of the Seder: The First Cup is for Kiddush, the Second Cup is connected with the recounting of the Exodus, the drinking of the Third Cup concludes Birkat Hamazon and the Fourth Cup is associated with Hallel. The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... Birkat Hamazon (ברכת המזון), known in English as the Grace After Meals (lit. ...


Children in Passover

Children have a very important role in the Passover Seder. Traditionally the youngest child is prompted to ask questions about the Passover Seder. The questions encourage the gathering to discuss the significance of the symbols in the meal. The questions asked by the child are: Why is this night different from all other nights? Why tonight do we eat only unleavened bread? Why tonight do we eat bitter herbs? Why tonight do we dip them twice? Why tonight do we all recline? Often the leader of the Seder and the other adults at the meal will use prompted responses from the Haggadha, which begin, “We must obey the command to talk about the Exodus from Egypt. The more one talks about it the more praiseworthy it is.” Many readings, prayers, and stories are used to recount the story of the Exodus. Many households add their own commentary and interpretation and often the story of the Jews is related to theme of liberation and its implications worldwide. Originally the Seder meal was eaten before the questions were asked, but today most families recount the story of the Exodus before the meal.


The afikoman is another part of the Seder meal that is used to engage children at Passover. In the beginning to the meal, the Leader takes the second piece of matzah and breaks it. The larger portion is put away as afikoman, which will be the last piece of food eaten during the evening as a reminder of the paschal sacrifice. Traditions vary in different areas, but in many homes, the afikoman is hidden and at a certain point in the meal, Zafun, children will be sent to search for the afikoman with an offer of a reward. This encourages children to stay awake for the whole Seder. Afikoman (Hebrew language: אפיקומן, based on Greek, epikomen or epikomion, meaning that which comes after or dessert) is a piece of matzo which is hidden at the start of the Passover Seder and is eaten at the end of the festive meal. ...


In some communities, such as the Ashkenazi, the children try during the meal to “steal” the afikoman from the leader of the Seder. The leader will hide the afikoman from the children. If the children are able to steal the afikoman, they will offer it back with a “ransom” of presents. They are promised the presents after the Seder, again being encouraged to stay awake for the whole celebration.


After the Hallel, the fourth glass of wine the hymn is recited that ends in “Next year in Jerusalem!” Following this, a sing-a-long ensues that consists of many cheerful and fun Hebrew songs. This part of the celebration is a reward for children who have stayed awake through the whole Seder. [26][27]


Holiday week and related celebrations

In Israel, Passover lasts for seven days with the first and last days being major holidays. In Orthodox and Conservative communities, no work is performed and most of the observances of Shabbat are adhered to on the first and last days. A seder is held on the first day. Jewish holiday, (or Yom Tom or chag or taanit in Hebrew) is a day that is holy to the Jewish people according to Judaism and is usually derived from the Hebrew Bible, specifically the Torah, and in some cases established by the rabbis in later eras. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ...


Outside Israel, in Orthodox and Conservative communities, the holiday lasts for eight days with the first two days and last two days being major holidays. A seder is conducted twice, on both the first and second days. In the intermediate days necessary work can be performed. Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ...


Like the holiday of Sukkot, the intermediary days of Passover are known as Chol HaMoed (festival weekdays) and are imbued with a semi-festive status. It is a time for family outings and picnic lunches of matzo, hardboiled eggs, fruits and vegetables, and Passover treats such as macaroons and homemade candies. Sukkot (Hebrew:  ; booths. ... Chol HaMoed is a Hebrew phrase which means weekdays of the festival and refers to the intermediate days of one of the following Jewish Holidays: Passover, or Sukkot During Chol HaMoed the usual Yom Tov restrictions are relaxed, but not entirely eliminated. ... A macaroon is a flourless cookie made from ground nuts such as almond or coconut and leavened with egg whites. ...


The prohibition against eating leavened food products and regular flour during Passover results in the increased consumption of potatoes, eggs and oil in addition to fresh milk and cheeses, fresh meat and chicken, and fresh fruit and vegetables. To make a "Passover cake," recipes call for potato starch or "Passover cake flour" (made from finely granulated matzo) instead of regular flour, and a large amount of eggs (8 and over) to achieve fluffiness. Cookie recipes use matzo farfel (broken bits of matzo) or ground nuts as the base. For families with Eastern European backgrounds, borsht, a soup made with beets, is a Passover tradition. Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Matzo farfel is made of broken pieces of matzo (unleavend bread eaten on Passover). ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Potato, cabbage, and beet borscht. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ...


Some hotels, resorts, and even cruise ships across America, Europe and Israel also undergo a thorough housecleaning and import of Passover foodstuffs to make their premises "kosher for Pesach", with the goal of attracting families for a week-long vacation. Besides their regular accommodations and on-site recreational facilities, these hotels assemble a package of lectures given by a "rabbi in residence," children's activities, and tours to entertain Passover guests. Each meal is a demonstration of the chefs' talents in turning the basic foodstuffs of Passover into a culinary feast. For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... Resorts combine a hotel and a variety of recreations, such as swimming pools. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ...


Counting of the Omer

Main article: Counting of the Omer

Beginning on the second night of Passover, the 16th day of Nisan,[28] Jews begin the practice of the Counting of the Omer, a nightly reminder of the approach of the holiday of Shavuot 50 days hence. Each night after the evening prayer service, men and women recite a special blessing and then enumerate the day of the Omer. On the first night, for example, they say, "Today is the first day in (or, to) the Omer"; on the second night, "Today is the second day in the Omer." The counting also involves weeks; thus, the seventh day is commemorated, "Today is the seventh day, which is one week in the Omer." The eighth day is marked, "Today is the eighth day, which is one week and one day in the Omer," etc. Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ...


When the Temple stood in Jerusalem, the Omer was an actual offering of a measure of barley, which was offered each of the 50 days. Since the destruction of the Temple, this offering is brought in word rather than deed. The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


One explanation for the Counting of the Omer is that it shows the connection between Passover and Shavuot. The physical freedom that the Israelites achieved at the Exodus from Egypt was only the beginning of a process that climaxed with the spiritual freedom they gained at the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai. Another explanation is that the newborn nation which emerged after the Exodus needed time to learn their new responsibilities vis-a-vis Torah and mitzvot before accepting God's law. The distinction between the Omer offering—a measure of barley, typically animal fodder—and the Shavuot offering—two loaves of wheat bread, human food—symbolizes the transition process. Moses with the Ten Commandments by Rembrandt (1659) Biblical Mount Sinai refers to the place where, according to the Hebrew Bible (Exod. ... Mitzvah מצוה is Hebrew for commandment (plural mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah - command). ...


Seventh day of Passover

Shvi'i shel Pesach (שביעי של פסח "seventh [day] of Passover") is another full Jewish holiday, with special prayer services and festive meals. Outside the Land of Israel in the Jewish diaspora, Shvi'i shel Pesach is celebrated on both the seventh and eighth days of Passover. This holiday commemorates the day the Children of Israel reached the Red Sea and witnessed both the miraculous "Splitting of the Sea," the drowning of all the Egyptian chariots, horses and soldiers that pursued them, and the Passage of the Red Sea. According to the Midrash, only Pharaoh was spared to give testimony to the miracle that occurred. A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... The Children of Israel, or Bnei Yisrael (בני ישראל) in Hebrew (also Bnai Yisrael, Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... In Black is the traditional Exodus Routes as agreed on by Biblical Scholars, Historians, and Geologists. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


Hasidic Rebbes traditionally hold a tish on the night of Shvi'i shel Pesach and place a cup or bowl of water on the table before them. They use this opportunity to speak about the Splitting of the Sea to their disciples, and sing songs of praise to God. This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... Belzer tish. ...


Second Passover

Main article: Pesach Sheni

The "Second Passover" (Pesach Sheni) on the 14th of Iyar in the Hebrew Calendar is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Numbers 9:6-13) as a make-up day for people who were unable to offer the pesach sacrifice at the appropriate time due to ritual impurity or distance from Jerusalem. Just as on the first Pesach night, breaking bones from the second Paschal offering (Numbers 9:12) or leaving meat over until morning (Numbers 9:12) were prohibited. Pesach Sheni (Hebrew:פסח שני Second Passover), is a minor Jewish observance on the 14th of Iyar in the Hebrew Calendar. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Today, Pesach Sheni on the 14th of Iyar has the status of a very minor holiday (so much so that many of the Jewish people have never even heard of it, and it essentially does not exist outside of Orthodox and traditional Conservative Judaism). There are not really any special prayers or observances that are considered Jewish law. The only change in the liturgy is that (in most communities) Tachanun, a penitential prayer omitted on holidays, is not said. There is a custom, though not Jewish law, to eat just one piece of Matzah on that night.[29] Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ...


Influence in other religions

According to Sunni Muslim tradition the fast of Ashura commemorates the liberation of Israelites from Egypt. It takes place on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic Calendar. The start date of the actual fast varies from the 9th of Muharram to the 10th, or from the 10th to the 11th. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... (Redirected from 10th) 10 (ten) is the natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... 9 (nine) is the natural number following 8 and preceding 10. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... (Redirected from 10th) 10 (ten) is the natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... (Redirected from 10th) 10 (ten) is the natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... (Redirected from 11th) 11 (eleven) is the natural number following 10 and preceding 12. ...


The Christian holiday of Easter is related to Passover. The holy day is actually called "Passover" in most languages other than English, and its central theme is that Christ was the paschal lamb in human form. Additionally, the New Testament relates that Christ's Last Supper was a Passover seder, but whether it was a first night or last (seventh) night seder is not clear. The latter seems more likely and it is known that the first Easter celebrations, by Jews who believed Yeshua Ben-Yosef to be the Messiah, were simply tacked on to the end of regular Passover celebrations. This historical calendaring of Passover may still be operational in some ancient or ancient-conforming independent churches. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The Eastern Orthodox holiday invariably still coincides with Passover, too, but this is by calendrical accident. In the Western and Eastern parish-centred traditions, Easter was fixed in medieval times to the full moon of the vernal equinox, reckoned functionally as March 21. But the Orthodox Churches continue to use the Julian Calendar more than 250 to 450 years after the Western churches adopted the Gregorian Calendar. Julian March 21 is the currently the same day as Gregorian April 3 - thus, the earliest Easter can fall on either calendar is March 22, but March 22 on the Julian Calendar is April 4 on the Gregorian. Additionally, whereas Western Easter is the Sunday one to seven days after March 21, Orthodox Easter is the Sunday eight to fourteen days after March 21. Jehovah's Witnesses are one of a few (usually) Western churches that do not observe Easter but, instead, observe only the Last Supper on the first evening of Passover; but they do not necessarily use the same date as the modern Jewish Calendar, but it sometimes corresponds with the same full moon as the festival of Purim. [30] Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... Purim (Hebrew: פורים Pûrîm lots, related to Akkadian pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Jewish people of the ancient Persian Empire from Hamans plot to annihilate them, as recorded in the Biblical Book of Esther (Megillat Esther). ...


Name

The holiday is also known as Pesach in Hebrew, and most will use "Passover" and "Pesach" interchangably.


See also

Table set for the Passover Seder The Passover Seder (Hebrew: סֵדֶר, , order, arrangement) is a Jewish ritual feast held on any of the eight nights of the Jewish holiday of Passover (which begins on the 15th day of Hebrew month of Nisan). ... Traditional arrangement of items on the Passover Seder Plate. ... Kitniyot, qitniyyoth (Hebrew: ‎) (literally little things) are a category of foods defined by Jewish law and tradition which Ashkenazi Jews (Jews from Eastern Europe, Germany, etc. ... Fast of the Firstborn (תענית בכורים (Taanit Bchorim) or תענית בכורות (Taanit Bchorot) in Hebrew); is a unique fast day in Judaism which usually falls on the day before Passover (i. ... Haggadah for Passover (fourteenth century). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Lev 23:6, Num 28:17, Num 33:3
  2. ^ (Lev 23:4; Num 9:3,5, Num 28:16)
  3. ^ Exodus 12:12: "On that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn—both men and animals—and I will bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt. I am יהוה (the LORD)."
  4. ^ Lev 23:6, Num 28:17, Num 33:3
  5. ^ According to Halakha, matzo may be made from flour derived from five types of grain: wheat, barley, spelt, oats and rye. The dough for matzo is made when flour is added to water only, which has not been allowed to rise for more than 18–22 minutes prior to baking.
  6. ^ (Lev 23:4; Num 9:3,5, Num 28:16)
  7. ^ De Lange, Nicholas (2000). An Introduction to Judaism. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. p. 97.
  8. ^ De Lange, Nicholas (2000). An Introduction to Judaism. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. p. 97
  9. ^ Deuteronomy 16:3
  10. ^ Deuteronomy 16:12
  11. ^ Exodus 12:14
  12. ^ Leviticus 23:5
  13. ^ Num 9:11)
  14. ^ (Exodus 12:6)
  15. ^ (Exodus 23:18)
  16. ^ (Exodus 12:9)
  17. ^ (Exodus 12:9)
  18. ^ (Exodus 12:46)
  19. ^ (Exodus 12:10Exodus 23:18)
  20. ^ Pesach questions and answers by the Torah Learning Center.
  21. ^ Exodus 12:18
  22. ^ Thought For Food: An Overview of the Seder | AskMoses.com - Judaism, Ask a Rabbi - Live
  23. ^ What is the kabbalistic view on chametz? by Rabbi Yossi Marcus
  24. ^ These Matzos are often begun to be produced in early November.[1]
  25. ^ [2]
  26. ^ Afikoman. Dov Noy and Joseph Tabory. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. p434.
  27. ^ De Lange, Nicholas (2000). An Introduction to Judaism. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
  28. ^ Karaite Jews begin the count on the Sunday within the holiday week. This leads to Shavuot for the Karaites always falling on a Sunday.
  29. ^ Pesach Sheini
  30. ^ Passover. Louis Jacobs, Ernst Kutsch, Rela M. Geffen, and Abram Kanof. Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 15. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. p678-683.

Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Look up Spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kan-laon means he who is king of the ancient of days which means the supreme God in Visayan. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Kali (Sanskrit ) is a goddess with a long and complex history in Hinduism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kali. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... is the Sanskrit for time (from a root to enumerate; unrelated to black whence ). It denotes a fixed or right point in time (compare rtu, kairos). ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Wheel of time may refer to: The Wheel of time or history, a religious concept predominant in Buddhism and Hinduism The Wheel of Time, a fantasy book series by author Robert Jordan The Wheel of Time (computer game), an action first-person shooter based on the series The Timewheel, a... Kālacakra (Sanskrit कालचक्र; Tibetan དུས་ཀྱི་འཁོར་ལོ་ dus kyi khor lo) is a term used in Tantric Buddhism that means time-wheel or time-cycles. It refers both to a Tantric deity (Tib. ... This article is about the Buddhist bodhisattva Maitreya. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ancient of Days is a name for God in Aramaic (Atik Yomin); in the Greek Septuagint: (Palaios Hemeron); and in the Vulgate: (Antiquus Dierum). ... Ein Sof (Hebrew: without end denoting boundlessness), also known as Divine Being, is the name for God, within the Kabbalah of Judaism, as he is unknown, or the mysterious and ultimate source of all existence. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is the calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. ... The missing years in the Hebrew calendar refer to a discrepancy of some 165 years between the traditional Hebrew dating for the destruction of the First Temple (3338 AM) and the modern secular dating for it (586 BCE) that results if the traditional date is interpreted according to the standard... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... The Easter controversy is a series of controversies about the proper date to celebrate Easter. ... Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima[1], meaning fourteen) refers to the custom of Christians celebrating Passover on the 14th day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (Lev 23:5). ... The current system for determining the date of Easter has two problems: (1) its date varies from year to year (not considered a problem by many Christians), and (2) Eastern and Western churches use different methods of determining its date, and hence in most years it is celebrated on a... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ... This article is about Australian Aboriginal cosmogony, cosmology and spirituality. ... Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Oracle bones (Chinese: 甲骨; pinyin: jiÇŽgÇ”piàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination from the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what is called oracle bone script. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... This article is about days of the week. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Passover (1341 words)
Passover is probably the best known of the Jewish holidays, mostly because it ties in with Christian history (the Last Supper was apparently a Passover seder), and because a lot of its observances have been reinterpreted by Christians as Messianic and signs of Jesus.
The name “Passover” refers to the fact that G-d “passed over” the houses of the Jews when he was slaying the firstborn of Egypt.
The day before Passover is the fast of the firstborn, a minor fast for all firstborn males, commemorating the fact that the firstborn Jewish males in Egypt were not killed during the final plague.
Passover - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3835 words)
Passover commemorates the Exodus and freedom of the Israelites from ancient Egypt.
As described in the Book of Exodus, Passover marks the "birth" of the Jewish nation, as the Jews' ancestors were freed from being slaves of Pharaoh and allowed to become servants of God instead.
The primary symbol of Passover is the matzo, a flat, unleavened "bread" which recalls the hurriedly-baked bread that the Israelites ate after their hasty departure from Egypt.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

matzafun
18th November 2010
MatzaFun Tours offers special cuisines for our health-conscious guests. Guests may request our “South Beach Diet” or our “Low Carb Diet” options. Let us know your needs when making your reservation.
There are 1 more (non-authoritative) comments on this page

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m