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Encyclopedia > Passive smoking
Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004
Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004

Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of smoke from tobacco products. It occurs when tobacco smoke permeates any environment, causing inhalation by all people within that environment. Such smoke is called secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Current scientific evidence shows that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke causes death, disease, and disability.[1][2][3][4] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1128 KB) Summary Taken by me, this photo illustrates smoke in a pub, a common complaint for those concerned with passive smoking. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1128 KB) Summary Taken by me, this photo illustrates smoke in a pub, a common complaint for those concerned with passive smoking. ... Pub redirects here. ... No Smoking sign. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


Passive smoking is one of the key issues leading to smoking bans in workplaces and indoor public places, including restaurants, bars and night clubs. No Smoking sign. ... A smoke-free restaurant is a dining establishment in which the act of smoking is specifically barred. ...

Contents

Long-term effects

Research has generated scientific evidence that secondhand smoke (that is, in the case of cigarettes, a mixture of smoke released from the smoldering end of the cigarette and smoke exhaled by the smoker) causes the same problems as direct smoking, including heart disease,[5] cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and lung ailments such as COPD, bronchitis and asthma.[6] Specifically, meta-analyses have shown lifelong non-smokers with partners who smoke in the home have a 20–30% greater risk of lung cancer, and those exposed to cigarette smoke in the workplace have an increased risk of 16–19%.[7] Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterized by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... A meta-analysis is a statistical practice of combining the results of a number of studies. ...


A wide array of negative effects are attributed, in whole or in part, to frequent, long term exposure to second hand smoke.[8][9][10] Some of these effects include:

Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... In statistics and mathematical epidemiology, relative risk (RR) of an event associated with the exposure is a ratio of probability of outcome of interest in exposed group versus treatment group. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) was created in 1991 by Governor Pete Wilson, through an executive order. ... Surgeon General can have several different meanings. ... Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor within the pancreatic gland. ... Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants and children. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining between). ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Short-term effects

Tobacco smoke exposure has immediate and substantial effects on blood and blood vessels in a way that increases the risk of a heart attack, particularly in people already at risk.[46] Exposure to tobacco smoke for 30 minutes significantly reduces coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy nonsmokers. [47]


There is some evidence that reducing exposure to tobacco smoke cuts the risk of heart attack. When Helena, MT implemented a 100% smokefree law, heart attack admissions in the local hospital dropped by 40%, and rebounded when a court suspended the law[48] Rapid drops in heart attack admissions, averaging about 25%,[49] were also seen in Pueblo, CO, Bowling Green, OH, New York State, Piedmont, Italy, Ireland, and Scotland when they implemented such laws.


Adults or children with asthma can experience attacks brought on by passive smoking.[50][51][52][53][54]


Tobacco smoke is an irritant, and allergy sufferers can experience stuffy or runny noses, watery or burning eyes, sneezing, coughing, wheezing, a feeling of suffocation, and other typical allergy symptoms within minutes of exposure. Some people with no known allergies and without asthma may cough in smoke-filled rooms, get headaches, feel nauseated, feel sleepy, and experience other ill effects, when they would not normally exhibit these symptoms without the presence of smoke.[citation needed] The word irritant may refer to: Something that causes irritation, often a chemical substance. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ...


Many former smokers, and those who are trying to quit prefer to not be around smoke as it can cause them to have cravings. Some people simply do not like the odor, which clings to hair, skin, teeth, fingernails, clothing, furniture, and rugs.


Many of these short-term effects terminate after the exposure ends. Repeated exposure, however, is believed to cause more serious long-term effects.


Epidemiological studies of passive smoking

Epidemiological studies show that non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke are at risk for many of the health problems associated with direct smoking.


In 1992, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a review of the available evidence regarding the relationship between secondhand smoke and heart disease, and estimated that passive smoking was responsible for 35,000 to 40,000 deaths per year in the United States in the early 1980s.[55] Some studies find that non-smokers living with smokers have about a 25% increase in risk of death from heart attack, are more likely to suffer a stroke, and can sometimes contract genital cancer. Some research, with better measures of secondhand smoke exposure suggests that risks to nonsmokers may be even greater than this estimate. A British study reported that exposure to secondhand smoke increases the risk of heart disease among non-smokers by as much as 60%, similar to light smoking.[56] JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...


Parental smoking can affect children and babies, and is associated with low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), bronchitis and pneumonia, and middle ear infections.[57] Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ...


In 2002, a group of 29 experts from 12 countries convened by the Monographs Programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) reviewed all significant published evidence related to tobacco smoking and cancer. It concluded: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... WHO redirects here. ...

These meta-analyses show that there is a statistically significant and consistent association between lung cancer risk in spouses of smokers and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke from the spouse who smokes. The excess risk is of the order of 20% for women and 30% for men and remains after controlling for some potential sources of bias and confounding.[58]

Subsequent meta-analyses have confirmed these findings,[59][60] and additional studies have found that high overall exposure to passive smoke even among people with non-smoking partners is associated with greater risks than partner smoking and is widespread in non-smokers.[61]


The National Asthma Council of Australia cites studies showing that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is probably the most important indoor pollutant, especially around young children:[62]

  • Smoking by either parent, particularly by the mother, increases the risk of asthma in children.
  • The outlook for early childhood asthma is less favourable in smoking households.
  • Children with asthma who are exposed to smoking in the home generally have more severe disease.
  • Many adults with asthma identify ETS as a trigger for their symptoms.
  • Doctor-diagnosed asthma is more common among non-smoking adults exposed to ETS than those not exposed. Among people with asthma, higher ETS exposure is associated with a greater risk of severe attacks.

In France passive smoking has been estimated to cause between 3,000[63] and 5,000 premature deaths per year, with the larger figure cited by Prime minister Dominique de Villepin during his announcement of a nationwide smoking ban: "That makes more than 13 deaths a day. It is an unacceptable reality in our country in terms of public health."[64] This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Studies of passive smoking in animals

Experimental studies in which animals are exposed to tobacco smoke have produced results supporting the carcinogenicity of passive smoking. The International Agency for Research on Cancer expert group concluded that: Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of mixtures of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke. There is sufficient evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of sidestream smoke condensates.[65]

Secondhand smoke is generally recognized as a risk factor for cancer in pets.[66] A study conducted by the Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine and the University of Massachusetts concluded that cats living with a smoker were more likely to get feline lymphoma; the risk increased with the duration of exposure to secondhand smoke and the number of smokers in the household.[67] A study by Colorado State University researchers, looking at cases of canine lung cancer, was generally inconclusive, though the authors reported a weak relation for lung cancer in dogs exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.[68] Tufts University is a private research university in Medford/Somerville, Massachusetts, suburbs of Boston. ... This page is about the university system across Massachusetts. ... Lymphoma in animals is a type of cancer defined by a proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver and spleen. ... Colorado State University is a public institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ...


In 1990, a tobacco-industry researcher in Germany proposed a study of the effects on animals of lifetime exposure to secondhand smoke. The proposed study was blocked by Philip Morris,[69] as described in an internal company report: Altria Group, Inc. ...

PM [Philip Morris] recently succeeded in blocking Adlkofer's plan to conduct lifetime animal inhalation study of sidestream smoke. ( . . .an INBIFO study has shown that in 90-day inhalation test, no non-reversible changes has [sic] been detected. In a lifetime study, the results were almost certain to be less favorable. Based on the analysis, the other members of the German industry agreed that the proposed study should not proceed.)[70]

Risk level of passive smoking

The International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concluded in 2002 that: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... WHO redirects here. ...

There is sufficient evidence that involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans. ... Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).[71]

Most experts believe that moderate, occasional exposure to secondhand smoke presents a small but measurable cancer risk to nonsmokers. The overall risk depends on the effective dose received over time. The risk is more significant if non-smokers spend many hours in an environment where cigarette smoke is prevalent, such as a business where many employees or patrons are smoking throughout the day, or a residential care facility where residents smoke freely.[72]


In May 2006, the United States Centers for Disease Control issued its first new study on secondhand smoke in 20 years. Surgeon General Richard Carmona summarized: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Surgeon General can have several different meanings. ... Dr. Richard Carmona Richard Henry Carmona, (born November 22, 1949) was the 17th Surgeon General of the United States. ...

The health effects of secondhand smoke exposure are more pervasive than we previously thought. The scientific evidence is now indisputable: secondhand smoke is not a mere annoyance. It is a serious health hazard that can lead to disease and premature death in children and nonsmoking adults.

The study estimated that living or working in a place where smoking is permitted increases the non-smokers' risk of developing heart disease by 25–30% and lung cancer by 20–30%. The report also found that passive smoke causes sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), respiratory problems, ear infections, and asthma attacks in children.[73]


Scientific basis for bans

A study issued in 2002 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concluded that nonsmokers are exposed to the same carcinogens as active smokers.[74] Sidestream smoke contains more than 4000 chemicals, including 69 known carcinogens such as formaldehyde, lead, arsenic, benzene, and radioactive polonium 210,[75] and several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher concentrations in sidestream smoke than in mainstream smoke.[76] WHO redirects here. ... Sidestream smoke is smoke coming from the end of a smoldering cigarette. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Environmental tobacco smoke and particulate matter emission

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was shown to be a much higher source of pollution than an idling ecodiesel engine in regard to particulate matter (PM) emission. In an experiment conducted by the Tobacco Control Unit of the National Cancer Institute, three cigarettes were left smouldering, one after the other, in a 60 m³ garage with a limited air exchange. The cigarettes produced PM indoor pollution exceeding outdoor limits, as well as PM concentrations up to 10-fold that of the idling engine.[77] Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling) combustion is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from reactions occurring on the surface of a solid fuel when heated in an oxidizing environment. ...


Current state of scientific opinion

Currently, there is widespread scientific consensus that exposure to secondhand smoke is harmful.[78] The link between passive smoking and health risks is accepted by every major medical and scientific organization, including: Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ...

While there is scientific agreement regarding the existence of a link between passive smoking and heart disease, the magnitude of the increased risk remains debated by a minority of epidemiologists.[93] For example, John Bailar of the National Academy of Sciences questioned the proportionality of the passive smoking risk, stating: WHO redirects here. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The Surgeon General of the United States is the leading spokesman on matters of public health in the Government of the United States. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... EPA redirects here. ... The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) was created in 1991 by Governor Pete Wilson, through an executive order. ... The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ... The American Lung Association is a non-profit organization which fights lung disease in all its forms, with special emphasis on asthma, tobacco control and environmental health. It was founded in 1904 to fight tuberculosis as the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. ... The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a medical organization with a corporate attitude in the United States. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. ... The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is Australias peak funding body for medical research, with a budget of nearly A$500M a year. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (abbreviated FCTC) is a treaty adopted unanimously by the 56th World Health Assembly on May 21, 2003. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...

Regular smoking only increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by 75%, so how could second-hand smoke, which is much more dilute, have an effect one-third that size?

One proposed explanation is that secondhand smoke is not simply a diluted version of "mainstream" smoke, but has a different composition with more toxic substances per gram of total particulate matter.[93] The more toxic makeup of secondhand smoke was first recognized in the tobacco industry's own research, though it never published its findings.[94] Some scientists believe that the risk of passive smoking, in particular the risk of developing coronary heart diseases, may have been substantially underestimated.[95]


The health benefit to non-smokers of smoking bans has also been disputed by a small number of epidemiologists, who call for a prospective trial to more accurately determine the benefit. These epidemiologists advocate indoor smoking bans, but express a concern that widespread outdoor smoking bans, as implemented by some towns in the U.S., may be unsupported by the evidence available thus far.[93] No Smoking sign. ...


Public opinion

Recent major surveys conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute and Centers for Disease Control have found widespread public belief that secondhand smoke is harmful. In both 1992 and 2000 surveys, more than 80% of respondents agreed with the statement that secondhand smoke was harmful. A 2001 study found that 95% of adults agreed that secondhand smoke was harmful to children, and 96% considered tobacco-industry claims that secondhand smoke was not harmful to be untruthful. A 2004 Gallup poll found that 86% of respondents felt that secondhand smoke was "very harmful" or "somewhat harmful", while 4% felt that it was not harmful at all.[96], p. 588 Smoking bans had somewhat less support; the 2004 Gallup poll found 58% in favor of total smoking bans in workplaces, restaurants, and bars, while 40% opposed such across-the-board bans.[96], p. 589 The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... No Smoking sign. ...


Controversy over harms of passive smoking

In 1986, the United States Surgeon General issued a report concluding that secondhand smoke was a cause of disease. In the same year, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Research Council also released reports concluding that secondhand smoke was a cause of lung cancer.[97] Over the subsequent 20 years, the accumulation of scientific evidence has led to a scientific consensus that passive smoking is indeed harmful to non-smokers.[98] A U.S. District Court found, in a racketeering case against the tobacco industry, that the industry had internally acknowledged the harmfulness of passive smoking even earlier.[78], pp. 1523–1525 Nonetheless, the tobacco industry has played a central role in generating and sustaining controversy over the effects of passive smoking.[99][100][101] The Surgeon General of the United States is the leading spokesman on matters of public health in the Government of the United States. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... The National Research Council (NRC) of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ... Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of science at a particular time. ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ...


Critique of individual studies and epidemiology

A number of studies funded by the tobacco industry have yielded results inconsistent with the scientific consensus, or have criticised the epidemiological approach associated with that consensus.


A 2003 study by Enstrom and Kabat, published in the British Medical Journal, argued that the harms of passive smoking had been overstated.[102] Their analysis reported no statistically significant relationship between passive smoking and lung cancer, though the accompanying editorial noted that "they may overemphasise the negative nature of their findings."[103] This paper was widely promoted by the tobacco industry as evidence that the harms of passive smoking were unproven.[101][78], p. 1383 The American Cancer Society (ACS), whose database Enstrom and Kabat used to compile their data, criticized the paper as "neither reliable nor independent", stating that scientists at the ACS had repeatedly pointed out serious flaws in Enstrom and Kabat' s methodology prior to publication.[104] Enstrom's ties to the tobacco industry also drew scrutiny; in a 1997 letter to Philip Morris, Enstrom requested a "substantial research commitment... in order for me to effectively compete against the large mountain of epidemiologic data and opinions that already exist regarding the health effects of ETS and active smoking."[105] The study was funded and managed by the Center for Indoor Air Research, a tobacco industry front group, and Enstrom's work was viewed by Philip Morris as "clearly litigation-oriented."[78], pp. 1380–1383 Enstrom himself has defended the accuracy of his study against what he terms "illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it."[106] The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a medical organization with a corporate attitude in the United States. ... Altria Group, Inc. ... A front organization, also known as a front group (if it is structured to look like a voluntary association) or a front company or simply a front (if it is structured to look like a company), is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization. ...


Gio Batta Gori, a tobacco industry consultant and spokeperson,[107] wrote in the libertarian Cato Institute's journal Regulation that "...of the 75 published studies of ETS and lung cancer, some 70 percent did not report statistically significant differences of risk and are moot. Roughly 17 percent claim an increased risk and 13 percent imply a reduction of risk."[108] Steven Milloy, the "junk science" commentator for Fox News and a former Philip Morris consultant,[109][110] claimed that "...of the 37 studies [on passive smoking], only 7 – less than 19 percent – reported statistically significant increases in lung cancer incidence."[111] Gio Batta Gori is a tobacco industry consultant, frequent author for the libertarian Cato Institute, and formerly an official with the United States National Cancer Institute. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... Steven Milloy is a columnist for Fox News and a paid advocate for Phillip Morris, ExxonMobil and other corporations. ... Junk or bunk science is a term used to describe purportedly scientific data, research, analyses or claims which are perceived to be driven by political, financial or other questionable motives. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Altria Group, Inc. ...


Another component of criticism promoted by Milloy focused on relative risk and epidemiological practices in studies of passive smoking. Milloy argued that studies yielding relative risks of less than 2 were meaningless junk science. This approach to epidemiological analysis was criticized in the American Journal of Public Health: In statistics and mathematical epidemiology, relative risk (RR) of an event associated with the exposure is a ratio of probability of outcome of interest in exposed group versus treatment group. ... Junk or bunk science is a term used to describe purportedly scientific data, research, analyses or claims which are perceived to be driven by political, financial or other questionable motives. ... The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) is a peer reviewed monthly journal of the American Public Health Association (APHA). ...

A major component of the industry attack was the mounting of a campaign to establish a "bar" for "sound science" that could not be fully met by most individual investigations, leaving studies that did not meet the criteria to be dismissed as "junk science."[112]

The tobacco industry and affiliated scientists also put forward a set of "Good Epidemiology Practices" which would have the practical effect of obscuring the link between secondhand smoke and lung cancer; the privately-stated goal of these standards was to "impede adverse legislation".[113] However, this effort was largely abandoned when it became clear that no independent epidemiological organization would agree to the standards proposed by Philip Morris et al.[114]


World Health Organization controversy

A 1998 report by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) found "weak evidence of a dose-response relationship between risk of lung cancer and exposure to spousal and workplace ETS."[115] In March of 1998, before the study was published, reports appeared in the media alleging that the IARC and the World Health Organization (WHO) were suppressing information. The reports, appearing in the British Sunday Telegraph[116] and The Economist,[117] among other sources,[118][119][120] alleged that the WHO withheld from publication its own report that supposedly failed to prove an association between passive smoking and a number of other diseases (lung cancer in particular). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... WHO redirects here. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ...


In response, the WHO issued a press release stating that the results of the study had been "completely misrepresented" in the popular press and were in fact very much in line with similar studies demonstrating the harms of passive smoking.[121] The study was published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute in October of the same year. An accompanying editorial summarized:

When all the evidence, including the important new data reported in this issue of the Journal, is assessed, the inescapable scientific conclusion is that ETS is a low-level lung carcinogen.[122]

With the release of formerly classified tobacco industry documents through the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, it was found that the controversy over the WHO's alleged suppression of data had been engineered by Philip Morris, British American Tobacco, and other tobacco companies in an effort to discredit scientific findings which would harm their business interests.[123] A WHO inquiry, conducted after the release of the tobacco-industry documents, found that this controversy was generated by the tobacco industry as part of its larger campaign to cut the WHO's budget, distort the results of scientific studies on passive smoking, and discredit the WHO as an institution. This campaign was carried out using a network of ostensibly independent front organizations and international and scientific experts with hidden financial ties to the industry.[124] The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) was the largest civil settlement in United States history. ... Altria Group, Inc. ... British American Tobacco Plc (LSE: BATS, AMEX: BTI, KLSE: BAT) is the second largest listed tobacco company in the world. ... Front organizations or front companies are organizations or companies set up to do one thing openly, usually a legal business, and another thing secretly, spying or money laundering. ...


EPA lawsuit

In 1993, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a report estimating that 3,000 lung cancer related deaths in the U.S. were caused by passive smoking annually.[15] Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, and groups representing growers, distributors and marketers of tobacco took legal action, claiming that the EPA had manipulated this study and ignored accepted scientific and statistical practices. EPA redirects here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Altria Group, Inc. ... The RJR Headquarters building (back left) in Winston Salem, NC was built prior to the Empire State Building, which was designed by the same architect. ...


A United States District Court ruled in favor of the tobacco industry in 1998, finding that the EPA had failed to follow proper scientific and epidemiologic practices and had "cherry picked" evidence to support conclusions which they had committed to in advance.[125] The court stated in part, "“EPA publicly committed to a conclusion before research had begun…adjusted established procedure and scientific norms to validate the Agency's public conclusion... In conducting the ETS Risk Assessment, disregarded information and made findings on selective information; did not disseminate significant epidemiologic information; deviated from its Risk Assessment Guidelines; failed to disclose important findings and reasoning…" Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ...


In 2002, the EPA successfully appealed this decision to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. The EPA's appeal was upheld on the preliminary grounds that their report had no regulatory weight, and the earlier finding was vacated.[126] The EPA assessment has been confirmed and validated in 1998 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, through the publication by its National Toxicology Program of the 9th Report on Carcinogens, which listed environmental tobacco smoke among the known carcinogens, observing of the EPA assessment that "The individual studies were carefully summarized and evaluated."[127]p. 24 The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit is a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Maryland Eastern District of North Carolina Middle District of North Carolina Western District of North Carolina District of South...


Tobacco-industry funding of research

The tobacco industry's role in funding scientific research on passive smoking has been controversial.[128] A review of published studies found that tobacco-industry affilation was strongly correlated with findings exonerating passive smoking; researchers affiliated with the tobacco industry were 88 times more likely than independent researchers to conclude that passive smoking was not harmful.[129] In a specific example which came to light with the release of tobacco-industry documents, Philip Morris executives successfully encouraged an author to revise his industry-funded review article to downplay the role of secondhand smoke in sudden infant death syndrome.[130] The 2006 U.S. Surgeon General's report criticized the tobacco industry's role in the scientific debate:

The industry has funded or carried out research that has been judged to be biased, supported scientists to generate letters to editors that criticized research publications, attempted to undermine the findings of key studies, assisted in establishing a scientific society with a journal, and attempted to sustain controversy even as the scientific community reached consensus.[131]

This strategy was outlined at an international meeting of tobacco companies in 1988, at which Philip Morris proposed to set up a team of scientists, organized by company lawyers, to "carry out work on ETS to keep the controversy alive."[100] All scientific research was subject to oversight and "filtering" by tobacco-industry lawyers:

Philip Morris then expect the group of scientists to operate within the confines of decisions taken by PM scientists to determine the general direction of research, which apparently would then be 'filtered' by lawyers to eliminate areas of sensitivity.[100]

Philip Morris reported that it was putting "...vast amounts of funding into these projects... in attempting to coordinate and pay so many scientists on an international basis to keep the ETS controversy alive."[100]


Tobacco industry response

The passive smoking issue poses a serious economic threat to the tobacco industry. It has broadened the definition of smoking beyond a personal habit to something with a social impact, it has been the cause of successful litigation against employers by workers with a history of exposure to smoke, and it has resulted in various types of smoking restrictions. In a confidential 1978 report, the tobacco industry described increasing public concerns about passive smoking as "the most dangerous development to the viability of the tobacco industry that has yet occurred."[132] In United States of America v. Philip Morris et al., the District Court for the District of Columbia found that the tobacco industry "... recognized from the mid-1970s forward that the health effects of passive smoking posed a profound threat to industry viability and cigarette profits," and that the industry responded with "efforts to undermine and discredit the scientific consensus that ETS causes disease."[78]


Accordingly, the tobacco industry have developed several strategies to minimise its impact on their business:

  • Libertarian: the industry has sought to position the passive smoking debate as essentially concerned with civil liberties and smokers' rights rather than with health.[citation needed]
  • Funding bias in research; in all reviews of the effects of passive smoking on health published between 1980 and 1995, the only factor associated with concluding that passive smoking is not harmful was whether an author was affiliated with the tobacco industry.[133]
  • Delaying and discrediting legitimate research: Australia[134]
  • Promoting "good epidemiology" and attacking so-called junk science (a term popularised by industry lobbyist Steven Milloy): attacking the methodology behind research showing health risks as flawed and attempting to promote sound science [3]. Ong & Glantz (2001) cite an internal Phillip Morris memo giving evidence of this as company policy[135]
  • Creation of outlets for favorable research. In 1989, the tobacco industry established the International Society of the Built Environment, which published the peer-reviewed journal Indoor and Built Environment. This journal did not require conflict-of-interest disclosures from its authors. With documents made available through the Master Settlement, it was found that the executive board of the society and the editorial board of the journal were dominated by paid tobacco-industry consultants. The journal published a large amount of material on passive smoking, much of which was "industry-positive".[136]

Citing the tobacco industry's production of biased research and efforts to undermine scientific findings, the 2006 U.S. Surgeon General's report concluded that the industry had "attempted to sustain controversy even as the scientific community reached consensus... industry documents indicate that the tobacco industry has engaged in widespread activities... that have gone beyond the bounds of accepted scientific practice."[137] The U.S. District Court, in U.S.A. v. Philip Morris et al., found that "...despite their internal acknowledgment of the hazards of secondhand smoke, Defendants have fraudulently denied that ETS causes disease."[78], p. 1523 This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Junk or bunk science is a term used to describe purportedly scientific data, research, analyses or claims which are perceived to be driven by political, financial or other questionable motives. ... Steven Milloy is a columnist for Fox News and a paid advocate for Phillip Morris, ExxonMobil and other corporations. ... Sound science is a phrase often used by corporate business and industry public relations and by government agencies to describe the scientific research that is used to justify their political claims or positions, or to vilify research threathening their interests hence safeguarding their revenue. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) was the largest civil settlement in United States history. ...


Position of major tobacco companies

Altadis (site accessed on November 19, 2006)

Non-smokers who breathe air containing ambient smoke are often referred to as passive smokers and many studies have been conducted to assess their risks. Some studies on exposure to ambient smoke conclude that it represents a risk for health.

British American Tobacco (site accessed on July 27, 2007)

The World Health Organisation, the United States Surgeon General and other public health bodies have concluded that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), sometimes called ‘second-hand smoke’, is a cause of various serious diseases, including lung cancer, heart disease and respiratory illnesses in children.
They conclude that there is no known safe level of ETS exposure and hence advise that public health policy would be best served by bans on public smoking.
Our view of the science
The risks associated with ETS have been measured in epidemiological studies. These mainly use questionnaires to compare the incidence of diseases such as lung cancer in non-smoking women whose husbands were smokers, with non-smoking women whose husbands were non-smokers.
For lung cancer, the major studies report that relative risk associated with prolonged non-smoker exposure to ETS is 1.3. A relative risk of 1 means no risk, and prolonged active smoking is typically associated with a relative risk of lung cancer of the order of 20 or higher.
For heart disease, the major studies also report a relative risk for ETS exposure of around 1.3. The relative risk for active smoking and heart disease is typically of the order of 3 to 5.
Many epidemiologists say that relative risks below 2 are weak associations and are more difficult to quantify than stronger associations. Perhaps because the relative risks reported in individual studies tend to be below 2, many studies do not reach statistical significance.
Studies of respiratory illnesses in children whose parents smoke, and research into whether ETS exposure exacerbates symptoms for people with conditions such as asthma, suggest that ETS can increase risks of respiratory illnesses in children and can affect people with pre-existing conditions such as asthma.
Our approach to regulation
We support regulation that accommodates the interests of both non-smokers and smokers and limits non-smokers’ involuntary exposure to ETS. We favour restrictions on smoking in enclosed public places and we accept that there needs to be regulation.
We support practical initiatives such as the creation of smoke-free areas, combined with adequate provision for smokers.

Imperial Tobacco Group plc (site accessed on November 19, 2006)

Imperial Tobacco recognises that other people’s tobacco smoke can be unpleasant or annoying, and can raise concerns leading to calls to ban smoking . However, it is our view that the scientific evidence, taken as a whole, is insufficient to establish that other people’s tobacco smoke is a cause of any disease.
The statistical population studies (epidemiology) which have led to claims that other people’s tobacco smoke is a risk to health are subject to some methodological flaws. Most individual studies show no statistical effects. When study results are combined (a process called ‘meta analysis’), at most they indicate a very small increase in relative risk.

JT International (Japan Tobacco) (site accessed on November 19, 2006)

We agree that ETS can be annoying to non-smokers and that in poorly ventilated areas ETS can cause substantial irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. We therefore ask all smokers to be aware of and show consideration for people with whom they come into contact. However, we do not believe that the claim that ETS is a cause of lung cancer, heart disease and chronic pulmonary diseases in non-smokers has been convincingly demonstrated or that a reliable causal link between ETS exposure and chronic diseases has been established.

Philip Morris USA (site accessed on November 19, 2006)

Public health officials have concluded that secondhand smoke from cigarettes causes disease, including lung cancer and heart disease, in non-smoking adults, as well as causes conditions in children such as asthma, respiratory infections, cough, wheeze, otitis media (middle ear infection) and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. In addition, public health officials have concluded that secondhand smoke can exacerbate adult asthma and cause eye, throat and nasal irritation.
Philip Morris USA believes that the public should be guided by the conclusions of public health officials regarding the health effects of secondhand smoke in deciding whether to be in places where secondhand smoke is present, or if they are smokers, when and where to smoke around others. Particular care should be exercised where children are concerned, and adults should avoid smoking around them.
We also believe that the conclusions of public health officials concerning environmental tobacco smoke are sufficient to warrant measures that regulate smoking in public places. We also believe that where smoking is permitted, the government should require the posting of warning notices that communicate public health officials' conclusions that secondhand smoke causes disease in non-smokers.

R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (site accessed on November 19, 2006)

RJRT believes that individuals should rely on the conclusions of the U.S. Surgeon General, the Centers for Disease Control and other public health and medical officials when making decisions regarding smoking.

Smoking bans

See also: Smoking bans, List of smoking bans

As a consequence of the health risks associated with passive smoking, a general ban on smoking in all establishments serving food and drink, including restaurants, cafés, and nightclubs, was introduced in Norway on 1 June 2004, in Italy on 10 January 2005 and in Sweden on 1 June 2005, the United Kingdom on 1 July 2007, and many parts of the United States have similar legislation in place. No Smoking sign. ... This is a list of smoking bans by country. ... No Smoking sign. ... For other uses, see Restaurant (disambiguation). ... Cafe redirects here. ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... State-wide smoking bans, both active and scheduled. ...


These initial bans have grown in scope, with countries (such as Ireland, the UK, Australia), jurisdictions (like New York State, Washington State, Ohio, and Arkansas in the U.S.) now prohibiting smoking in public buildings as well as establishments such as restaurants and clubs. Many office buildings contain specially ventilated smoking areas; some are required by law to provide them. State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


The state of Hawaii recently passed a bill making it illegal to smoke in any public place or within 20 feet of an entrance or ventilation shaft intake of a building.


Some regions and local governments have banned smoking in all workplaces, in taxicabs, and in ventilated smoking rooms or enclosed smoking shelters such as those found in front of hospitals.


Even in countries traditionally seen as nations of smokers [attribution needed], opinion polls have shown support for bans, with 70% of those in France supporting a ban.[64]


In the first 18 months after the town of Pueblo, Colorado enacted a smoking ban in 2003, hospital admissions for heart attacks dropped 27%. Admissions in neighboring towns without smoking bans showed no change. Raymond Gibbons, M.D., American Heart Association president said, "The decline in the number of heart attack hospitalizations within the first year and a half after the non-smoking ban that was observed in this study is most likely due to a decrease in the effect of secondhand smoke as a triggering factor for heart attacks."[138] The City of Pueblo (IPA: //) is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Pueblo County, Colorado, USA. Pueblo is situated at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ...


See also

For the food preparation, see Smoking (cooking). ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Both direct inhalation of tobacco smoke and inhalation of second hand smoke have significant negative effects on health. ...

External links

Scientific bodies

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... The Surgeon General of the United States is the leading spokesman on matters of public health in the Government of the United States. ... WHO redirects here. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

Tobacco industry-related

“PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ... UCSF in 1908, with the streetcar that used to run on Parnassus Avenue The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is one of the worlds leading centers of health sciences research, patient care, and education. ... The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) was the largest civil settlement in United States history. ...

Other links

BUPA is a healthcare organisation with bases on four continents and more than eight million customers in 192 countries. ... UCSF in 1908, with the streetcar that used to run on Parnassus Avenue The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) is one of the worlds leading centers of health sciences research, patient care, and education. ...

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    • A 2004 update by the SCOTH, reviewing new evidence published since the 1998 report, found that recent research had confirmed the initially reported link between passive smoking and health risks.
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  93. ^ a b c Passive Smoking: Out from the Haze, by Kris Novak. Nature 2007 Jun 28;447(7148):1049-51. PMID 17597735.
  94. ^ Several medical journal articles have described both the more toxic composition of secondhand smoke and the tobacco industry's unpublished research confirming this. For example, see:
    • Diethelm PA, Rielle JC, McKee M (2005). "The whole truth and nothing but the truth? The research that Philip Morris did not want you to see". Lancet 366 (9479): 86–92. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66474-4. PMID 15993237. 
    • Schick S, Glantz S (2005). "Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke". Tobacco control 14 (6): 396-404. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.011288. PMID 16319363. 
    • Schick S, Glantz SA (2006). "Sidestream cigarette smoke toxicity increases with aging and exposure duration". Tobacco control 15 (6): 424–9. doi:10.1136/tc.2006.016162. PMID 17130369. 
    • Schick SF, Glantz S (2007). "Concentrations of the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in sidestream cigarette smoke increase after release into indoor air: results from unpublished tobacco industry research". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16 (8): 1547–53. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0210. PMID 17684127. 
  95. ^ Passive smoking danger was underestimated, by Gaia Vince New Scientist 2004 June 30. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  96. ^ a b The Health Effects of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, Chapter 10. Accessed September 11, 2007.
  97. ^ From The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, a report of the U.S. Surgeon General. See Executive Summary, p. 4. Accessed September 11, 2007.
  98. ^ Currently the health risks of passive smoking are accepted by every major medical and scientific organization, as detailed elsewhere in this article. Specific descriptions of the development of scientific consensus on the topic can be found here:
    • Remarks by Richard Carmona, United States Surgeon General, on the release of the 2006 report on the harms of involuntary smoking. Delivered June 26, 2006; accessed September 11, 2007.
    • Final Opinion of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia in U.S.A. v. Philip Morris et al., delivered by Judge Gladys Kessler. See p. 1406 & 1525 in particular. Accessed September 11, 2007.
    • The Health Effects of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, Chapter 10. From a 2006 report by the U.S. Surgeon General. Page 577: "By 2000, there was little debate within the scientific community as to whether secondhand smoke causes diseases and other adverse health effects in children and adults."
  99. ^ According to the United States Surgeon General's 2006 report on passive smoking, "The industry has funded or carried out research that has been judged to be biased, supported scientists to generate letters to editors that criticized research publications, attempted to undermine the findings of key studies... and attempted to sustain controversy even as the scientific community reached consensus." As quoted in the Washington Post: U.S. Details Dangers of Secondhand Smoking, by Marc Kaufman. Published June 28, 2006; accessed July 25, 2007.
  100. ^ a b c d Minutes of a meeting of Philip Morris with British tobacco companies to discuss tobacco-industry strategy on passive smoking. Accessed August 27, 2007.
  101. ^ a b Tong EK, Glantz SA (2007). "Tobacco industry efforts undermining evidence linking secondhand smoke with cardiovascular disease". Circulation 116 (16): 1845–54. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.715888. PMID 17938301. 
  102. ^ Enstrom JE, Kabat GC (2003). "Environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality in a prospective study of Californians, 1960-98". BMJ 326 (7398): 1057. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7398.1057. PMID 12750205. 
  103. ^ Davey Smith G (2003). "Effect of passive smoking on health". BMJ 326 (7398): 1048-9. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7398.1048. PMID 12750182. 
  104. ^ American Cancer Society Condemns Tobacco Industry Study for Inaccurate Use of Data: A press release from the American Cancer Society. Dated May 15, 2003; accessed August 29, 2007.
  105. ^ PROPOSED RESEARCH ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF LOW LEVELS OF ACTIVE SMOKING TO MORTALITY: Letter from James Enstrom to Philip Morris Scientific Affairs office, dated January 1, 1997. Accessed August 29, 2007.
  106. ^ Enstrom JE (2007). "Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience". Epidemiol Perspect Innov 4 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1742-5573-4-11. PMID 17927827. 
  107. ^ ETS / IAQ SCIENTIFIC CONSULTANTS, from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Archive. Accessed July 19, 2007.
  108. ^ www.cato.org/pubs/regulation/regv30n1/v30n1-5.pdf
  109. ^ Smoked Out: Pundit for Hire, by Paul D. Thacker. Published in The New Republic on January 26, 2006; accessed August 22, 2007.
  110. ^ Philip Morris budget for "Strategy and Social Responsibility", listing Milloy as a paid consultant. Accessed August 22, 2007.
  111. ^ "Secondhand Joking", by Steven Milloy. Accessed August 22, 2007.
  112. ^ Samet JM, Burke TA (2001). "Turning science into junk: the tobacco industry and passive smoking". American journal of public health 91 (11): 1742-4. PMID 11684591. 
  113. ^ Scientific Communications Through the Media, from the Philip Morris document archive. Accessed October 3, 2007. Also cited in Ong EK, Glantz SA (2001). "Constructing "sound science" and "good epidemiology": tobacco, lawyers, and public relations firms". American journal of public health 91 (11): 1749–57. PMID 11684593. 
  114. ^ Ong EK, Glantz SA (2001). "Constructing "sound science" and "good epidemiology": tobacco, lawyers, and public relations firms". American journal of public health 91 (11): 1749-57. PMID 11684593. 
  115. ^ Boffetta P, Agudo A, Ahrens W, et al (1998). "Multicenter case-control study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in Europe". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90 (19): 1440-50. PMID 9776409. 
  116. ^ Passive Smoking Doesn't Cause Cancer —Official.
  117. ^ Smokescreens - The World Health Organization is showing signs of allowing politics to get in the way of truth. The Economist March 14th, 1998.
  118. ^ Le Grand C. Anti-smokers blown away by study. Australian 1998, March 10.
  119. ^ WHO Rejects smoking link with lung cancer. Zimbabwe Independent 1998, Oct 23.
  120. ^ No Link Between Passive Smoking and Lung Cancer. The Times 1998, March 9.
  121. ^ Passive Smoking Does Cause Lung Cancer, Do Not Let Them Fool You.
  122. ^ Passive Smoking and Lung Cancer Risk: What is the Story Now?.
  123. ^ Ong EK, Glantz SA (2000). "Tobacco industry efforts subverting International Agency for Research on Cancer's second-hand smoke study". Lancet 355 (9211): 1253-9. PMID 10770318. 
  124. ^ Tobacco Companies Strategies to Undermine Tobacco Control Activities at the World Health Organization.
  125. ^ The Osteen Decision.
  126. ^ Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative vs. EPA.
  127. ^ "Final Report on Carcinogens - Background Document for Environmental Tobacco Smoke", Meeting of the NTP Board of Scientific Counselors - Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, December 2-3, 1998
  128. ^ Tobacco industry publishes disinformation.
  129. ^ Barnes DE, Bero LA (1998). "Why review articles on the health effects of passive smoking reach different conclusions". JAMA 279 (19): 1566-70. PMID 9605902. 
  130. ^ Tong EK, England L, Glantz SA (2005). "Changing conclusions on secondhand smoke in a sudden infant death syndrome review funded by the tobacco industry". Pediatrics 115 (3): e356-66. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1922. PMID 15741361. 
  131. ^ Executive Summary of the U.S. Surgeon General's 2006 report on passive smoking; see p. 21.
  132. ^ A STUDY OF PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD CIGARETTE SMOKING AND THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN 1978, produced for the Tobacco Institute and released under the terms of the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement.
  133. ^ Barnes DE, Bero LA (1998). "Why review articles on the health effects of passive smoking reach different conclusions". JAMA 279 (19): 1566–70. PMID 9605902. 
  134. ^ Trotter L, Chapman S (2003). ""Conclusions about exposure to ETS and health that will be unhelpful to us": how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the 1997 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council report on passive smoking.". Tob Control 12 (Suppl 3:iii): 102-6. PMID 14645955. 
  135. ^ Ong, E. & Glantz, S. (2001). ""Constructing "Sound Science" and "Good Epidemiology": Tobacco, Lawyers, and Public Relations Firmsg.". American Journal of Public Health 91 (11): 1749–1757. PMID 11684593. 
  136. ^ Garne D, Watson M, Chapman S, Byrne F (2005). "Environmental tobacco smoke research published in the journal Indoor and Built Environment and associations with the tobacco industry". Lancet 365 (9461): 804-9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17990-2. PMID 15733724. 
  137. ^ Executive Summary of the U.S. Surgeon General's Report, 2006.
  138. ^ Reduction in the Incidence of Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Citywide Smoking Ordinance. American Heart Association (2006-10-3). Retrieved on 2007-01-18.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Passive Smoking - The Facts for Free (1084 words)
Young children, by necessity, spend a lot of time at home and maternal smoking is one of the major sources of passive smoking because of the child's close proximity to their parents during early childhood.
Passive smoking is known to be one of the main contributing factors in the development of childhood asthma.
There is also the chance that passive smoking may have a negative effect on a child's cognitive abilities, impairing their ability to read or use reasoning skills.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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