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Encyclopedia > Pascal programming language

Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. In computer science, imperative programming, as opposed to declarative programming, is a programming paradigm that describes computation in terms of a program state and statements that change the program state. ... For programming in music, see Programming (music). ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine (often a computer). ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Niklaus Wirth giving a lecture Niklaus E. Wirth (born February 15, 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist. ... Structured programming can be seen as a subset or subdiscipline of procedural programming, one of the major programming paradigms. ...

Pascal
Image:PascalUserManual.gif
Paradigm: imperative, structured
Appeared in: 1970,last revised 1992
Designed by: Niklaus Wirth
Major implementations: CDC 6000, PASCAL-P, PDP-11, HP, GNU
Dialects: UCSD, Borland, Turbo
Influenced by: ALGOL
Influenced: Modula-2, Ada, Delphi, Chrome

Contents

Image File history File links PascalUserManual. ... A programming paradigm is a paradigmatic style of programming (compare with a methodology, which is a paradigmatic style of doing software engineering). ... In computer science, imperative programming, as opposed to declarative programming, is a programming paradigm that describes computation in terms of a program state and statements that change the program state. ... Structured programming can be seen as a subset or subdiscipline of procedural programming, one of the major programming paradigms. ... Niklaus Wirth giving a lecture Niklaus E. Wirth (born February 15, 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist. ... CDC 6000 - family of supercomputers produced by Control Data Corporation. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... ... GNU (pronounced ) is a free software operating system consisting of a kernel, libraries, system tools, compilers and many end-user applications. ... UCSD Pascal was a specific implementation of the programming language Pascal which used the p-Code machine architecture. ... Borland Software Corporation is a software company headquartered in California. ... Turbo Pascal 3. ... ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a family of imperative computer programming languages originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ... Modula-2 is a computer programming language invented by Niklaus Wirth at ETH around 1978, as a successor to Modula, another language by him. ... Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ... Chrome is a programming language for the Common Language Infrastructure developed by RemObjects Software. ...


History

Pascal is based on the ALGOL programming language and named in honor of mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal. Wirth subsequently developed Modula-2 and Oberon, languages similar to Pascal. ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a family of imperative computer programming languages originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ... Blaise Pascal (June 19, 1623 – August 19, 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. ... Modula-2 is a computer programming language invented by Niklaus Wirth at ETH around 1978, as a successor to Modula, another language by him. ... Oberon is a reflective programming language created in the late 1980s by Professor Niklaus Wirth (creator of the Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2 programming languages) and his associates at ETHZ in Switzerland. ...


Initially, Pascal was a language intended to teach students structured programming, and generations of students have "cut their teeth" on Pascal as an introductory language in undergraduate courses. Variants of Pascal are still widely used today, for example Free Pascal can be used in both 32 and 64 bit formats, and all types of Pascal programs can be used for both education and software development.


Parts of the original Macintosh operating system were written in Pascal and Motorola 68000 assembly language (though later versions incorporated substantial amounts of C++ as well), and the most frequent high-level language used for development in the early Mac community was Pascal. In addition, the popular typesetting system TeX was written by Donald E. Knuth in WEB, a variant of Pascal designed for literate programming. The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 32 bit CISC microprocessor, the first member of a successful family of microprocessors from Motorola, which were all mostly software compatible. ... It has been suggested that Assembler be merged into this article or section. ... C++ (generally pronounced see plus plus) is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The TeX mascot, by Duane Bibby , written as TeX in plain text, is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ... Donald Knuth Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is a renowned computer scientist and Professor Emeritus at Stanford University. ... For other uses, see web. ... Literate programming is the writing of computer programs primarily for human beings to read, similar to a work of literature; hence the name literate programming. ...


Implementations

The first Pascal compiler was designed in Zurich for the CDC 6000 computer family, and it became operational in 1970. Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... CDC 6000 - family of supercomputers produced by Control Data Corporation. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


The first successful port of the CDC Pascal compiler to another mainframe was completed by Welsh and Quinn at the Queen's University of Belfast in 1972. The target was the ICL 1900 computer. The Queens University of Belfast (QUB) is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland; the Irish translation of the name is Ollscoil na Banríona, Béal Feirste. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... International Computers Ltd, or ICL, was a large British computer hardware company that operated from 1968 until 2002, when it was renamed Fujitsu Services Limited after its parent company, Fujitsu. ...


The first Pascal compiler written in North America was constructed at the University of Illinois under Donald B. Gillies for the PDP-11 and generated native machine code. A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language compiler. ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also known as UIUC and the U of I (the officially preferred abbreviation), is the flagship campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Donald Bruce Gillies (October 15, 1928 - July 17, 1975) was a Canadian mathematician and computer scientist, known for his work in game theory, computer design, and minicomputer programming environments. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ...


In order to rapidly propagate the language, a compiler "porting kit" was created in Zurich that included a compiler that generated code for a "virtual" stack machine (i.e. code that lends itselt to reasonably efficient interpretation), along with an interpreter for that code - the p-code system. Although the p-code was primarily intended to be compiled into true machine code, at least one system, the notable UCSD implementation, utilized it to create an interpretive system UCSD p-System. The P-system compilers were termed P1-P4, with P1 being the first version, and P4 being the last. An interpreter is a computer program that executes other programs. ... The UCSD p-System or UCSD Pascal System was a portable highly machine independent operating system developed in 1978 by the Institute for Information Systems of the University of California, San Diego to provide all students with a common operating system that could run on any of the then available...


Watcom Pascal was developed for the IBM mainframe in the early 1980s. Watcom International Corporation was founded in 1981 from the research of the Computer Systems Group at the University of Waterloo, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. ...


IP Pascal was an implementation of the Pascal programming language using Micropolis DOS, but was moved rapidly to CP/M running on the Z80. IP Pascal is an implementation of the Pascal programming language using the IP portability platform, a multiple machine, operating system and language implementation system. ... One of the first Z80 microprocessors manufactured; the date stamp says well before July 1976. ...


In the early 1980s, UCSD Pascal was ported to the Apple II and Apple III computers to provide a structured alternative to the BASIC interpreters that came with the machines. The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive, informally sometimes including the years 1979, 1990 and 1991. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... Apple III The Apple III, or Apple /// as it was sometimes styled, was the first completely new computer designed by Apple Computer, Inc. ... Basic may be: Look up basic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the 1980s Anders Hejlsberg wrote the Blue Label Pascal compiler for the Nascom-2. A reimplementation of this compiler for the IBM PC was marketed under the names Compas Pascal and PolyPascal before it was acquired by Borland. Renamed to Turbo Pascal it became hugely popular, thanks in part to an aggressive pricing strategy in part to having one of the first full-screen Integrated development environments. The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive, informally sometimes including the years 1979, 1990 and 1991. ... Anders Hejlsberg (born c. ... The Lucas Nascom 1 and 2 were single-board computer kits issued in 1977 and 1979, respectively, based on the Zilog Z80 and including a keyboard and video interface, as well as a serial port that could be used for storing data on a tape cassette using the Kansas City... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Borland Software Corporation is a software company headquartered in California. ... Turbo Pascal 3. ... An integrated development environment (IDE), also known as integrated design environment and integrated debugging environment, is a type of computer software that assists computer programmers to develop software. ...


The inexpensive Borland compiler had a large influence on the Pascal community that began concentrating mainly on the IBM PC in the late 1980s. Many PC hobbyists in search of a structured replacement for BASIC used this product. BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ...


Super Pascal was a variant which added non-numeric labels, a return statement and expressions as names of types.


With Turbo Pascal version 5.5 Borland added object orientation to Pascal. Around the same time a number of concepts were imported from C in order to let Pascal programmers use the C-based API of Microsoft Windows directly. These extensions included null-terminated strings, pointer arithmetic, function pointers, an address-of operator and unsafe typecasts. In computer science, object-oriented programming, OOP for short, is a computer programming paradigm. ... The C Programming Language, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the original edition that served for many years as an informal specification of the language The C programming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use... An application programmatic interface (API) is the interface that a computer system, library or application provides in order to allow requests for services to be made of it by other computer programs, and/or to allow data to be exchanged between them. ... Microsoft Windows is a family of operating systems by Microsoft for use on personal computers, although versions of Windows designed for servers, embedded devices, and other platforms also exist. ... In computer programming and some branches of mathematics, strings are sequences of various simple objects. ... Pointer arithmetic is a particular arithmetic involving pointers, typical of the C programming language. ... A function pointer is a type of pointer in the C and C++ programming languages. ... In computer science, type conversion or typecasting refers to changing an entity of one datatype into another. ...


However, Borland later decided it wanted more elaborate object-oriented features, and started over in Delphi using the Object Pascal draft standard proposed by Apple as a basis. (This Apple draft is still not a formal standard.) Borland also called this Object Pascal in the first Delphi versions, but changed the name to Delphi programming language in later versions. The main additions compared to the older OOP extensions were a reference-based object model, virtual constructors and destructors, and properties. There are several other compilers implementing this dialect: see Delphi programming language. // Early History at Apple Object Pascal was a creation of Niklaus Wirth and Larry Tesler. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... // Early History at Apple Object Pascal was a creation of Niklaus Wirth and Larry Tesler. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ...


Turbo Pascal, and other derivatives with units or module concepts are modular languages. However, it does not provide a nested module concept or qualified import and export of specific symbols. Turbo Pascal 3. ... Modularity is a concept that has applications in the contexts of computer science, particularly programming, as well as cognitive science in investigating the structure of mind. ...


The universities of Zurich, Karlsruhe and Wuppertal have developed an EXtension for Scientific Computing (Pascal XSC) based on Oberon, which provides a free solution for programming numerical computations with controlled precision. Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Karlsruhe (population 283,959 in 2005) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... Wuppertal university Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


Syntax

Pascal, in its original form, is a purely procedural language with the standard array of if, while, for, and related constructs. Procedural programming is a programming paradigm based upon the concept of the modularity and scope of program code (i. ...


Hello world

All Pascal programs start with the "Program" keyword, an optional list of external file descriptors and then a block of code is indicated with the "Begin" and "End" keywords. Semicolons separate statements, and the full stop ends the program (or unit). Letter case is ignored in Pascal source. In computer science, a keyword is an identifier which indicates a specific command. ... Look up block in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A semicolon ( ; ) is a type of punctuation mark. ... A full stop or period, also called a full point, is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between majuscule (capital or upper-case) and minuscule (lower-case) letters. ...


here is an example of the source code in use for a very simple program:

 program HelloWorld(output);
begin writeln('Hello, World!') end.

Data structures

Pascal has integer, character and boolean as the simple types, plus enumerations, a new type introduced with Pascal. In computer science, the term integer is used to refer to any data type which can represent some subset of the mathematical integers. ... In computer science the boolean datatype, sometimes called the logical datatype, is a primitive datatype having two values: one and zero (sometimes called true and false). ... In computer programming, an enumerated type is a data type whose set of values is a finite list of identifiers chosen by the programmer. ...

 program myprog; var a: integer; b: char; c: boolean; d: (one, two, three, four, five); 

A "subrange" of any of the above types can be made.

 var x: 1..10; y: 'a'..'z'; z: two..four; 

Types can be built from other types by the type declaration.

 program myotherprog; type x = integer; y = x; ... 

Further, complex types can be constructed from simple types:

 type a = array [1..10] of integer; b = record a: integer; b: char end; c = file of a; 

In Jensen & Wirth Pascal, strings are represented as packed arrays of chars; they therefore have fixed length and are usually space-padded. Later dialects commonly add a string type where the length of the contents can vary up to a declared maxiumum length. These are usually implemented by a length byte (limiting the maximum length to 255) and a fixed array of payload characters, and are therefore space-inefficient if the maximal length is seldom used in practice.


Pointers

Pascal supports the use of pointers: It has been suggested that Software pointer be merged into this article or section. ...

 type a = ^b; b = record a: integer; b: char; c: a end;
var pointer_to_b: a;

Here the variable pointer_to_b is a pointer to the data type b, a record. To create a new record and assign the values 10 and A to the fields a and b in the record, the commands would be;

 new(pointer_to_b); pointer_to_b^.a := 10; pointer_to_b^.b := 'A'; pointer_to_b^.c := nil; ... 

Linked lists can be created by including a pointer type field (c) in the record (see also nil and null (computer)). In computer science, a linked list is one of the fundamental data structures used in computer programming. ... Look up nil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In computer programming, null is a special value for a pointer (or other kind of reference) used to signify that the pointer intentionally does not have a target. ...


Control structures

Pascal is a structured programming language, meaning that the flow of control is structured into standard statements, ideally without 'go to' commands. Structured programming can be seen as a subset or subdiscipline of procedural programming, one of the major programming paradigms. ... GOTO is a command found in many programming languages which instructs the computer to jump to another point in the computer program, specified by a label or line number. ...

 while a <> b do writeln('Waiting'); if a > b then writeln('Condition met') else writeln('Condition false'); for i := 1 to 10 do writeln('Iteration: ', i:1); repeat a := a + 1 until a = 10; 

Procedures and functions

Pascal structures programs into procedures and functions.

 program mine(output); var i : integer; procedure print(var j: integer); function next(k: integer): integer; begin next := k + 1 end; begin writeln('The total is: ', j); j := next(j) end; begin i := 1; while i <= 10 do print(i) end. 

Procedures and functions can nest to any depth, and the 'program' construct is the logical outermost block.



Each block can have its own declarations of goto labels, constants, types, variables, and other procedures and functions, which must all be in that order. This ordering requirement was originally intended to allow efficient single-pass compilation. However, in most modern dialects the strict ordering requirement of declaration sections has been abandoned.


Resources

Compilers

Several Pascal compilers are available for the use of general public:

  • Delphi is Borland's flagship RAD (Rapid Application Development) product. It uses the Object Pascal language (Dubbed the 'Delphi programming language' by Borland), descended from Pascal, to create applications for the windows platform. The latest versions 2005 and 2006 also support compiling to the .NET platform.
  • Free Pascal (www.freepascal.org) is a multi-platform cross-compiler written in Pascal (so that it compiles itself). It is aimed at providing a convenient and powerful compiler, able both to compile legacy applications and to be the means of develop new ones. Also distributed freely under the GNU GPL. It can mix Standard Pascal, Extended Pascal (Turbo Pascal) and Object Pascal (Delphi) code together, and supports many platforms and operating systems.
  • Chrome (Chrome programming language) (website: www.chromesville.com) is a next generation Visual Studio plugin and stand-alone (in the .NET environment only) compiler for the Object Pascal language with the .NET and Mono Platforms. It was created and is sold by RemObjects Software.
  • Kylix is Borland's newest reiteration of the Pascal branch of their products. It is the descendant of Delphi, with support for the Linux operating system and an improved object library. The compiler and the IDE are available now for non-commercial use. The product is currently no longer supported by Borland.
  • GNU Pascal Compiler (GPC) is the Pascal compiler of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC). The compiler itself is written in C, the runtime library mostly in Pascal. Distributed freely under the GNU General Public License, it runs on many platforms and operating systems. It supports the ANSI/ISO standard languages and partial Borland/Turbo Pascal language support. One of the more painful omissions is the absence of a 100% TP compatible string type. Support for Borland Delphi and other language variations is quite limited, except maybe for Mac Pascal, the support for which is growing fast.
  • Virtual Pascal was created by Vitaly Miryanov in 1995 as a native OS/2 compiler compatible with Borland Pascal syntax. Then, it had been commercially developed by fPrint, adding Win32 support, and in 2000 it became freeware. Today it can compile for Win32, OS/2 and Linux, and is mostly compatible with Borland Pascal and Delphi. Development on this compiler was canceled on April 4, 2005.
  • P4 compiler, the basis for many subsequent Pascal-implemented-in-Pascal compilers, including the UCSD p-System.
  • Turbo Pascal was the dominant Pascal compiler for PCs during the 80s and early 90s, popular both because of its powerful extensions and extremely low compilation times. Turbo Pascal was compactly written and could compile, run, and debug all from memory without accessing disk. Slow floppy disk drives were common for programmers at the time, further magnifying Turbo Pascal's speed advantage. Currently, older versions of Turbo Pascal (up to 5.5) are available for free download from Borland's site (registration required).
  • Dr. Pascal is an interpreter that runs Standard Pascal. Notable are the "visible execution" mode that shows a running program and its variables, and the extensive runtime error checking. Runs programs but does not produce a separate executable binary. Runs on MS-DOS, Windows in DOS window, and old Macintosh.
  • IP Pascal Originally a Z80/CP/M Pascal that was ported and recoded for Intel 80386/PC, IP Pascal has a built-in portability library that is custom tailored to the Pascal language. For example, a standard text output application from 1970's original Pascal can be recompiled to work in a window and even have graphical constructs added. IP Pascal supports the ISO 7185 standard and upgrades the language logically. For example, original Pascal "padded right" strings are supported and integrated upwards seamlessly into dynamic strings. Standard Pascal static arrays are enhanced with dynamic arrays which are fully downward compatible with static arrays, etc.
  • Pocket Studio is a Pascal subset compiler/RAD targeting Palm / MC68xxx with some own extensions to assist interfacing with the Palm OS API.
  • MIDletPascal - A Pascal compiler and IDE that generates small and fast Java bytecode specifically designed to create software for mobiles

A very extensive list can be found on Pascaland. The site is in French, but it is basically a list with URLs to compilers, so that does not matter. You may also check out Pascal Central, a Mac centric Pascal info and advocacy site with a rich collection of article archives, plus links to many compilers and tutorials. Rapid application development (RAD), is a software development process developed initially by James Martin in the 1980s. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ... The Microsoft . ... The FreePascal IDE for Linux. ... Chrome is a programming language for the Common Language Infrastructure developed by RemObjects Software. ... // Early History at Apple Object Pascal was a creation of Niklaus Wirth and Larry Tesler. ... The Microsoft . ... Mono is a project led by Novell, Inc. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ... Linux (also known as GNU/Linux) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... The GNU logo Wikisource has original text related to this article: GNU General Public License The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The UCSD p-System or UCSD Pascal System was a portable highly machine independent operating system developed in 1978 by the Institute for Information Systems of the University of California, San Diego to provide all students with a common operating system that could run on any of the then available... Turbo Pascal 3. ... MIDletPascal is a Pascal compiler and IDE specifically designed to create software for mobiles. ...


Standards

In 1983, the language was standardized, in the international standard ISO/IEC 7185, as well as several local country specific standards, including the American ANSI/IEEE770X3.97-1983. In 1990, an extended Pascal standard was created as ISO/IEC 10206.


The ISO 7185 was stated to be a clarification of Wirth's 1974 language as detailed by the User Manual and Report [Jensen and Wirth], but was also notable for adding "Conformant Array Parameters" as a level 1 to the standard, level 0 being Pascal without Conformant Arrays.


Note that Niklaus Wirth himself referred to the 1974 language as "the Standard", for example, to differentiate it from the machine specific features of the CDC 6000 compiler.


On the large machines (mainframes and minicomputers) Pascal originated on, the standards were generally followed. On the IBM-PC, they were not. On IBM-PCs, the Borland standards Turbo Pascal and Delphi have the greatest number of users. Thus, it is typically important to understand whether a particular implementation corresponds to the original Pascal language, or a Borland dialect of it.


Divisions

Niklaus Wirth's Zurich version of Pascal was issued outside of ETH in two basic forms, the CDC 6000 compiler source, and a porting kit called Pascal-P system. The Pascal-P compiler left several features of the full language out. For example, procedures and functions as parameters, undiscriminated variant records, packing, dispose, interprocedural gotos and other features of the full compiler were left off.


UCSD Pascal, under professor Kenneth Bowles, used the Pascal-P2 kit, and consequentially had several of the same differences with the full Zurich Pascal compiler as the Pascal-P compiler did. UCSD Pascal later was adopted as Apple Pascal, and continued through several versions there. UCSD Pascal was a specific implementation of the programming language Pascal which used the p-Code machine architecture. ...


Borland's Turbo Pascal, written by Anders Hejlsberg was written in assembly language independent of UCSD or the Zurich compilers. However, it adopted much of the same subset as the UCSD compiler, probably because at that time, UCSD was the most common Pascal system running on Microprocessors. Turbo Pascal 3. ... Anders Hejlsberg (born c. ...


Criticism

While very popular (although more so in the 1980s and early 1990s than now), early versions of Pascal have been widely criticised for being unsuitable for "serious" use outside of teaching. Brian Kernighan, famed populariser of the C programming language, outlined his most notable criticisms of Pascal as early as 1981, in his paper Why Pascal Is Not My Favorite Programming Language. On the other hand, many major development efforts in the 1980s, such as for the Apple Lisa and Macintosh, heavily depended on Pascal (to the point where the C interface for the Mac OS API had to deal in Pascal data types). Brian W. Kernighan (pronounced Ker-ni-han; the g is silent; born 1942) is a computer scientist who worked at the Bell Labs and contributed to the design of the pioneering AWK and AMPL programming languages. ... The C Programming Language, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the original edition that served for many years as an informal specification of the language The C programming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use... Apple Lisa The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ...


In the decades since then, Pascal has continued to evolve and most of Kernighan's points do not apply to current implementations. Unfortunately, just as Kernighan predicted in his article, most of the extensions to fix these issues were incompatible from compiler to compiler. In the last decade, however, the varieties seem to have condensed into two categories, ISO or Borland like, a better eventual outcome than Kernighan foresaw.


Based on his experience with Pascal Niklaus Wirth developed two more programming languages: Modula-2 and Oberon. Although these languages are an improvement upon Pascal, they have yet to meet with the same commercial success. Niklaus Wirth giving a lecture Niklaus E. Wirth (born February 15, 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist. ... Modula-2 is a computer programming language invented by Niklaus Wirth at ETH around 1978, as a successor to Modula, another language by him. ... Oberon is a reflective programming language created in the late 1980s by Professor Niklaus Wirth (creator of the Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2 programming languages) and his associates at ETHZ in Switzerland. ...


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Programming:Pascal

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a programming language originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ... The C Programming Language, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the original edition that served for many years as an informal specification of the language The C programming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use... Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated as DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ... In the mid-1970s, after designing the Pascal programming language, Niklaus Wirth began experimenting with program concurrency and modularization, which led to the design of the Modula programming language. ... Oberon is a reflective programming language created in the late 1980s by Professor Niklaus Wirth (creator of the Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2 programming languages) and his associates at ETHZ in Switzerland. ... // Early History at Apple Object Pascal was a creation of Niklaus Wirth and Larry Tesler. ... // C vs Pascal: A language comparison C and Pascal are both arguably descendants of the ALGOL programming language series. ... IP Pascal is an implementation of the Pascal programming language using the IP portability platform, a multiple machine, operating system and language implementation system. ... Chrome is a programming language for the Common Language Infrastructure developed by RemObjects Software. ...

External links

Reference material

  • Bill Catambay, The Pascal Programming Language

Tutorials

  • How To Code: Pascal

Books

  • Kathleen Jensen and Niklaus Wirth: PASCAL - User Manual and Report. Springer-Verlag, 1974, 1985, 1991, ISBN 0-387-97649-3 and ISBN 0-540-97649-3 [1]
    also in N. Wirth, and A. I. Wasserman, ed: Programming Language Design. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1980
  • You can find a free online Pascal book on Joe Dorward's website.

Journals

  • Niklaus Wirth: The Programming Language Pascal. Acta Informatica, 1, (Jun 1971) 35-63

Resources

  • Pascal Central — the one-stop Pascal resource site
  • Standard Pascal — Resources and history of original, standard Pascal
  • PASCAL XSC — The page of the developers of Pascal XSC with extensive material

Standards

  • Pascal standards ISO/IEC 10206: Extended Pascal
  • ANSI-ISO Pascal ISO/IEC 7185: PASCAL

History

  • N. Wirth, M. Broy, ed, and E. Denert, ed: Pascal and its Successors in Software Pioneers: Contributions to Software Engineering. Springer-Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-540-43081-4
  • N. Wirth: Recollections about the Development of Pascal. ACM SIGPLAN Notices, Volume 28, No 3, March 1993.
  • Pascal User's Group Newsletters — An early Pascal history resource that contains many letters from Wirth and others concerning Pascal.

Criticism

  • Brian W. Kernighan, Why Pascal is Not My Favorite Programming Language Considered quite outdated.

Brian Kernighan¹ (born 1942) is a computer scientist who worked at the Bell Labs and contributed to the design of the pioneering AWK and AMPL programming languages. ...

Humor

  • Real Programmers Don't Use Pascal — a joke about why real programmers don't use Pascal

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The Pascal Programming Language (0 words)
This class stressed that the art of programming was not the learning of a programming language, but the thought process of taking real-life problems, finding a solution, translating that solution to an algorithm, and finally converting the algorithm into working code.
In 1650, Pascal left the world of geometry and physics, and shifted his focus towards religious studies, or, as Pascal wrote, to "contemplate the greatness and the misery of man." Pascal died in Paris on August 19, 1662.
According to the Pascal Standard (ISO 7185), these goals were to a) make available a language suitable for teaching programming as a systematic discipline based on fundamental concepts clearly and naturally reflected by the language, and b) to define a language whose implementations could be both reliable and efficient on then-available computers.
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