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Encyclopedia > Parvovirus B19
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Parvovirus B19
Virus classification
Group: Group II (ssDNA)
Family: Parvoviridae
Genus: Erythrovirus
Species: B19 virus

Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) was the first (and, until 2005, only) human parvovirus to be discovered, by chance in 1975 by the Australian virologist Yvonne Cossart.[1] It gained its name because it was discovered in well B19 of a large series of petri dishes apparently numbered in this way.[2] Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Subfamily Parvovirinae    Parvovirus    Erythrovirus    Dependovirus Subfamily Densovirinae    Densovirus    Iteravirus    Brevidensovirus The Parvoviridae family includes the smallest known viruses, and some of the most environmentally resistant. ... Genera Subfamily Parvovirinae    Parvovirus    Erythrovirus    Dependovirus Subfamily Densovirinae    Densovirus    Iteravirus    Brevidensovirus The Parvoviridae family includes the smallest known viruses, and some of the most environmentally resistant. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


Parvovirus B19 is best known for causing a childhood exanthem called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum.[3] An exanthem is a rash, usually viral, and usually in children. ... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ...

Contents

Virology

The B19 virus belongs to the Parvoviridae family of small DNA viruses.[4] It is classified as Erythrovirus because of its capability to invade red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. Genera Subfamily Parvovirinae    Parvovirus    Erythrovirus    Dependovirus Subfamily Densovirinae    Densovirus    Iteravirus    Brevidensovirus The Parvoviridae family includes the smallest known viruses, and some of the most environmentally resistant. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ...


Transmission

The virus is primarily spread by infected respiratory droplets; blood-borne transmission, however, has been reported.[5] The secondary attack risk for exposed household persons is about 50%, and about half of that for classroom contacts.[6] // In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...


Infectivity

B19 symptoms begins some six days after exposure and last about a week. Infected patients with normal immune systems are contagious before becoming symptomatic, but probably not after then.[7] Individuals with B19 IgG antibodies are generally considered immune to recurrent infection, but reinfection is possible in a minority of cases.[8] About half of adults are B19-immune due to a past infection. Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ...


Epidemiology

A significant increase in the number of cases is seen every three to four years; the last epidemic year was 1998. Outbreaks can arise especially in nurseries and schools. In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ...


Parvovirus B19 causes an infection in humans only; cat and dog parvoviruses do not infect humans. In contrast with small animals, there is no vaccine available for human parvovirus B19.


Role in disease

Fifth disease

Fifth disease or Erythema Infectiosium is only one of several expressions of Parvovirus B19. Any age may be affected, although it is most common in children aged six to ten years.


After being infected, patients usually develop the illness after an incubation period of four to fourteen days. The disease commences with fever and malaise while the virus is most abundant in the bloodstream, and patients are usually no longer infectious once the characteristic rash of this disease has appeared. Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ...


Teenagers or young adults tend to develop the so called 'Papular Pupuric Gloves and Socks Syndrome.' Unlike young children, these patients may be infectious with this rash.


Rash

The rash of fifth disease is typically called described as "slapped cheeks," with erythema across the cheeks and sparing the nasolabial folds, forehead, and mouth. Because of this rash, fifth disease is sometimes called slapped cheek syndrome.


Arthritis

In adults (and perhaps some children), parvovirus B19 can lead to a seronegative arthritis which is usually easily controlled with analgesics. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience arthritis after parvo virus infection. Possibly up to 15% of all new cases of arthritis are due to parvovirus, and a history of recent contact with a patient and positive serology generally confirms the diagnosis.[7] This arthritis does not progress to other forms of arthritis. Typically joint symptoms last 1-3 weeks, but in 10-20% of those affected, it may last weeks to months. Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Serology is literally the scientific study of the blood serum. ...


Aplastic crisis

Although most patients have an arrest of erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) during parvovirus infection, it causes worse problems in patients with sickle cell anemia, or with hereditary spherocytosis, who are heavily dependent on erythropoeisis due to the reduced lifespan of the red cells. This is termed "aplastic crisis". It is treated with blood transfusion. Sickle-cell patients will probably be the first candidates for a parvovirus B19 vaccine when it is developed. Erythropoiesis is the process by which red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ... Sickle-shaped red blood cells Sickle cell anemia (American English), sickle cell anaemia (British English) or sickle cell disease is a genetic disease in which red blood cells may change shape under certain circumstances. ... Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetic disorder of the red blood cells that makes them prone to hemolysis. ... Donating blood Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ...


Hydrops fetalis

Parvovirus infection in pregnant women is associated with hydrops fetalis due to severe fetal anemia, sometimes leading to miscarriage or stillbirth. The risk of fetal loss is about 10% if infection occurs before pregnancy week 20 (esp. between weeks 14-20), but minimal after then. Routine screening of the antinatal sample would enable the pregnant mother to determint the risk of infection. Knowledge of her status would allow the mother to avoid the risk of infection.The risk to the featus will be reduced with correct diagnosis of the anemia (by ultrasound scans) and treatment (by blood transfusions). Once the baby is born, there is evidence to suggest no developmental abnormalities due to B19 infection during pregnancy. Hydrops fetalis is a blood condition in the fetus characterized by an edema in the fetal subcutaneous tissue, sometimes leading to spontaneous abortion. ... Anemia (AmE) or anaemia (BrE), from the Greek () meaning without blood, refers to a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Obstetric sonogram of a fetus at 16 weeks. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ...


References

  1. ^ Heegaard ED, Brown KE (2002). "Human parvovirus B19". Clin Microbiol Rev 15 (3): 485-505. PMID 12097253. 
  2. ^ Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D (1975). "Parvovirus-like particles in human sera". Lancet 1 (7898): 72-3. PMID 46024. 
  3. ^ Vafaie J, Schwartz RA (2004). "Parvovirus B19 infections". Int J Dermatol 43 (10): 747-9. PMID 15485533. 
  4. ^ Brown KE (2004). "Variants of B19". Dev Biol (Basel) 118: 71-7. PMID 15645675. 
  5. ^ Pattison JR, Patou G (1996). Parvoviruses. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  6. ^ Young NS, Brown KE (2004). "Parvovirus B19". N Engl J Med 350 (6): 586-97. PMID 14762186. 
  7. ^ a b Corcoran A, Doyle S (2004). "Advances in the biology, diagnosis and host-pathogen interactions of parvovirus B19". J Med Microbiol 53 (Pt 6): 459-75. PMID 15150324. 
  8. ^ Lehmann HW, von Landenberg P, Modrow S (2003). "Parvovirus B19 infection and autoimmune disease". Autoimmun Rev 2 (4): 218-23. PMID 12848949. 

External links

  • Association of Medical Microbiologists page on parvovirus B19


[[Category:Parvoviruses]


  Results from FactBites:
 
Parvovirus B19 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (608 words)
Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) was the first (and, until 2005, only) human parvovirus to be discovered, by chance in 1975 by the Australian virologist Yvonne Cossart.
Possibly up to 15% of all new cases of arthritis are due to parvovirus, and a history of recent contact with a patient and positive serology generally confirms the diagnosis.
Parvovirus infection in pregnant women is associated with hydrops fetalis due to severe fetal anemia, sometimes leading to miscarriage or stillbirth.
Parvovirus B19 - definition of Parvovirus B19 in Encyclopedia (432 words)
Parvovirus B19 (B19 virus) was the first human parvovirus to be discovered, by chance in 1975 by the Australian virologist Yvonne Cossart.
Although most patients have an arrest of erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) during parvovirus infection, it causes problems in patients with sickle cell anemia, who are heavily dependant on erythropoeisis due to the reduced lifespan of the red cells.
Parvovirus infection in pregnant women is associated with hydrops fetalis due to severe fetal anemia, sometimes leading to spontaneous abortion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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