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Encyclopedia > Passerine
Passerines

American Tree Sparrow
(Spizella arborea)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Families
Many, see text

A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. More than half of all species of bird are passerines. Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines are one of the most spectacularly successful vertebrate orders: with around 5,400 species, they are roughly twice as diverse as the largest of the mammal orders, the Rodentia. american tree sparrow public domain from USFWS File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Spizella arborea (Wilson, 1810) The American Tree Sparrow, Spizella arborea, is a medium-sized sparrow. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria Placozoa Bilateria  Acoelomorpha  Orthonectida  Rhombozoa  Myxozoa  Superphylum Deuterostomia     Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Many - see section below. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... In biology, a species is a kind of organism. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of mammary glands... Families Many, see text The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ...


The group gets its name from the Latin name for the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus). Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Binomial name Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758) The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) occurs naturally in most of Europe and Asia, though it is replaced by allied forms in some areas. ...

Contents


Characteristics

Many passerines are songbirds and have complex muscles to control their syrinx; all of them gape in the nest as infants to beg for food. Altrices are birds that hatch in an immature state and are unable to feed themselves for some time. ...


The order is divided into two suborders, Tyranni, and Passeri (oscines). Oscines have the most control of their syrinx muscles and are true songbirds (though some of them, such as the crow, do not sound like it). The suborder Tyranni (the suboscines) of passerine birds include about 1,000 fairly primitive species, the large majority of which are South American. ... A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... Species See text Crow on a branch, Maruyama Kyo (1733-1795) The true crows are in the genus Corvus; they are large Passerine birds. ...


Most passerines are smaller than typical members of other avian orders.


Origin

The evolutionary history of and relationships among the passerine families remained rather mysterious until around the end of the 20th century. Many passerine families were grouped together on the basis of morphological similarities which, it is now believed, are the result of convergent evolution, not a close genetic relationship. For example, the "wrens" of the northern hemisphere, of Australia, and of New Zealand all look very similar and behave in similar ways, and yet belong to three far-flung branches of the passerine family tree: they are as unrelated as it is possible to be while yet remaining Passeriformes. In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution describes the process whereby organisms not closely related independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate and sometimes varying ecosystems. ...


Much research remains to be done, but a series of biochemical studies are gradually revealing a clearer picture of passerine origins and evolution. It is now thought that the early passerines evolved in Gondwana at about the time that the southern supercontinent was breaking up. This led to the Tyranni and, a little later, to a great radiation of forms in Australia-New Guinea (the Passeri or songbirds). A major branch of the passerine tree, the Passerida (or sparrow-like forms), emerged either as the sister group to another (the Corvida, or crow-like birds), or more likely as a subgroup of the Corvida, and reached the northern hemisphere, where there was a further explosive radiation of new species. Since then, there has been extensive mixing, with northern forms returning to the south, southern forms moving north, and so on. Pangea broke into the two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The southern supercontinent Gondwana (originally Gondwanaland) included most of the landmasses which make up todays continents of the southern hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Arabia, Australia-New Guinea and New Zealand. ... The suborder Tyranni (the suboscines) of passerine birds include about 1,000 fairly primitive species, the large majority of which are South American. ... Australia-New Guinea, also called Sahul or Meganesia, is made up of the continent of Australia and the islands of New Guinea and Tasmania. ... A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ...

Lemon-bellied Flycatcher
Lemon-bellied Flycatcher

File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Taxonomy of passerines

The suborder Tyranni (the suboscines) of passerine birds include about 1,000 fairly primitive species, the large majority of which are South American. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Species See text. ... Genera Smithornis Pseudocalyptomena Corydon Cymbirhynchus Eurylaimus Psarisomus Serilophus Calyptomena The broadbills are a family of small passerine bird species found in tropical southeast Asia, with a few species in Africa. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Genera Formicarius Chamaeza Pittasoma Grallaria Hylopezus Myrmothera Grallaricula The Formiciidae are a family of smallish passerine bird species of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. ... Genus Conopophaga The gnateaters are a family of eight small passerine bird species found in South America. ... Genera Pteroptochos Scelorchilus Rhinocrypta Teledromas Liosceles Psilorhamphus Merulaxis Melanopareia Eugralla Myornis Scytalopus Acropternis The Tapaculos are a family of eight small passerine bird species found in South America. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Genera Chloropipo Manacus Corapipo Chiroxiphia Pipra Lepidothrix Antilophia Masius Machaeropterus Xenopipo Heterocercus Neopelma Ilicura Tyranneutes Tyranneutes The manakins are a family of some sixty small passerine bird species of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. ... Genera Philepitta Neodrepanis The asities are a family of small passerine bird species found in Madagascar. ... Genera Acanthisitta Rifleman Xenicus Traversia (extinct) Pachyplichas (extinct) The New Zealand wrens, family Acanthisittidae, are tiny passerines restricted to New Zealand. ... A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Oscines of Passeriformes (ca. ... Genera Menura A Lyrebird is either of two large ground-dwelling Australian birds, most notable for their extraordinary ability to mimic natural and artificial sounds from their environment. ... Scrub-birds are shy, secretive, ground-dwelling birds of the family Atrichornithidae. ... There are 7 species of Australasian treecreeper in the passerine bird family Climacteridae. ... Genera Malurus Sipodotus Clytomyias Stipiturus Amytornis The Maluridae are a family of small, insectivouous passerine birds endemic to Australia and New Guinea. ... Genera  Anthochaera  Acanthagenys  Plectorhyncha  Philemon  Xanthornyzma  Entomyzon  Manorina  Xanthotis  Meliphaga  Lichenostomus  Melithreptus  Notiomystis  Glycichaera  Lichmera  Trichodere  Grantiella  Phylidonyris  Ramsayornis  Conopophila  Acanthorhynchus  Certhionyx  Myzomela  Anthornis  Prosthemadera  Epthianura  Ashbyia The honeyeaters are a large and diverse family of small to medium sized birds most common in Australia and New Guinea, but also... Subfamilies Pardalotinae Dasyornithidar Acanthizinae The large and diverse passerine bird family Pardalotidae includes the pardalotes, scrubwrens, thornbills, gerygones and allies. ... The bird family Petroicidae includes roughly 45 species in about 15 genera. ... Species Orthonyx temminckii Orthonyx spaldingii Orthonyx novaeguineae Orthonyx is the scientific name given in 1820, by C. J. Temminck, to a little bird, which, from the straightness of its claws character somewhat exaggerated by himits large feet and spiny tail, he judged to be generically distinct from any other form. ... The Pomatostomidae or Australo-Papuan babblers are small to medium-sized birds endemic to Australia-New Guinea. ... The family Cinclosomatidae contains 9 species of passerine bird, including the 3 whipbirds, 2 wedgebills, and the quail-thrushes. ... Species Neositta miranda N. chrysoptera The sitellas are a family of small passerine birds found only in Australasia. ... Subfamilies  Falcunculinae  Pachycephalinae The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and Crested Bellbird, and is part of the Australo-Papuan corvid lineage. ... Subfamilies  Monarchinae  Rhipidurinae  Dicrurinae The family Dicruridae is a relatively recent grouping of a number of seemingly very different birds, mostly from the southern hemisphere, which are more closely related than they at first appear. ... Genera Coracina Campochaera Lalage Campephaga Pericrocotus Hemipus The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine bird species found in the subtropical and tropical Africa, Asia and Australasia. ... Genera Oriolus Sphecotheres Orioles are colourful Old World passerine birds in the family Oriolidae. ... Subfamilies  Artaminae  Cracticinae The family Artamidae gathers together 20 species of mostly crow-like birds native to Australasia and nearby areas. ... For the flowering plant of this name, see Strelitzia Genera Cicinnurus Diphyllodes Epimachus Lophorina Manucodia Paradisaea Parotia Ptiloris Seleucidis Lesser Bird of Paradise Paradisaea minor (c)Roderick Eime The birds of paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes, found in Oceania. ... Genera Platylophus Gymnorhinus Cyanocitta Aphelocoma Cyanocorax Garrulus Cissa Perisoreus Urocissa Cyanopica Dendrocitta Crypsirina Pica Zavattariornis Podoces Nucifraga Pyrrhocorax Ptilostomus Corvus The crow family (Corvidae) has members that are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes; in fact, it includes several that are among the largest. ... Species  Corcorax melanorhamphos  Struthidea cinerea The very small and rather unusual passerine family Corcorachidae now contains just two superficially dissimilar species: the White-winged Chough and the Apostlebird. ... Genus Irena The two fairy-bluebirds are small passerine bird species found in forests and plantations in tropical southern Asia and The Philippines. ... Genera Lanius Eurocephalus Corvinella A shrike is a passerine bird of the family Laniidae which is known for its habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. ... Genera Vireo Hylophilus Vireolanius Cyclarhis The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. ... Genera  Ailuroedus  Archboldia  Amblyornis  Prionodura  Sericulus  Ptilonorhynchus  Chlamydera The 19 bowerbirds and catbirds make up the family Ptilonorhynchidae. ... For other uses, see Lark (disambiguation). ... Genus Chloropsis The Leafbirds are a family of small passerine bird species found in India and southeast Asia. ... Genus Aegithina The ioras are a family of small passerine bird species found in India and southeast Asia. ... Genus Picathartes The picathartes, rockfowl or bald crows are a small family of two passerine bird species found in the rain-forests of tropical west and central Africa. ... Species Bombycilla garrulus Bombycilla japonica Bombycilla cedrorum This is a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. ... Genus Phainoptila Ptilogonys Phainopepla The silky-flycatchers are a small family of passerine birds which occur mainly in Central America, although the range of one species, the Phainopepla, extends into the southwestern USA. They are related to waxwings, and like that group have a soft silky plumage, usually grey or... Species Cinclus cinclus Cinclus leucocephalus Cinclus mexicanus Cinclus pallasii Cinclus schulzi Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the family Cinclidae. ... Genera Anthus Tmetothylacus Motacilla Dendroanthus Macronyx The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. ... Genus Prunella (Vieillot, 1816) The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. ... Genera Passer Petronia Carpospiza Montifringilla This article is about the Old World sparrows in the family Passeridae. ... Genera Many:see text The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. ... This article refers to the New World wood warbler family of birds, the Parulidae. ... Genera many: see text The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. ... Binomial name Peucedramus taeniatus (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1847) The Olive Warbler, Peucedramus taeniatus , is a small passerine bird, the only member of the family Peucedramidae. ... Genera Many, see text Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, the many species of which are found chiefly in the northern hemisphere, but also to a limited extent in Africa and South America. ... Genera Telespiza Psittirostra Dysmorodrepanis Loxioides Rhodacanthis Chloridops Pseudonestor Hemignathus Oreomystis Paroreomyza Loxops Ciridops Vestiaria Drepanis Palmeria Himatione Melamprosops Hawaiian honeycreepers are small passerine birds endemic to Hawaii. ... The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. ... This article is about the sunbird family of birds. ... Genera Prionochilus Dicaeum The flowerpeckers are a family of passerine birds found in tropical southern Asia and Australasia from India east to the Philippines and south to Australia. ... Genera Cinclocerthia Dumetella Margarops Melanoptila Melanotis Mimodes Mimus Nesomimus Oreoscoptes Ramphocinclus Toxostoma The Mimids are a New World family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. ... Species 22 species, see text The nuthatches are a family, Sittidae, of generally very similar small passerine birds found throughout the Northern hemisphere. ... Species C. familiaris C. brachydactyla C. americana C. himalayana C. nipalensis C. discolor The treecreepers are a group of very similar small passerines found throughout the Northern hemisphere. ... This article is about the bird. ... Genus Microbates Ramphocaenus Polioptila The 15 species of small passerine birds in the gnatcatcher family occur in North and South America. ... Genera see text The tits, chickadees, and titmice, family Paridae, are a large family of small passerine birds which occur in the northern hemisphere and Africa. ... Genera see text The tits, chickadees, and titmice, family Paridae, are a large family of small passerine birds which occur in the northern hemisphere and Africa. ... Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. ... Genera Many, see text. ... The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Genus Many: see text The Old World Warblers, family Sylviidae, are a group of more than 280 small insectivorous passerine bird species. ... Binomial name Hypocolius ampelinus Bonaparte, 1850 The Grey Hypocolius (Hypocolius ampelinus; alternative name Hypocolius) is a small passerine bird species. ... Genera Many: see text The Cisticolidae family of small passerine birds is a group of about 110 warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. ... Genera Speirops Zosterops Rukia Cleptornis Tephrozosterops Madanga Lophozosterops Oculocincta Heleia Woodfordia Megazosterops Hypocryptadius The white-eyes are small passerine birds native to tropical and sub-tropical Africa, southern Asia and Australasia. ... Genera almost 50: see text The Old World babblers are a large family of Old World passerine birds. ... Genera many:see text The Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae is a large family of small passerine birds restricted to the Old World. ... Genera 22 genera, see text The Thrushes, family Turdidae, are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. ... Genera Aplonis Poeoptera Grafisia Onychognathus Lamprotornis Aplonis Aplonis Cinnyricinclus Speculipastor Neochicla Spreo Cosmoparus Sarroglossa Creatophora Fregilupus (extinct) Sturnus Leucopsar Basilornis Streptocitta Sarcops Scissirostrum See also Myna, Oxpecker Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. ...

See also

Wikibooks has a Dichotomous Key related to this taxon:
Passeriformes

  Results from FactBites:
 
ninemsn Encarta - Search Results - Passerine (75 words)
Passerine, common name for any of the perching birds belonging to the largest avian order, which includes more than 5,700 highly diverse species and...
Dipper, common name for five species of passerine (perching) birds.
Magpie, common name for any of several passerine (able to perch) birds of the crow family, and for unrelated birds of an Australian family.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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