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Encyclopedia > Pasargadae
Pasargadae*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 1106
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription History
Inscription 2004  (28th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Pasargadae (Persian: پاسارگاد) was a city in ancient Persia, and is today an archaeological site and one of Iran's UNESCO World Heritage Sites. According to the Elamite cuneiform of the Persepolis fortification tablets the name was rendered as Batrakataš, and the name in current usage derives from a Greek transliteration of an Old Persian Pâthragâda toponym of still-uncertain meaning. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Motto Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (introduced 1979) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 3200-2700 BCE... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ...

Contents

Site and history

The Dovetail Staples from Pasargadae - World's Oldest Staple - 6th c. BCE
The Dovetail Staples from Pasargadae - World's Oldest Staple - 6th c. BCE

Its ruins lie 87 km (54 mi) northeast of Persepolis, in present Fars province of Iran, and was the first capital of the Persian Empire. The construction of the capital city by Cyrus the Great, begun in 546 BCE or later, was left unfinished, for Cyrus died in battle in 530 BCE or 529 BCE. Pasargadae remained the Persian capital until Darius began assembling another in Persepolis. The modern name comes from the Greek, but may derive from an earlier one used during Achaemenid times, Pâthragâda. Image File history File links Pasargadae_Swallow-Tail_Staples. ... Image File history File links Pasargadae_Swallow-Tail_Staples. ... A packet of staples commonly used in the home or office Staples in use, showing the front and the back side. ... Persepolis aerial view. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KÅ«ruÅ¡,[1] modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (c. ... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ... Persepolis aerial view. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon...


The archaeological site covers 1.6 square kilometres and includes a structure commonly believed to be the mausoleum of Cyrus, the fortress of Tall-e Takht sitting on top of a nearby hill, and the remains of two royal palaces and gardens. The gardens provide the earliest known example of the Persian chahar bagh, or four-fold garden design. (See Persian Gardens.) Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... St. ... Art depicting two men in a Persian Garden Persian Gardens refers to a tradition and style of garden design which originated in Persia (more commonly known today as Iran). ...


Latest research on Pasargadae’s structural engineering has shown the Achaemenid engineers constructed the city to withstand a seven richter scale earthquake. Achaemenid engineers had laid its’ foundations by using “Base Isolation” method in their design. The Base Isolation system is being used today by many countries for the construction of the nuclear facilities, and countries with numerous earthquakes such as Japan. An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. ...


The most important monument in Pasargadae is undoubtedly the tomb of Cyrus the Great. It has six broad steps leading to the sepulchre, the chamber of which measures 3.17 m long by 2.11 m wide by 2.11 m high, and has a low and narrow entrance. Though there is no firm evidence identifying the tomb as that of Cyrus, Greek historians tell us that Alexander the Great believed it was so. When Alexander looted and destroyed Persepolis, he paid a visit to the tomb of Cyrus. Arrian, writing in the second century of the common era, recorded that Alexander commanded Aristobulus, one of his warriors, to enter the monument. Inside he found a golden bed, a table set with drinking vessels, a gold coffin, some ornaments studded with precious stones and an inscription of the tomb. No trace of any such inscription survives to modern times, and there is considerable disagreement to the exact wording of the text. Strabo reports that it read: Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

Passer-by, I am Cyrus, who gave the Persians an empire, and was king of Asia.
Grudge me not therefore this monument.

Another variation, as documented in Persia: The Immortal Kingdom, is:

O man, whoever thou art, from wheresoever thou cometh, for I know you shall come, I am Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians.
Grudge me not, therefore, this little earth that covers my body.

According to some classicists, the style and construction of the tomb show strong connections with Anatolian tombs of a similar period. In particular, the tomb at Pasargadae has almost exactly the same dimensions as the tomb of Alyattes II, father of the Lydian King Croesus; however, many have refused the claim, (According to Herodotus, Croesus was spared by Cyrus during the conquest of Lydia, and became a member of Cyrus' court.) Some scholars believe that Cyrus may have "imported" Lydian stonemasons for the construction of the tomb. In general, the art and architecture found at Pasargadae exemplified the Persian synthesis of various traditions, drawing on precedents from Elam, Babylon, Assyria, and ancient Egypt, with the addition of some Anatolian influences. Anatolian can refer to: Someone or something from Anatolia The Anatolian Shepherd Dog This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Alyattes II, king of Lydia (619_560 BC), the real founder of the Lydian empire, was the son of Sadyattes, of the house of the Mermnadae. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ...


During the Islamic conquest of Iran, the Arab armies came upon the tomb and planned to destroy it, considering it to be in direct violation of the tenets of Islam. The caretakers of the grave managed to convince the Arab command that the tomb was not built to honor Cyrus, but instead housed the mother of King Solomon, thus sparing it from destruction. As a result, the inscription in the tomb was replaced by a verse of the Qur'an, and the tomb became known as "Qabr-e Madar-e Sulaiman," or the tomb of the mother of Solomon. It is still widely known by that name today. It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ...


Sivand Dam controversy

There has been growing concern regarding the proposed Sivand Dam, named after the nearby town of Sivand. Despite planning that has stretched over 10 years, Iran's own Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization was not aware of the broader areas of flooding during much of this time. Sivand Dam is a planned dam in Fars Province, Iran. ... Sivand is a village near Shiraz, best known for a nearby dam. ... Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگي، صنايع دستي و گردشگري) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. ...


Its placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae and Persepolis has many archaeologists and Iranians worried that the dam will flood these UNESCO World Heritage sites, although scientists involved with the construction say this is impossible because the sites sit well above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae is the one considered the most threatened.


The broadly shared concern by archaelogists is the effect of the increase in humidity caused by the lake; experts from the Ministry of Energy however believe it would be compensated by controlling the water level of the dam reservoir. All agree that humidity created by it will speed up the gradual destruction of Pasargadae.


Construction of the dam began April 19, 2007.


Gallery

See also

Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Tang-e Bolaghi is an ancient village discovered in 2005. ... Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia, widely known as Cyrus the Great, (ca. ... David Stronach is a renowned British archeologist of ancient Iran and Iraq. ... Ancient history Few nations in the world present more of a justification for the study of history than Iran. ... Symbol of 2,500 Year Celebration, Cyrus Cylinder in Center The 2,500 year celebration of Iran’s monarchy consisted of an elaborate set of festivities that took place October 12-16, 1971 on the occasion of the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Iranian monarchy by Cyrus...

References

Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگي، صنايع دستي و گردشگري) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. ...

External links

Coordinates: 30°12′00″N, 53°10′46″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pasargadae - LoveToKnow 1911 (712 words)
The river Cyrus is the Kur of the Persians, now generally named Bandamir; the historians of Alexander call it Araxes, and give to its tributary, the modern Pulwar, which passes by the ruins of Murghab and Persepolis, the name Medos (Strabo xv.
The conjecture of Oppert, that Pasargadae is identical with Pishiyauvada, where (on a mountain Arakadri) the usurper Gaumata (Smerdis) proclaimed himself king, and where his successor, the second false Smerdis Vahyazdata, gathered an army (inscrip.
The principal ruins of the town of Pasargadae at Murghab are a great terrace like that of Persepolis, and the remainders of three buildings, on which the building inscription of Cyrus, "I Cyrus the king the Achaemenid" (sc.
Pasargadae - UNESCO World Heritage Centre (276 words)
Pasargadae was the first dynastic capital of the Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus II, the Great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BC.
Pasargadae was the capital of the first great multicultural empire in Western Asia.
Criterion (i): Pasargadae is the first outstanding expression of the royal Achaemenid architecture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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