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Encyclopedia > Passion (Christianity)
Major events in Jesus's life in the Gospels

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The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. The Crucifixion is an event central to Christian beliefs. The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... This article presents a description of Jesus life, as based on the four gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Adoration of the Shepherds (1535-40), by Florentine Mannerist painter Agnolo Bronzino The Nativity of Jesus, or simply the Nativity, refers to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, although it is also used for the birth of Mary, especially in iconography. ... The baptism of Jesus is an event recounted in the New Testament in which Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... The temptation of Christ in Christianity, refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the Synoptic Gospels, at Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... The Twelve Apostles (, apostolos, Liddell & Scott, Strongs G652, someone sent forth/sent out) were men that according to the Synoptic Gospels and Christian tradition, were chosen from among the disciples (students) of Jesus for a mission. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the church calendar observed by Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant Christians. ... Jesus vertreibt die Händler aus dem Tempel by Giovanni Paolo Pannini The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, Matthew 21... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... According to gospel, the Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ... Paraclete comes from the Koine Greek word (Strongs G3875) meaning one who consoles or one who intercedes on our behalf, which appears in the New Testament in the Gospel of John (14:16, 14:26, 15:26, 16:7). ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... The Death of Jesus and the Resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Christian doctrine of the Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to heaven in the presence of His disciples, following his resurrection. ... The Second Coming or Last Coming refers to the Christian and Islamic belief in the coming or return of Jesus Christ to fulfill Messianic prophecy, such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God (also called the Reign of God), including the... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE to 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... Crucifixion of St. ...


The etymological origins of the word lie in the Christian Latin passio, (stemming from patis- to suffer) [1] and first appearing in the 2nd century precisely to describe the travails and suffering of Jesus in this present context. The word passion has since taken on a more general application. The term the Agony of Jesus is sometimes used alternately, although is generally more specifically applied to Jesus' agony of mind while praying before his arrest: the Agony in the Garden [of Gethsemane]. Those parts of the four Gospels that describe these events are known as The "Passion narratives". The non-canonical Gospel of Peter is also a Passion narrative. Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Agony (Greek αγωνία, agonía - the suffering, the struggle) is unbearable suffering unto death which, unrelieved, must be borne regardless. ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Gospel of Peter was a prominent passion narrative in the early history of Christianity, but over time passed out of common usage. ...

Contents

The Passion according to the Gospels

The Mocking of Christ by Titian
The Mocking of Christ by Titian
Passion of Christ, simultaneous painting from ca. 1480-90 from St. James' church in Toruń

The narratives of the Passion are found in the four canonical gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Three of these, known as the Synoptic Gospels, give very similar accounts. The Gospel of John includes additional details and some differences. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x3179, 383 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passion Mark 15 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x3179, 383 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passion Mark 15 ... Titians self-portrait, 1566. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1858x1490, 640 KB) // File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passion (Christianity) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1858x1490, 640 KB) // File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passion (Christianity) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... The Synoptic Gospels is a term used by modern New Testament scholars for the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. ...


The Passion begins at Matthew 26, Mark 14, Luke 22 and John 12 with the conspiracy against Jesus then unfolds in eight scenes:


A dinner party a few days before Passover. A woman breaks in uninvited and anoints Jesus. He says that for this she will always be remembered. In Jerusalem, the Last Supper shared by Jesus and his disciples. Jesus gives final instructions, predicts his betrayal, and tells them all to remember him. On the path to Gethsemane after the meal. Jesus tells them they will all fall away that night; after Peter protests he will not, Jesus says Peter will deny him three times before the cock crows. Gethsemane, later that night. As the disciples rest, Jesus prays; then a mob led by Judas Iscariot arrests Jesus, and all the others run away. The high priest’s palace, later that night. The mob brings Jesus to the Sanhedrin (Jewish supreme court); they examine Jesus and determine he deserves to die. They send him to Pontius Pilate. The courtyard outside the high priest’s palace, the same time. Peter has followed Jesus and joined the mob awaiting Jesus’ fate; they suspect he is a sympathizer, so Peter denies he knows Jesus. Suddenly the cock crows and Peter remembers what Jesus had said. The governor’s palace, early morning. Pilate, the Roman governor, examines Jesus, decides he is innocent; the Jewish leaders and the crowd demand Jesus’ death; Pilate gives them the choice of saving Barabbas, a criminal, or saving Jesus. In response to the screaming mob Pilate sends Jesus out to be crucified. Golgotha, a hill outside Jerusalem, later morning through mid afternoon. Jesus is crucified and dies. The last meal is a traditional part of a condemned prisoners last day. ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ... Saint Peter, also known as Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha — original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14) — was one of the Twelve Apostles whom Jesus chose from among his original disciples. ... For the American black metal band, see Judas Iscariot (band). ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Ecce Homo (Behold the Man!), Antonio Ciseris depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. ... Give us Barabbas!, from The Bible and its Story Taught by One Thousand Picture Lessons, 1910 In the Christian narrative of the Passion of Jesus, Barabbas, according to some texts Jesus bar-Abbas, (Aramaic Bar-abbâ, son of the father), was the insurrectionary whom Pontius Pilate freed at the Passover...


During the arrest in Gethsemane, someone (Peter according to John) takes a sword and cuts off the high priest's servant's ear. According to the Synoptics, the high priest who examines Jesus is Caiaphas; in John, it is Annas, Caiaiphas' father in law. Yhosef Bar Kayafa (Hebrew יְהוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא, ), also known as Caiaphas (Greek Καϊάφας) in the New Testament, was the Jewish high priest to whom Jesus was taken after his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, and who played a part in Jesus trial before the Roman Governor, Pontius Pilate. ... Annas is a Jew mentioned in the Gospels as being high priest (Kohen) from AD 7 to 4, as well as president of the Sanhedrin before which Peter and John were brought (Acts 4:6). ...


The Gospel of Luke states that Pilate sent Jesus to be judged by Herod Antipas because as a Galilean he was under his jurisdiction. Herod was excited at first to see Jesus and hoped Jesus would perform a miracle for him and asked Jesus several questions but Jesus did not answer. Herod then mocked him and sent him back to Pilate after giving him an "elegant" robe to wear. [2] The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... Herod Antipas (short for Antipatros) was an ancient leader (tetrarch, meaning ruler of a quarter) of Galilee and Perea. ...


All the Gospels have a man named Barabbas[3] released by Pilate instead of Jesus. Matthew, Mark and John have Pilate offer a choice between Jesus and Barabbas to the crowd; Luke lists no choice offered by Pilate, but represents the crowd demanding his release. Give us Barabbas!, from The Bible and its Story Taught by One Thousand Picture Lessons, 1910 In the Christian narrative of the Passion of Jesus, Barabbas, according to some texts Jesus bar-Abbas, (Aramaic Bar-abbâ, son of the father), was the insurrectionary whom Pontius Pilate freed at the Passover...


In all the Gospels, Pilate asks Jesus if he is King of the Jews and Jesus replies So you say. Once condemned by Pilate, he was flogged before execution. The Canonical Gospels, except Luke, record that Jesus was then taken by the soldiers to the Praetorium where, according to Matthew and Mark, the whole contingent of soldiers was called together. They placed a purple robe on him, put a crown of thorns on his head, and according to Matthew, put a rod in his hand. They mocked him by hailing him as King of the Jews, paying homage and hitting him on the head with the rod. Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... The Praetorium (also called Pilates House) is the place in what is now the Antonia Fortress where Jesus of Nazareth was brought to trial before Pontius Pilate. ... The term purple in its widest sense refers to a wide variety of shades of color occurring between blue and red. ... A dragon robe from Qing Dynasty of China A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. ... Jesus Carrying the Cross as portrayed by El Greco - Domenikos Theotokopoulos, 1580 In Christianity, the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his crucifixion. ... Matthew may refer to: // Arnold Mathew, the first Old Catholic bishop in the United Kingdom Gospel of Matthew, book of the Bible Matthew Blagden Hale, the first Bishop of Perth Matthew F. Hale, the leader of the white supremacist group formerly known as the World Church of the Creator Matthew... A sceptre or scepter is an ornamental staff held by a ruling monarch, a prominent item of kingly regalia. ... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ...


According to the Gospel of John, Pilate had Jesus brought out a second time, wearing the purple robe and the crown of thorns, in order to appeal his innocence before the crowd, saying "Ecce homo", "Here is the man". But, John represents, the priests urged the crowd to demand Jesus' death. Pilate resigned himself to the decision, washing his hands (according to Matthew) before the people as a sign that Jesus' blood would not be upon him. This article is a work in progress being translated from the German Wiki Ecce Homo by Quentin Massys, ca. ...


Mark and Matthew record that Jesus was returned his own clothes, prior to being led out for execution. According to the Gospel accounts he was forced, like other victims of crucifixion, to drag his own cross to Golgotha[4], the location of the execution. According to the Synoptic Gospels, while on the way to Golgotha, the soldiers forced a man passing by, Simon of Cyrene, to carry Jesus' cross for him. The Gospel of Mark gives the names of Simon's children, Alexander and Rufus. Luke adds that Jesus' female followers were following him, and mourning his fate, but that he responded by quoting Hosea 10:8. Calvary (Golgotha) was the hill outside Jerusalem on which Jesus was crucified. ... According to the Gospel of Mark (15:21-22), Matthew (27:32), and Luke (23:26) Simon of Cyrene (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn) was compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as... The Gospel of Mark, ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is traditionally the second Gospel of the New Testament. ...

Crucifixion of Christ by Albrecht Altdorfer
Crucifixion of Christ by Albrecht Altdorfer

The Synoptic Gospels state that on arrival at Golgotha, Jesus was offered wine laced with myrrh to lessen the pain, but he refused it. Jesus was then crucified, according to Mark, at the third hour (9 AM), but according to John at the sixth hour (noon). Pilate had a plaque fixed to Jesus' cross inscribed, (according to John) in Hebrew, Greek and the Latin - Iesu Nazarenus Rex Iudeorum,[5] meaning Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. Mark has the plaque say simply, King of the Jews. The Gospels then state that they divided Jesus' clothes between the soldiers except for one garment for which they cast lots. The Gospel of John claims that this fulfills a prophecy from Psalms 22:18. Some of the crowd who had been following taunted Jesus, saying "He trusts in God; let God deliver him now!", and suggested that Jesus might perform a miracle to release himself from the cross. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2088, 462 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passion Mark 15 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x2088, 462 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passion Mark 15 ... The Battle of Alexander (1529) Wood, 158,4 x 120,3 cm Alte Pinakothek, Munich Albrecht Altdorfer (c. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the juice of fruits, usually grapes, although a number of other fruits, such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant, may also be fermented. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... Noon is the time exactly through the day, written 12:00 in the 24-hour clock and 12:00 noon in the 12-hour clock. ... Titulus of Pyramus, the cubicularius Lucius Vitellius the elder See also Titulus (Roman Catholic) for Roman churches called tituli, or titulus (disambiguation) for more meanings. ... A Crucifix with the INRI plaque attached, the Holy Spirit Church in Košice, Slovakia A Crucifix with the stylized INRI plaque attached, the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: Jesus the... Lots has several meanings: Legion (demon), the Gadarene demon, sometimes called Lots Arabian Parts or Arabic parts or Lots, such as the Lot of Fortune, which are astrological points used for prediction ... According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


According to the Gospels, two thieves were also crucified, one on each side of him. According to Matthew and Mark, both thieves reviled Jesus. According to Luke, one of the thieves reviled Jesus, while the other declared Jesus innocent and begged that he might be remembered when Jesus came to his kingdom. Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared. ...


John records that Mary his mother and two other women stood by the cross as did a disciple, described as the one whom Jesus loved. Jesus committed his mother to this disciple's care. According to the synoptics, the sky became dark at midday and the darkness lasted for three hours, until the ninth hour when Jesus cried out My God, why have you forsaken me?[6] The centurion standing guard, who had seen how Jesus died, declared Jesus innocent (Luke) or Son of God (Matthew, Mark).


John also says that, as was the custom, the soldiers came and broke the legs of the thieves, so that they would die faster, but that on coming to Jesus they found he had already died. A soldier pierced his side with a spear. Hunting spear and knife, from Mesa Verde National Park. ...


The various things that Jesus spoke during the Crucifixion are collected from the different accounts as the Last Words of Christ.


Other Passion narratives, traditions and scholarship

Veronica


A tradition linked to icons of Jesus holds that Veronica was a pious woman of Jerusalem who gave her kerchief to him to wipe his forehead. When he handed it back to her the image of His face miraculously impressed upon it. Christ the Redeemer (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek , eikon, image) is an image, picture, or representation; it is a sign or likeness that stands for an object by signifying or representing it, or by analogy, as in semiotics; in computers an icon is a symbol on the... Abgar of Edessa in a 10th-century icon, displaying the miraculous image of Edessa, a veronica Statue of Veronica, used during the Good Friday procession in Żejtun,Malta. ...


The pillar


By tradition, Jesus was tethered to a pillar while flogged.


Flagellation


Archeological evidence indicates that the whip used for such punishment may have been studded with small metal pieces.


Rufus and Alexander


The sons of Simon of Cyrene are named as if they might have been early Christian figures known to Mark's intended audience (Brown et al. 628). Paul also lists a Rufus in Romans 16:13. Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the epistles, or letters, included in the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ...


The garments of Jesus


Most garments of the region were made of woven strips of material that were about eight inches wide and included decorative braids from two to four inches wide. The garments could be disassembled and the strips of cloth were frequently recycled. A single garment might hold sections of many different dates. However, in Damascus and Bethlehem cloth was woven on wider looms, some Damascene being 40 inches wide. Traditional Bethlehem cloth is striped like pyjama material. [7] It would thus appear that Jesus' "seamless robe" was made of cloth from either Bethlehem or Damascus. The Seamless Robe of Jesus (or Holy Tunic, Holy Coat of Trier, Holy Coat of Trèves) is the robe said to have been worn by Jesus during (or shortly before) his crucifixion. ...


The Gospel of Peter

Further claims concerning the Passion are made in some non-canonical early writings. Another passion narrative is found in the fragmentary Gospel of Peter, long known to scholars through references, and discovered in Cairo in 1884. The Gospel of Peter was a prominent passion narrative in the early history of Christianity, but over time passed out of common usage. ...


The narrative begins with Pilate washing his hands, as in Matthew, but the Jews and Herod refuse this. Joseph of Arimathea, before Jesus has been crucified, asks for his body, and Herod says he was going to take it down to comply with the Jewish custom of not leaving a dead body hung on a tree overnight. Herod then turns Jesus over the people, who drag him, give him the purple robe, crown him with thorns, and beat and flog him. Joseph of Arimathea, according to the Gospels, was the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after his crucifixion. ...


There are also two criminals on each side of him and, as in Luke, one begs Jesus for forgiveness. The writer says Jesus was silent as they crucified him, "...as if in no pain." [8] Jesus is labelled the King of Israel on his cross and his clothes are divided and gambled over.


As in the canonical gospels, darkness covers the land. Jesus is also given vinegar to drink. Peter has "My Power, My Power, why have you forsaken me?" as the last words of Jesus, rather than "My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?" as quoted in Mark. He is then "taken up", possibly a euphemism for death or maybe an allusion to heaven. [9] Peter then has a resurrection, also somewhat the same but somewhat different from the other books. A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ...


Serapion urged the exclusion of the Gospel of Peter from the Church because Docetists were using it to bolster their theological claims, which Serapion rejected. [10] Many modern scholars also reject this conclusion, as the statement about Jesus being silent "as if in no pain" seems to be based on Isaiah's description of the suffering servant. Isaiah 53:7. [11] Serapion was Patriarch of Antioch (191 - 211). ... In Christianity, Docetism is the belief, regarded by most theologians as heretical, that Jesus did not have a physical body; rather, that his body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason) means reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God. ...


Old Testament prophecy of the Passion

Christians interpret at least three passages of the Old Testament as prophecies about Jesus’ Passion.


The first and most obvious is the one from Isaiah 52: 13 – 53: 12 (either 8th or 6th century B.C.). This prophetic oracle describes a sinless man who will atone for the sins of his people. By his voluntary suffering, he will save sinners from the just punishment of God. Jesus perfectly fulfills this prophecy. E.g., “He had no form or comeliness that we should look at him, and no beauty that we should desire him. He was despised and rejected by men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not. Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that made us whole, and with his stripes we are healed” (53: 2-5).


The second prophecy of Christ’s Passion is the ancient text which Jesus himself quoted, while he was dying on the cross. From the cross, Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” These words of Jesus were a quotation of the ancient Psalm 22. David, in Psalm 22, foretold the sufferings of the messiah. E.g., “I am a worm and no man, the reproach of men and the outcast of the people. All who see me, laugh me to scorn, they draw apart their lips, and wag their heads: ‘He trusts in the Lord: let him free him, let him deliver him if he loves him.’ Stand not far from me, for I am troubled; be thou near at hand: for I have no helper… Yea, dogs are round about me; a company of evildoers encircle me; they have pierced my hands and feet – I can count all my bones – they stare and gloat over me; they divide my garments among them, and for my raiment they cast lots” (Psalm 22: 7-19).


The third main prophecy of the Passion is from the Book of Wisdom. Protestant Christians place it in the Apocrypha, Catholics among deuterocanonical books. But it was written about 150 B.C., and many have understood these verses (12-20 of chapter 2) as a direct prophecy of Jesus’ Passion. E.g., “Let us lie in wait for the just, because he is not for our turn… He boasteth that he hath the knowledge of God, and calleth himself the son of God…and glorieth that he hath God for his father. Let us see then if his words be true… For if he be the true son of God, he will defend him, and will deliver him from the hands of his enemies. Let us examine him by outrages and tortures… Let us condemn him to a most shameful death … These things they thought, and were deceived, for their own malice blinded them” (Wisdom 2: 12-20). Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ...


In addition to the above, it deserves to be mentioned that at least two other, less elaborate messianic prophecies were fulfilled in Jesus’ crucifixion. Namely, the following Old Testament passages.


“Many are the afflictions of the just man; but the Lord delivers him from all of them. He guards all his bones: not even one of them shall be broken” (Psalm 34: 20).


“And they shall look upon him whom they have pierced; and they shall mourn for him as one mourneth for an only son; and they shall grieve over him, as the manner is to grieve for the death of the firstborn” (Zechariah 12: 10).


The Gospel explains how these old prophecies were fulfilled in Jesus’ crucifixion.


“So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who had been crucified with Jesus; but when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water… For these things took place that the scripture might be fulfilled, ‘Not a bone of him shall be broken.’ And again another scripture says, ‘They shall look on him whom they have pierced’” (John 19: 32-37).


New Testament prophecy of the Passion

In the Gospel of Mark, Jesus is described as prophesying his own Passion and his Resurrection three times: The Gospel of Mark, ascribed to Mark the Evangelist, is traditionally the second Gospel of the New Testament. ...

  1. On the way to Caesarea Philippi, predicting that the Son of Man will be killed and rise within three days
  2. After the transfiguration of Jesus, again predicting that the Son of Man will be killed and rise within three days
  3. On the way to Jerusalem, predicting that the Son of Man will be delivered to the leading Pharisees and Sadducees, be condemned to death, delivered to the Gentiles, mocked, scourged, killed, and rise within three days

Christians argue that these are cases of genuine and fulfilled prophecy and many scholars see semitic features and old tradition in Mark 9:31. [12]. Skeptics argue they are cases of postdiction (prophecy after the events have already occurred). Caesarea Philippi is the name of a town 95 miles north of Jerusalem, 35 miles southwest from Damascus, 1150 feet above sea level. ... The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-6, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew perushim, from parash, meaning to separate, from a root related to the Aramaic wordas upharsin (and divided) in the writing on the wall in Daniel 5:25. ... The sect of the Sadducees (or Zadokites and other variants) - which may have originated as a political party - was founded in the 2nd century BC and ceased to exist sometime == after the 1st century AD. Their rivals, the Pharisees, are said to have originated in the same time period, but... A Gentile refers to a non-Israelite; the word is derived from the Latin term gens (meaning clan or a group of families) and is often employed in the plural. ... Prophecy, in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Postdiction, post-shadowing, retroactive clairvoyance, and prediction after the fact are terms used by critics to refer to those who use hindsight to claim to have predicted a significant event such as a plane crash or natural disaster. ...


After the first prophecy, the Gospel of Mark states that Jesus was rebuked by Peter, eliciting the well known response by Jesus of "Get thee behind me, Satan". In particular Peter is criticised for having in mind the things of men not of God, and though many Christians interpret this as an assertion of Jesus' divinity, other scholars, and many early gnostics, argue that it is a rebuke of the Christian school of thought associated with Simon Peter, that which was to become the official Roman Catholic church. Sceptics argue that the events prophesied are inventions. Divinity has a number of related uses in the field of religious belief and study. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


After the third prophecy, the Gospel of Mark states that the brothers James and John ask Jesus to be his left and right hand men, but Jesus asks if they can drink from the cup he must drink from. They say that they can do this. Jesus confirms this, but say that the places at his right and left hand are reserved for others. Many Christian see this as being a reference to the two criminals at Jesus' crucifixion, thus relating to the Passion. The cup is sometimes interpreted as the symbol of his death, in the light of Jesus' prayer at Gethsemane "Let this cup be taken from me!" For people and places called Saint James, see the diambiguation page. ... John the Apostle (יוחנן The LORD is merciful, Standard Hebrew Yoḥanan, Tiberian Hebrew Yôḥānān), also known as John the Revelator, was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ...


Instruments of the Passion

In Christian symbolism the Instruments of the Passion are the objects associated with Jesus' Passion. Each of the Instruments have become an object of veneration among many Christians and have been pictured in icons and supposedly recovered as relics. The Instruments of the Passion are: Christ the Redeemer (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek , eikon, image) is an image, picture, or representation; it is a sign or likeness that stands for an object by signifying or representing it, or by analogy, as in semiotics; in computers an icon is a symbol on the... There are many relics attributed to Jesus that people believe or believed to be authentic relics of the Gospel accounts. ...

Deconstructing a Roman pillar. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... Jesus Carrying the Cross as portrayed by El Greco - Domenikos Theotokopoulos, 1580 In Christianity, the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his crucifixion. ... The traditional form of the Western Christian cross, known as the Latin cross. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... A Crucifix with the INRI plaque attached, the Holy Spirit Church in Košice, Slovakia A Crucifix with the stylized INRI plaque attached, the cornfields near Mureck in rural Styria, Austria INRI is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM, which translates to English as: Jesus the... Relics that are claimed to be the Holy Nails with which Christ was crucified are objects of veneration among some Christians. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Lance. ... Flag of Georgia, a variant of the Jerusalem cross representing the five Holy Wounds The Five Holy Wounds or Five Sacred Wounds of Christ were the five piercing wounds inflicted upon Jesus during his crucifixion. ... In Christian mythology, the Holy Grail was the dish, plate, or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper, said to possess miraculous powers. ... The Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ...

Stations of the Cross

In the Catholic Church, the Passion story is depicted in the Stations of the Cross (via crucis, also translated more literally as "Way of the Cross"). As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... The Stations of the Cross (or Way of the Cross; in Latin, Via Crucis or Via Dolorosa) refers to the depiction of the final hours (or Passion) of Jesus, and the Catholic devotion commemorating the Passion. ...


Musical settings of Gospel narratives

The reading of the Passion during Holy Week dates back to the fourth century. It began to be intoned (rather than just spoken) in the Middle Ages, at least as early at the 8th century. 9th-century manuscripts have "litterae significativae" indicating interpretive chant, and later manuscript begin to specify exact notes to be sung. By the 1200s different singers were used for different characters in the narrative, a practice which became fairly universal by the 15th century, when polyphonic settings of the turba passages began to appear also. (Turba, while literally meaning "crowd," is used in this case to mean any passage in which more than one speaker speaks simultaneously.) Empty page!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! We don,t know anything about it. ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... Turba literally means crowd in Latin. ...


In the later fifteenth century a number of new styles began to emerge:

  • Responsorial Passions set all of Christ's words and the turba parts polyphonically
  • Through-composed Passions were entirely polyphonic (also called motet Passions). Jacob Obrecht wrote the earliest extant example of this type.
  • Summa Passionis settings were a synopsis of all four Gospels, including the Seven Last Words (a text later set by Haydn and Théodore Dubois). These were discouraged for church use but circulated widely nonetheless.

In the sixteenth century, settings like these, and further developments, were created for the Catholic church by Victoria, William Byrd, Jacobus Gallus, Francisco Guerrero, Orlando di Lasso, and Cypriano de Rore. Jacob Obrecht Jacob Obrecht (November 22, 1458 – late July, 1505) was a Dutch composer of the Renaissance. ... The seven sayings of Jesus on the cross are a traditional collection of seven short phrases uttered by Jesus at his crucifixion gathered from the four Gospels. ... Franz [1] Joseph Haydn (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent most of his career as a court musician for... François Clément Théodore Dubois (August 24, 1837 – June 11, 1924) was a French composer, organist and music teacher. ... Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – August 20, 1611) was a gifted Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. ... William Byrd William Byrd (1540? – 4 July 1623) was one of the most celebrated English composers of the Renaissance. ... Jacobus Gallus Carniolus (Jacob Handl) (1550 – July 18, 1591) was a Slovenian composer. ... Francisco Guerrero (October 4 (?), 1528 – November 8, 1599) was a Spanish composer of the Renaissance. ... Orlande de Lassus, a. ... Cypriano de Rore or Cipriano de Rore (1515 or 1516 – 11 September to 20 September 1565) was a Flemish composer and teacher. ...


Martin Luther wrote, "The Passion of Christ should not be acted out in words and pretense, but in real life." Despite this, sung Passion performances were common in Lutheran churches right from the start, in both Latin and German, beginning as early as Laetare Sunday (three weeks before Easter) and continuing through Holy Week. Luther’s friend and collaborator Johann Walther wrote responsorial Passions which were used as models by Lutheran composers for centuries, and “summa Passionis” versions continued to circulate, despite Luther’s express disapproval. Later sixteenth-century passions included choral “exordium” (introduction) and “conclusio” sections with additional texts. In the seventeenth century came the development of “oratorio” passions which led to J.S. Bach’s passions, accompanied by instruments, with interpolated texts (then called “madrigal” movements) such as sinfonias, other Scripture passages, Latin motets, chorale arias, and more. Such settings were created by Bartholomeus Gesius and Heinrich Schütz. Thomas Strutz wrote a passion (1664) with arias for Jesus himself, pointing to the standard oratorio tradition of Schütz, Carissimi, and (later) Handel, although these composers seem to have thought that putting words in Jesus’ mouth was beyond the pale. The practice of using recitative for the Evangelist (rather than plainsong) was a development of court composers in northern Germany and only crept into church compositions at the end of the 17th century. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Laetare Sunday (from the Latin verb laetari, meaning to be joyful) is a name formerly often used, and less commonly used today, to denote the fourth Sunday of the season of Lent in the Christian liturgical calendar. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... The 1748 Haussmann portrait of the composer Bach redirects here. ... In music, a sinfonia can be one of three things: 1) In the very late Renaissance and early Baroque, a sinfonia was an alternate name for a canzona, fantasia or ricercar. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... Heinrich Schütz. ... An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... Heinrich Schütz. ... Giacomo Carissimi (baptized April 18, 1605 – January 12, 1674, Rome), was an Italian composer, one of the most celebrated masters of the early Baroque, or, more accurately, the Roman School of music. ... George Frideric Handel, 1733 George Frideric Handel (February 23, 1685 – April 14, 1759) was a German/British Baroque composer who was a leading composer of concerti grossi, operas and oratorios. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, cantatas and similar works, is described as a melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ...


The best known Protestant musical settings of the Passion are by Johann Sebastian Bach, who wrote two Passions which have survived intact to the present day, one based on the Gospel of John (the St John Passion), the other on the Gospel of Matthew (the St Matthew Passion). In more recent times, the 20th century Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki has written a St Luke Passion, based on the Gospel of Luke. See also Passion cantata. The 1748 Haussmann portrait of the composer Bach redirects here. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... Several composers have written St. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Matthäuspassion (English: St Matthew Passion or The Passion According to St Matthew), BWV 244, is a musical composition written by Johann Sebastian Bach for solo voices, double choir and double orchestra, with libretto by Picander (Christian Friedrich Henrici). ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... A Passion cantata is a cantata that takes as its theme the Passion of Jesus Christ, i. ...


A relative of the musical Passion is the custom of setting the text of Stabat Mater to music. Mater dolorosa became an iconic type, as in this sixteenth-century Spanish version by Luis de Morales (c. ...


Passion plays

Non-musical settings of the Passion story are generally called Passion plays. One famous cycle is performed at intervals at Oberammergau. The Passion figures among the scenes in the English mystery plays in more than one cycle of dramatic vignettes. There have also been a number of films telling the passion story, with a prominent recent example being The Passion of the Christ. A Passion play is a dramatic presentation depicting the suffering and death of Jesus. ... Oberammergau from the summit of Kofel Oberammergau is a village in Bavaria in Germany, most famous for its production of a passion play depicting the life and death of Jesus. ... Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... The Passion of the Christ (2004) is a film about the last twelve hours of the life of Jesus Christ, known to Christians as the Passion. Directed by Mel Gibson, it was nominated for three Academy Awards: best cinematography, best makeup, and best original score. ...


Notes

  1. ^ OED
  2. ^ Luke 23:8-12
  3. ^ Bar-abbas means son of Abbas. Some manuscripts of Matthew say Jesus Barabbas, suggesting that an early version of the story contrasted the fate of two men both named Jesus.
  4. ^ The meaning of Golgotha is "place of a skull".
  5. ^ The original Greek of the Gospels reads Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ Bασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, "Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews".
  6. ^ Mark reports Jesus said Eloi, eloi lama sacachthani? in Aramaic; Matthew reports Eli, Eli....
  7. ^ Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, exhibition notes
  8. ^ Miller 403. This is the passage that was condemned as possibly leading to Docetism.
  9. ^ Miller 403
  10. ^ Brown 11
  11. ^ Miller 403
  12. ^ Brown 140

Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... In Christianity, Docetism is the belief, regarded by most theologians as heretical, that Jesus did not have a physical body; rather, that his body was an illusion, as was his crucifixion. ...

References

  • Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament Doubleday 1997 ISBN 0-385-24767-2
  • Brown, Raymond E. et al. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary Prentice Hall 1990 ISBN 0-13-614934-0
  • Kilgallen, John J. A Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Mark Paulist Press 1989 ISBN 0-8091-3059-9
  • Miller, Robert J. Editor The Complete Gospels Polebridge Press 1994 ISBN 0-06-065587-9

See also

A Passion cantata is a cantata that takes as its theme the Passion of Jesus Christ, i. ...

External links


 
 

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