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Encyclopedia > Passenger pigeon
Passenger Pigeon
Male Passenger Pigeon--chromolithograph
Male Passenger Pigeon--chromolithograph
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Columbiformes
Family: Columbidae
Genus: Ectopistes
Swainson, 1827
Species: E. migratorius
Binomial name
Ectopistes migratorius
(Linnaeus, 1766)

The Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) or Wild Pigeon was a species of pigeon that was once the most common bird in North America. It is estimated that there were as many as five billion passenger pigeons in the United States at the time Europeans colonized North America. [1] They lived in enormous flocks, and during migration, one could see flocks of them a mile (1.6 km) wide and 300 miles (500 km) long, taking several days to pass and probably containing two billion birds. [2] [3] The species had not been common in the Pre-Columbian period, until the devastation of the American Indian population by European diseases.[4] Over the 19th century, the species went from being one of the most abundant birds in the world to extinction.[5] At the time, Passenger Pigeons had one of the largest groups or flocks of any animal, second to only the Desert Locust. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (640x1024, 177 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passenger Pigeon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Folding Card, The Old Woman Who Lived in A Shoe, 6 April 1883. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Columbidae The bird order Columbiformes the includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire, long classified as a second family Raphidae. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... William Swainson William Swainson (October 8, 1789 - December 6, 1855), was an English ornithologist and artist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Schistocerca gregaria ForsskÃ¥l, 1775 Plagues of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) have threatened agricultural production in Africa, the Middle East and Asia for centuries. ...


Some decimation in numbers occurred as a result of loss of habitat, when the Europeans started settling further inland. However, the primary factor emerged when pigeon meat was commercialized as a cheap food for slaves and the poor in the 19th century, resulting in hunting on a massive scale. There was a slow decline in their numbers between about 1800 and 1870, followed by a catastrophic decline between 1870 and 1890,[6] at the end of which they were rare and beyond the point of recovery. 'Martha', thought to be the world's last passenger pigeon, died on September 1, 1914 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “Cincinnati” redirects here. ...


In the 18th century, the Passenger Pigeon in Europe was known to the French as "tourtre" but in New France, the North American bird was called "tourte". In modern French, the bird is known as the pigeon migrateur. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty...


In Algonquian languages, it was called amimi by the Lenape and omiimii by the Ojibwe. The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Lenape (also called Delaware) is a language in the Algonquian language family spoken by the Lenape people. ... The Anishinaabe language or the Ojibwe group of languages or Anishinaabemowin in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). ...

Contents

Description

During summer, passenger pigeons lived in forest habitats throughout North America east of the Rocky Mountains: from eastern and central Canada to and northeast USA. In the winters, they would migrate to southern USA and occasionally to Mexico and Cuba. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ...


The passenger pigeon was a very social bird. It lived in colonies stretching over hundreds of square miles, with up to a hundred nests in a single tree. Pigeon migration, in flocks numbering billions, was a spectacle without parallel:

Early explorers and settlers frequently mentioned passenger pigeons in their writings. Samuel de Champlain in 1605 reported "countless numbers," Gabriel Sagard-Theodat wrote of "infinite multitudes," and Cotton Mather described a flight as being about a mile in width and taking several hours to pass overhead. Yet by the early 1900s no wild passenger pigeons could be found. - The Smithsonian Encyclopedia[1]

A much-reproduced fictional portrait of Champlain by Théophile Hamel (1870) (no authentic portrait has survived)[1]) Samuel de Champlain , the father of New France, was born around 1580 in the town of Brouage, a seaport on Frances west coast. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gabriel Sagard, baptized Théodat (fl. ... Cotton Mather (February 12, 1663 – February 13, 1728). ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ...

Causes of extinction

While the extinction of the passenger pigeon is the result of multiple causes, the primary cause is held to be the commercial exploitation of pigeon meat on a massive scale.[1]


Even prior to colonization, native Americans occasionally used pigeons for meat. In the early 1800s, commercial hunters began netting and shooting the birds to sell in the city markets as food, as live targets for trap shooting and even as agricultural fertilizer and mast food. // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Trap shooting in Ohio, c. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ...


Once pigeon meat became popular, commercial hunting started on a prodigious scale. The bird painter John James Audubon described the preparations for slaughter at a known pigeon-roosting site: "Few Pigeons were then to be seen, but a great number of persons, with horses and wagons, guns and ammunition, had already established encampments on the borders. Two farmers from the vicinity of Russelsville, distant more than a hundred miles, had driven upwards of three hundred hogs to be fattened on the pigeons which were to be slaughtered. Here and there, the people employed in plucking and salting what had already been procured, were seen sitting in the midst of large piles of these birds. The dung lay several inches deep, covering the whole extent of the roosting-place."[7] John James Audubon John James Audubon[1] (April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was a Franco-American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter. ...


Pigeons were shipped by the boxcar-load to the Eastern cities. In New York City, in 1805, a pair of pigeons sold for two cents. Slaves and servants in 18th and 19th century America often saw no other meat. By the 1850s, it was noticed that the numbers of birds seemed to be decreasing, but still the slaughter continued, accelerating to an even greater level when more railroads and telegraphs, both of which allowed the species to be tracked and hunted more easily, were set up after the American Civil War. Three million pigeons were shipped by a single market hunter in the year 1878. A Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway boxcar on display at the Mid-Continent Railway Museum in North Freedom, Wisconsin. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Other significant reasons for its extinction include deforestation. The birds relied on acorn and beech mast for breeding and shifted or occupied their breeding colonies in accordance with the food trees' mast year cycle. Indeed, it is with the decimation of forests that the passenger pigeon was forced to hunt for grain on newly established farms, where their large numbers caused considerable crop loss. Many farmers took to shooting them and using their meat for food. However, this did not seem to seriously diminish the total number of birds until the commercial exploitation began.[1] This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... For other uses, see Acorn (disambiguation). ... Species Fagus crenata- Japanese Beech Fagus engleriana- Chinese Beech Fagus grandifolia- American Beech Fagus hayatae- Taiwan Beech Fagus japonica- Japanese Blue Beech Fagus longipetiolata- South Chinese Beech Fagus lucida- Shining Beech Fagus mexicana- Mexican Beechor Haya Fagus orientalis- Oriental Beech Fagus sylvatica- European Beech Beech (Fagus) is a genus of... A Mast Year is a year in which vegetation produces a significant abundance of fruit. ...


Possibly, the birds may have suffered from Newcastle disease, an infectious bird disease that was introduced to North America; though the disease was identified in 1926, it has been posited as one of the factors leading to the extinction of the passenger pigeon. ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS A DEAKIN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ANDY IS... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Methods of killing

Alcohol-soaked grain intoxicated the birds and made them easier to kill. Smoky fires were set to nesting trees to drive them from their nests.[8]


One method of killing was to blind a single bird by sewing its eyes shut using a needle and thread. This bird's feet would be attached to a circular stool at the end of a stick that could be raised five or six feet in the air, then dropped back to the ground. As the bird attempted to land, it would flutter its wings, thus attracting the attention of other birds flying overhead. When the flock would land near this decoy bird, nets would trap the birds and the hunters would crush their heads between their thumb and forefinger. This was the origin of the term stool pigeon.[9] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


One of the last large nestings of passenger pigeons was at Petoskey, Michigan, in 1878. Here 50,000 birds were killed each day and the hunt continued for nearly five months. When the adult birds that survived the slaughter attempted second nestings at new sites, they were located by the professional hunters and killed before they had a chance to raise any young. Sidewalk in downtown Petoskey Petoskey is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan. ...


Conservationists were ineffective in stopping the slaughter. A bill was passed in the Michigan legislature making it illegal to net pigeons within two miles of a nesting area, but the law was weakly enforced. By the mid 1890s, the passenger pigeon had almost completely disappeared. It was too late to protect them by passing laws. In 1897, a bill was introduced in the Michigan legislature asking for a ten-year closed season on passenger pigeons. This was a futile gesture. A highly gregarious species, the flock could initiate courtship and reproduction only when they were gathered in large numbers; it was realized only too late that smaller groups of passenger pigeons could not breed successfully, and the surviving numbers proved too few to re-establish the species.[1] Attempts at breeding among the captive population also failed for the same reasons. The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no...


Last wild survivors

The last fully authenticated record of a wild bird was near Sargents, Pike County, Ohio, on 22 March 1900,[1][10] although many unconfirmed sightings were reported in the first decade of the 20th century[3][4][5]. From 1909 to 1912, a reward was offered for a living specimen;[11] the fact that the reward was never claimed indicates that they were more likely than not gone in the wild by that point. However, unconfirmed sightings continued up to about 1930[6]. Pike County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Female Passenger Pigeon
Female Passenger Pigeon

Reports of passenger pigeons being sighted kept coming in from Arkansas and Louisiana, in groups of tens and twenties, until the first decade of the 20th century. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x711, 139 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passenger Pigeon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x711, 139 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Passenger Pigeon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The naturalist Charles Dury, of Cincinnati, Ohio, wrote in September 1910:

One foggy day in October 1884, at 5 a.m. I looked out of my bedroom window, and as I looked six wild pigeons flew down and perched on the dead branches of a tall poplar tree that stood about one hundred feet away. As I gazed at them in delight, feeling as though old friends had come back, they quickly darted away and disappeared in the fog, the last I ever saw of any of these birds in this vicinity.[12]

Martha

In 1857, a bill was brought forth to the Ohio State Legislature seeking protection for the passenger pigeon. A Select Committee of the Senate filed a report stating "The passenger pigeon needs no protection. Wonderfully prolific, having the vast forests of the North as its breeding grounds, traveling hundreds of miles in search of food, it is here today and elsewhere tomorrow, and no ordinary destruction can lessen them, or be missed from the myriads that are yearly produced" (Hornaday, W.T. 1913: Our Vanishing Wild Life. Its Extermination and Preservation)


Fifty-seven years later, on September 1, 1914, Martha, the last passenger pigeon, died in the Cincinnati Zoo, Cincinnati, Ohio. She was frozen into a block of ice and sent to the Smithsonian Institution, where she was skinned and mounted. Currently, Martha is in the museum's archived collection, and not on display. Martha was named after Martha Washington. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Located in Cincinnati, Ohio, the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden is the second-oldest zoo in the United States, opened in 1875. ... “Cincinnati” redirects here. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... This article is about the first First Lady of the United States. ...


Popular culture

1898 photograph of Passenger Pigeon

The dramatic story of the passenger pigeon has taken a strong hold on popular imagination. passenger pigeon 1898 photograph of this extinct species by Mr Hubbard. ... passenger pigeon 1898 photograph of this extinct species by Mr Hubbard. ...

  • The musician John Herald wrote a song about Martha, "Martha (Last of the Passenger Pigeons)".
  • The April 27, 1948 episode of the Fibber McGee and Molly radio program is titled "The Passenger Pigeon Trap", in which McGee claims to have seen a passenger pigeon (he insists that the bird is "stinct") and plans to trap it in order to sell it to the highest bidder. It turns out to be nothing more than a rock pigeon (Columba livia) sitting on top of a bus, which in McGee's mind makes the pigeon a passenger.
  • In "The Man Trap", the premiere episode of Star Trek, Professor Crater likens the near-extinction of the inhabitants of planet M113 to the demise of the passenger pigeon.
  • Stephen King makes a number of references to the passenger pigeon in the 2005 novel Cell. He uses the pigeon as an allegory to the new human hive mind that develops after the pulse hits the United States.
  • In the 1999 movie by Jim Jarmusch, Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai, Louie (John Tormey) identifies the bird owned by the titular character as a "carrier pigeon". He is corrected by an elderly mafioso who shouts, "Passenger pigeon! Passenger pigeon! They've been extinct since 1914!" (The bird was in fact one of the homing pigeons Ghost Dog used to transport - "carry" - notes, which explains Louie's misidentification).
Male and Female specimens at the Vanderbilt Museum, Centerport, New York.
Male and Female specimens at the Vanderbilt Museum, Centerport, New York.
  • The term "stool pigeon" was first coined when passenger pigeons were captured, had their eyelids sewn shut, and were tied to stools. The birds sitting on the stools would be used as live decoys so pigeon hunters would have an easier shot at their quarry. Today, it is a term used for an unscrupulous person giving information about someone's misbehavior or illegal activity [7].
  • Ectopistes migratorius is the second chapter of the novel Havana Glam (2001) by Wu Ming 5. The reappearance of the pigeons in 1944 is the first signal of the arrival of time travelers from the 21st century USA.
  • A description of the passage of a flock of passenger pigeons, and the killing of large numbers of the birds, is given in James Fenimore Cooper's novel The Pioneers. Although this was published in 1823, Natty Bumppo expresses outrage at people's "wastey ways" and concern about the possible future extinction of the bird.
  • The Australian poet Judith Wright wrote a poem called "Lament For Passenger Pigeons."
  • The Indie-Rock band PAIN(t)bynumbers wrote a song called "Martha, Sweet Martha" in memory of the last passenger pigeon.
  • The alt-country duo The Handsome Family have a song called "Passenger Pigeons" featuring on their 2001 album Twilight

John Herald John Herald (September 6, 1939 - July 18, 2005) was an American folk and bluegrass songwriter, solo and studio musician, and one-time member of The Greenbriar Boys trio. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jim and Marian Jordan were featured in 1947 NBC promotional art by Sam Berman. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Binomial name Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 The Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae, doves and pigeons. ... The Man Trap was the first episode of Star Trek: The Original Series to air on NBC. It is episode #6, and was broadcast on Thursday, September 8, 1966. ... The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of over 200 stories including over 50 bestselling horror novels. ... Cell is an apocalyptic horror novel published by American author Stephen King in January 2006. ... This article is about the year. ... Jim Jarmusch Jim Jarmusch (born January 22, 1953 in Akron, Ohio) is a noted American independent film director. ... Ghost Dog - The Way of the Samurai is a 1999 film directed by Jim Jarmusch. ... A carrier pigeon is a breed of pigeon (specifically a domesticated Rock Dove, Columba livia) that has wattles, a nearly vertical stature, and that may once have been used to carry messages. ... This article is about the organized crime groups. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Homing pigeon The homing pigeon is a variety of domesticated Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) that has been selectively bred to be able to find its way home over extremely long distances. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (969x768, 493 KB) Male (above) and female (below) passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius) on display at the Vanderbilt Museum in New York. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (969x768, 493 KB) Male (above) and female (below) passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius) on display at the Vanderbilt Museum in New York. ... The Vanderbilt Museum is located in Centerport in Suffolk County, New York, USA. It is named for William K. Vanderbilt II and is located on the site of his 43-acre estate. ... Centerport Harbor, November 2005 Centerport is a hamlet (and census-designated place) in Suffolk County, New York on the notably affluent North Shore of Long Island. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Wu Ming Wu Ming (Chinese for Anonymous) is a pseudonym for a group of Italian authors formed in 2000 from a subset of the Luther Blissett community in Bologna. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... The Pioneers: The Sources of the Susquehanna is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, a series of five novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Leatherstocking Tales is a series of novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper, each featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, otherwise known as Leatherstocking, Pathfinder, Deerslayer, or Hawkeye. ... The Handsome Family are a American alternative country duo, the couple Brett and Rennie Sparks. ...

Place names

Across North America, place names refer to the former abundance of the passenger pigeon. Examples include:

Mimico, Ontario is a neighbourhood in southern Etobicoke, which is itself now part of Toronto, and bounded by the Gardiner Expressway to the north, Dwight Avenue on the west, the Humber River to the east and Lake Ontario to the south. ... The Mississaugas are a subtribe of the Ojibwa First Nations people located in Southern Ontario, Canada. ... Pigeon Forge is a city in Sevier County, Tennessee, United States. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... The Pigeon River may refer to: The Pigeon River between Minnesota and Ontario in North America. ... The Pigeon River forms part of the border between the State of Minnesota and the Province of Ontario on the north shore of Lake Superior. ... The Pigeon drainage basin, located within the upper Tennessee drainage basin The Pigeon River of Western North Carolina and East Tennessee, United States, rises above Canton, North Carolina. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Blue Bell is a census-designated place (CDP) in Whitpain Township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. ... White Pigeon is a village located in St. ...

Coextinction

Passenger Pigeon specimens can be seen in the Field Museum, Chicago.

An often-cited example of coextinction is that of the passenger pigeon and its parasitic lice Columbicola extinctus and Campanulotes defectus. Recently,[13][14] C. extinctus was rediscovered on the Band-tailed Pigeon, and C. defectus was found to be a likely case of misidentification of the existing Campanulotes flavus. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 503 KB)Passenger Pigeon,Field Museum File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 503 KB)Passenger Pigeon,Field Museum File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex called known as the Museum Campus which includes Soldier Field, the football stadium that is the home of the Chicago... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Coextinction of a species is the loss of one species upon the extinction of another. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse), also known as fly babies, (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3,000 species of wingless phthiraptra. ... Binomial name Patagioenas fasciata (Say, 1823) Synonyms Columba fasciata Say, 1823 The Band-tailed Pigeon, Patagioenas fasciata, is a medium-sized bird of the Americas. ...


See also

Since 1500, over 100 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. ... // Prepleistocene extinctions A large number of historical orders are extinct, for example dinosaurs, pterosaurs and ammonites. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Smithsonian Institution; it is believed that this species once constituted 25 to 40 per cent of the total bird population of the United States. It is estimated that there were 3 billion to 5 billion passenger pigeons at the time Europeans discovered America.
  2. ^ "Three Hundred Dollars Reward; Will Be Paid for a Nesting Pair of Wild Pigeons, a Bird So Common in the United States Fifty Years Ago That Flocks in the Migratory Period Frequently Partially Obscured the Sun from View. How America Has Lost Birds of Rare Value and How Science Plans to Save Those That Are Left.", New York Times, January 16, 1910 Sunday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “Unless the State and Federal Governments come to the rescue of American game, plumed and song birds, the not distant future will witness the practical extinction of some of the most beautiful and valuable species. Already the snowy heron, that once swarmed in immense droves over the United States, is gone, a victim of the greed and cruelty of milliners whose "creations" its beautiful nuptial feathers have gone to adorn.” 
  3. ^ Ask
  4. ^ "Prior to 1492, this was a rare species." Mann, Charles C. [2005-08-12]. "The Artificial Wilderness", 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, pp. 315–8. ISBN 1-4000-4006-X. 
  5. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Ectopistes migratorius. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 10 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is listed as extinct
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ http://www.ulala.org/P_Pigeon/Audubon_Pigeon.html "On The Passenger Pigeon", Birds of America, John James Audubon
  8. ^ Iowa Department of Natural Resources
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ The date of March 24 was given in the report by Henniger, but there are many discrepancies with the actual circumstances, meaning he was writing from hearsay. A curator's note that apparently derives from an old specimen label has March 22.
  11. ^ New York Times; April 4, 1910, Monday; Reward for Wild Pigeons. Ornithologists Offer $3,000 for the Discovery of Their Nests.
  12. ^ Dury, Charles (September 1910). "The Passenger Pigeon". Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History 21: 52-56. 
  13. ^ Clayton, D. H., and R. D. Price. 1999. Taxonomy of New World Columbicola (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Columbiformes (Aves), with descriptions of five new species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 92:675–685.
  14. ^ Price, R.D., D. H. Clayton, R. J. Adams, J. (2000) Pigeon lice down under: Taxonomy of Australian Campanulotes (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae), with a description of C. durdeni n.sp. Parasitol. 86(5), p 948-950. American Society of Parasitologists. Online pdf

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name (Molina, 1782) The Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) is a small white heron. ... Charles C. Mann (fl. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Colophon of the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Further reading

  • Weidensaul, Scott (1994). Mountains of the Heart: A Natural History of the Appalachians. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 1-55591-143-9.
  • Eckert, Allan W. (1965). The Silent Sky: The Incredible Extinction of the Passenger Pigeon. Lincoln NE: IUniverse.com. ISBN 0-595-08963-1.
  • New York Times; August 18, 1901, Wednesday; The Hon. Charles T. Dunning of Goshen, ex-Chief Clerk of the New York State Senate, has a fine collection of mounted specimens of birds, and among them is one of a bird that is today extinct, so far as any one has been able to discover, although less than fifteen years ago it was abundant on this continent and to the people of this State was as familiar as sparrows now are.
  • Schorger, A.W. 1955. The Passenger Pigeon: Its Natural History and Extinction. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. Reprinted in paperback, 2004, by Blackburn Press. ISBN 1-930665-96-2. 424 pp.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ectopistes migratorius

  Results from FactBites:
 
Passenger Pigeon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (809 words)
The last wild Passenger Pigeon was shot by a 14-year-old boy in Ohio in March of 1900.
The April 27, 1948 episode of the Fibber McGee and Molly radio program is titled "The Passenger Pigeon Trap", in which McGee claims to have seen a Passenger Pigeon (he insists that the bird is "stinct") and plans to trap it in order to sell it to the highest bidder.
In "The Man Trap," the premiere episode of Star Trek, Professor Crater likens the near-extinction of the inhabiatants of planet M113 to the demise of the passenger pigeon.
Bagheera: An Endangered Species and Endangered Animal Online Education Resource (791 words)
The reasons that the passenger pigeon was unable to recover from the period of overexploitation are not fully known.
Passenger pigeons were one of the most important food resources for numerous carnivores, such as foxes, lynx, raccoons, marten and mink, and for several raptors, such as falcons and hawks.
One of the things that died with the passenger pigeon was the phenomenon of its migration, the endless sea of birds flening the sky.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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