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Encyclopedia > Pasha

Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paşa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. As an honorary title, "Pasha" in one of its various ranks is equivalent to the British title of "Lord". Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Linguistics

Etymologists variously derive the word pasha from the Persian padshah, equivalent to "king" or "emperor" (well above his station, though: used for the Great Sultan himself), and from the Turkish bash ağa[1] (in some dialects pash), "head lord", tribal "chief" etc. (more likely for an officer). Old Turkish had no fixed distinction between /b/ and /p/. As first used in western Europe, the title appeared in writing with the initial "b". The English forms bashaw, bassaw, bucha etc., general in the 16th and 17th century, derive from the medieval Latin and Italian word bass. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a title sometimes applied to to a several historic monarchs, notably the rulers of Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and the Moghul Empire. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Chief can refer to : Paramount chief is the highest political leader in a region or country typically administered with a chief-based system. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Role in Ottoman political system

The Ottoman sultan of Turkey and (by delegation) the viceroyal khedive of Egypt had the right to bestow the title of Pasha. The title appears, originally, to have applied exclusively to military commanders, but subsequently it could distinguish any high official, and also unofficial persons whom the court desired to honour. Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Khedive (from Persian for lord) was a title created in 1867 by the Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz for the then-governor of Egypt, Ismail Pasha. ...


It was also part of the official style of the Kapudan Pasha (Great Admiral of the entire Ottoman fleet). Kaptan Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: Kapudan Pasha) or Kaptan-ı Derya (meaning Captain of the Sea in English) were the titles given to the chief commander of the navy in the Ottoman Empire. ...


Pashas ranked above beys and Aghas, but below Khedives and Viziers. Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... Look up aga in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the HMS Khedive, see USS Cordova. ... A Vizier (Arabic,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to a Muslim monarch...

Three grades of Pasha existed, distinguished by the number of yak- or horse-tails (three, two and one respectively; a symbol of Turco-Mongol tradition) or peacock tails, which the bearers were entitled to display on their standard as a symbol of military authority when on campaign. Only the Sultan himself was entitled to four tails, as sovereign commander in chief. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (774x3690, 389 KB) Summary Tui Otoman captura romanesca din timpul razboiului de independenta Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pasha Romanian War of Independence Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (774x3690, 389 KB) Summary Tui Otoman captura romanesca din timpul razboiului de independenta Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pasha Romanian War of Independence Metadata This...


The following military ranks entitled the holder to the style Pasha (lower ranks were styled Bey or merely Effendi): Effendi (actually spelled Efendi in Turkish) (a Turkish title meaning a lord or master) is a title of respect, equivalent to the English sir, in Turkey and some other Eastern countries. ...

  • The Vizier-i-Azam (Grand Vizier, the prime minister, but also often taking the field as Generalissimo instead of the Sultan)
  • Mushir (Field marshall)
  • Ferik (army Lieutenant-general or navy Vice-admiral)
  • Lewa=Liva (major general or Rear-admiral)
  • The Kizlar Agha (chief black eunuch, the highest officer in the Topkapi seraglio; three tails, as commander of the baltaci corps of the halberdiers in the imperial army
  • Istanbul's Shaikh ul-Islam, the highest Muslim clergyman, of cabinet rank.

If a Pasha governed a provincial territory, it could be called a pashaluk after his military title, besides the administrative term for the type of jurisdiction, e.g. eyalet, vilayet. Both Beylerbeys (governors-general) and Valis (the most common type of Governor) were entitled to the style of Pasha (typically with two tails). The word pashalik designated any province or other jurisdiction of a Pasha. A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Vizir, Wasir, Wazir, Wesir, Wezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper is an oriental, originally Persian, term for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or Minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph... A Mushir (Marshal) is the highest rank in most militaries of the Middle East. ... Toa are the heroes of the fictional Bionicle mythos, a storyline of adventure and evil made by the Lego toy company. ... Liva is the first live album released by the norwegian band GÃ¥te, and was recorder at December 30, 2005 at Rockefeller Music Hall, Oslo, Norway. ... A seraglio is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in a Turkish household, from an Italian variant of Turkish saray, meaning palace, enclosed courts. It is related to harem, and therefore in the heated European Orientalist imagination a place of dalliance, debauchery and odalisques. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A seraglio is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in a Turkish household, from an Italian variant of Turkish saray, meaning palace, enclosed courts. In the context of the turquerie fashion, the seraglio became the subject of works of art, the most famous perhaps being Mozarts... Sheikh ul-Islam (Shaykh al-Islam, Sheikhul Islam, Shaikh al-Islam, Åžeyhülislam) is a title of superior authority in the issues of Islam. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Beylerbey or (Turkish for Bey of beys, Leader of leaders, Polish: bejlerbej) is the Ottoman title used for the most important person in the hierarchy of provincial leaders (a governor over several vilayet), second only to the Vizier. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ...


Ottoman authorities conferred the title upon both Muslims and Christians without distinction. They also frequently gave it to foreigners in the service of the Turks or of the Egyptians, e.g. *Hobart Pasha. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... Augustus Charles Hobart-Hampden - Hobart Pasha Augustus Charles Hobart-Hampden (April 1, 1822 - June 19, 1886), English naval captain and Turkish admiral, was born in Leicestershire, being the third son of the 6th Earl of Buckinghamshire. ...


Honorific

In usage, the title followed the given name. Although the word serves as a non-hereditary title, English speakers have commonly used Pasha as if it formed part of a personal name, as for instance in Ibrahim Pasha or Emin Pasha, similar to the practice of referring to a British Peer as Lord X, since in both cases it substitutes for a more precise rank title. Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... Mehemet Emin Pasha (March 28, 1840 – October 23, 1892), born Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer, was a doctor, naturalist and governor of Equatoria in Africa. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


The sons of a Pasha were styled Pashazada or Pasha-zade, which means just that.


In modern Egyptian and (to a lesser extent) Levantine Arabic, it is used as an honorific closer to "sir" than "Lord," especially by older people. Levantine Arabic (sometimes called Eastern Arabic) is a group of Arabic dialects spoken in the 100 km-wide eastern-Mediterranean coastal strip known as the Levant, i. ...


List of notable pashas

Abbas I (Arabic: عباس الأول ) (1913-1854), Pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun Pasha and grandson of Mehmet Ali, founder of the reigning dynasty of Egypt at the time. ... Abbas Hilmi Pasha or Abbas II (Arabic: عباس حلمي باشا) (July 14, 1874, Alexandria – 19 December 1944, Geneva) was the last khedive of Egypt (January 8, 1892 – 1914). ... Claude Alexandre, Comte de Bonneval (14 July 1675 - 23 March 1747) was a French army officer who later went into the service of the Ottoman Empire, eventually converting to Islam and becoming known as Ahmed Pasha. ... Ali Pasha (or Muezzinzade Ali Pasha) (Turkish: Müezzinzâde Ali PaÅŸa), was an Ottoman official and general and finally grand admiral (Kaptan-ı Derya) of the Ottoman Mediterranean fleet from 1569 to 1571, succeeding Piyale Pasha. ... Engraving of Ali Pasha Ali Pashë Tepelena, commonly known as Ali Pasha, (1741 – January 24, 1822) was the military ruler (pasha) of a large area of the Ottoman Empires European territories. ... Arabi Pasha was a significant Egyptian political figure. ... Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin PaÅŸa or Hızır Hayreddin PaÅŸa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... Cigalazade Pasha, Italian muslim, Ottoman Grand Vizier, Admiral and General CaÄŸaloÄŸlu Hamam (Turkish bath) in Ä°stanbuls CaÄŸaloÄŸlu quarter, built by and named after Yusuf Sinan Pasha Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha (1545-1605), meaning son of Cigala, was an Ottoman statesman of Italian background, who held... Mehemet Emin Pasha (March 28, 1840 – October 23, 1892), born Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer, was a doctor, naturalist and governor of Equatoria in Africa. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... Essad Pasha (born Essad Toptani, 1863 – June 13, 1920) was a leader of the opposition forces that overthrew Prince William of Wied in Albania and served as prime minister of that country for one month, shortly after William left. ... Fuad Pasha (1855-1869) was a Turkish statesman. ... // John Glubb Pasha in uniform Sir John Bagot Glubb, better known as Glubb Pasha (born 16 April 1897, Preston, Lancashire – died 17 March 1986, Mayfield, Sussex), was a British soldier best known for leading and training Transjordans Arab Legion 1939-1956 as its commanding general. ... Chinese Gordon as Governor of Sudan Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (28 January 1833 – 26 January 1885), known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum, was a British army officer and administrator. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Ibrahim Pasha (Arabic: ابراهيم باشا) ‎ (1789 – 10 November 1848), a 19th century general of Egypt. ... Ismet Inonu 1884-1973 Mustafa Ismet Inönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Jafar Pasha al-Askari (جعفر العسكري)‎ (1887–1936) served twice as prime minister of Iraq: from November 22, 1923, to August 3, 1924; and from November 21, 1926, to December 31, 1927. ... Jamal Pasha (1872 – 1922), known in the Arab world as Jamal the Butcher, was a notorious Turkish military leader and commander of the Ottoman Fourth Army, which was stationned in Damascus, during World War I. He was known among the local Arab inhabitants as al-Saffah, the Blood Shedder, being... Hagop Kazazian Pasha (alternative spelling: Agop Kazazyan) (1833–1891) was a high-ranking Ottoman official of Armenian origin who served as the Minister of Finance and the Minister of the Privy Treasury[1] during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II.[2] // Despite Hagop Kazazians lack of higher education... Ulaj Ali (also, Uluj or Uluj, in Turkish: Uluç Ali Pasha) - 16th century Muslim Ottoman admiral and privateer. ... The Köprülü (also Kiuprili, Koprili Kuprili and Kuprilic) was an Ottoman noble family of Albanian origin. ... Headstone of Kara Mustafa, Edirne, Turkey Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (1634/1635 – December 25, 1683) was an Ottoman military leader and vizier who was a central character in the empires last attempts at expansion into central and eastern Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Otto Liman von Sanders (February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V during World War I. He was born in Stolp in Pomerania. ... See Mehemet Ali (Turkey) for the Turkish foreign minister and regent. ... Mehmed Pasha Sokolović (in Turkish Sokollu Mehmet Paşa) (1505 or 1506-June 30, 1579) was born in the village of Sokolovići near the town of Višegrad in Bosnia of Serbian parents. ... Artist and voyager, Antoine Ignace Melling, (Anton Ignaz Melling) (1763-1831), was Born in Lorraine and trained in architecture and painting. ... Midhat Pasha (1822-1884) was a Turkish statesman. ... There have been a number of people named Mustafa Pasha: Mustafa Pasha, A sixteenth century governor of Algeria and Ottoman Grand Vizier Mustafa Pasha, A seventeenth century Ottoman commander in Egypt. ... Mustafa Reshid Pasha (1800–1858) was a Turkish statesman and diplomat. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Nubar Pasha (1825 - 1899) (Arabic: بوغوص نوبار باشا) was an Egyptian statesman and politician of Armenian descent and the first Prime Minister of Egypt. ... Piyale Pasha (circa 1515-1578), also known as Piale Pasha in the West or Pialí Bajá in Spain (Turkish: Piyale PaÅŸa), was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral between 1553 and 1567 and a high ranking Ottoman Vizier after 1568. ... Riyad Pasha (1836 - 1911) was a significant Egyptian political figure. ... Said Pasha (born 1830) was a Turkish statesman, was at one time editor of the Turkish newspaper Jerid-i-Havadis. ... Sinan Pasha (died 1596) was a Turkish soldier and statesman, of Albanian low origin. ... Sulejman Pasha was a feudal lord and general of the Ottoman Empire. ... Tewfik Pasha Tewfik Pasha (Tawfiq of Egypt) (1852-1892) (Arabic: محمد توفيق باشا) was a khedive of Egypt. ... Turhan Pasha Përmeti (1839? - 1927) was a veteran high Ottoman official for a significant portion of his life before joining the Albanian nationalist movement. ... Tusun Pasha (1794-1816) was the elder son of Muhammad Ali Pasha, wali of Egypt between 1805-1849. ... Valentine Baker (1827—1887), British soldier, was a younger brother of Sir Samuel Baker. ... Sir Henry Woods, KCVO, Lt RN; late Admiral and Pasha in the Imperial Ottoman Naval Service; Grand Cordon of the Medijeh and Osmanieh; Knight Commander of the Saxe-Coburg Order; Aide-de-Camp for some years to the late Sultan, Abdul Hamid Start of the autobiography Spunyarn. A British naval...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pashas

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... There were many titles of nobility in the Ottoman Empire, but as in many oriental traditions nobility was generally not hereditary as in the west, except for the ruling house, but rather conferred by office, with limited rights for one or more following generations. ...

Sources and references

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • AllAboutTurkey
  • RoyalArk- here Turkey
  1. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary - Pasha

  Results from FactBites:
 
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PASHA, also written "pacha" and formerly "pashaw," andc., a Turkish title, superior to that of bey, borne by persons of high rank and placed after the name.
Pashas are of three grades, formerly distinguished by the number of horse-tails (three, two and one respectively) which they were entitled to display as symbols of authority when on campaign.
A pashalik is a province governed by or under the jurisdiction of a pasha.
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