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Encyclopedia > Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. They involved Prussia, Russia and Habsburg Austria dividing up the Commonwealth lands among themselves. Three partitions took place: (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ...

After the Napoleonic Wars, when Napoleon Bonaparte restored a Polish state in the form of the Duchy of Warsaw, the three states that partitioned Poland decided to create out of the territories they annexed somewhat autonomous (at least in theory) regions, which were: August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Austrian Empire[1] Kingdom of Portugal Kingdom of Prussia[1] Russian Empire[2] Kingdom of Spain[3] Kingdom of Sweden United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[4] French Empire - Kingdom of Holland - Kingdom of Italy - Kingdom of Naples - Duchy of Warsaw - Kingdom of Bavaria[5] - Kingdom of... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ...

In all cases assurances were made towards the recognition of the Polish language, respect for Polish culture and the rights of Poles. In all cases these promises were quickly broken and the regions annexed. Grand Duchy of Poznań (Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Poznańskie, German: Grossherzogtum Posen) was province of Prussia in the Polish lands commonly known as Great Poland between the years 1815-1849. ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ...


The term "Fourth Partition of Poland" may refer to any subsequent division of Polish lands, specifically:

Contents

The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...

History

Prelude

Before the partitions: The Commonwealth at its greatest extent.
Before the partitions: The Commonwealth at its greatest extent.

One could characterise Poland-Lithuania in its final period (mid-18th century), prior to the partitions as already not a completely sovereign state: in modern terms it would be a Russian satellite state, with Russian tsars effectively choosing Polish kings. This applies particularly to the last Commonwealth King Stanisław August Poniatowski, who had been for some time a lover of Russian Empress Catherine the Great. During the reign of Władysław IV (1632-48), the liberum veto had evolved. This policy of parliamentary procedure was based on the assumption of the political equality of every "gentleman", with the corollary that unanimous consent was required for all measures. A single MP's belief that a measure was injurious to his own constituency (usually simply his own estate), even after the act had already been approved, became sufficient to strike the act. It became increasingly difficult to get action taken. The liberum veto also provided openings for foreign diplomats to get their ways, through bribing nobles to exercise it. Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 304 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 304 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729–17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia from June 28, 1762 until... Reign in Poland November 8, 1632 – May 20, 1648. ... Liberum veto (Latin: free veto) was a parliamentary device in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that allowed any deputy to a Sejm to force an immediate end to the current session and nullify all legislation already passed at it. ...


The Commonwealth had remained neutral in the Seven Years' War, though sympathizing with the alliance of France, Austria, and Russia, and allowing Russian troops access to its western lands as bases against Prussia. Frederick II of Prussia retaliated by ordering enough Polish currency counterfeited to severely affect the Polish economy. Through the Polish nobles whom Russia controlled and the Russian Minister to Warsaw, ambassador and Prince Nicholas Repnin, Empress Catherine the Great forced a constitution on the Commonwealth at the so-called Repnin Sejm of 1767, named after ambassador Repnin, who de facto dictated the terms of that Sejm (and who ordered the capture and exile to Siberia of some vocal opponents of his policies[1] [2], namely Józef Andrzej Załuski[3] and Wacław Rzewuski). This new constitution undid the reforms made in 1764 under Stanisław II. The liberum veto and all the old abuses of the last 1¼ centuries were guaranteed as unalterable parts of this new constitution (in the so-called cardinal laws[4]). The Commonwealth had been forced to rely on Russia for protection against the rising Prussian tide, while Prussia was demanding a slice of the northwest in order to unite its Western and Eastern portions and make itself contiguous, although this would only leave the Commonwealth with a Baltic coast in Latvia and NW Lithuania. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland Electorate of Hanover Kingdom of Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Holy Roman/Austrian Empire Kingdom of France Russian Empire Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and Sicily Kingdom of Sardinia The Seven Years War (1754... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Frederick II of Prussia (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) of Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. ... Polish szlachcic. ... Prince Nicholas Repnin Prince Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin (March 11, 1734 N.S. — May 12, 1801 N.S.) was a Russian statesman and general from the Repnin princely family who played a key role in the downfall of Polish statehood. ... Repnin Sejm (Polish: ) was a Sejm (session of the Polish parliament) that took place from 1767 to 1768 in Warsaw, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Bishop Józef Andrzej ZaÅ‚uski, the founder of the first public library in Poland Józef Andrzej ZaÅ‚uski (12 January 1702 - 7 January 1774) was a Polish catholic priest, Bishop of Kiev, sponsor of science and culture, known bibliophile. ... WacÅ‚aw Rzewuski (1705-1779) was a Polish drama writer and poet as well as a military commander and a Grand Crown Hetman. ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Repnin demanded religious freedom for the Protestant and Orthodox Christians, and the resulting reaction among Poland's Roman Catholic leadership, as well as the deep resentment[5] of Russian intervention in the Commonwealth's domestic affairs, led to the War of the Confederation of Bar with Russia from 1768 to 1772. The Commonwealth could never be liquidated unless its longtime ally, Austria, allowed it,[citation needed] and first Catherine had to use diplomacy to win Austria to her side. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles, preserving the traditions of the early church unchanged, accepting the canonicity of the first seven ecumenical councils held between the 4th and the... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Confederation of Bar (1768–1776), a grouping of Polish szlachta, formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nikolai Repnin. ...


The neighbours, namely Prussia, Austria and Russia, signed a secret agreement in order to maintain the status quo: specifically, to ensure that the Commonwealth laws would not change. Their alliance later became known in Poland as the "Alliance of the Three Black Eagles", because all three states used a black eagle as a state symbol (in contrast to the white eagle, a symbol of Poland).


The Poles tried to expel foreign forces in an uprising (the Confederation of Bar, 17681772), but the irregular and poorly commanded forces had no chance in face of the regular Russian army and suffered crushing defeat. The Confederation of Bar (1768–1776), a grouping of Polish szlachta, formed at the fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nikolai Repnin. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


First Partition

The First Partition (1772).
The First Partition (1772).

On February 19, 1772, the agreement of partition was signed in Vienna. A previous agreement between Prussia and Russia had been made in St. Petersburg on February 6, 1772. Early in August the Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops simultaneously entered the Commonwealth and occupied the provinces agreed upon among themselves. On August 5, 1772, the occupation manifesto was issued; much to the consternation of a country too exhausted by the endeavours of the Confederation of Bar to offer further resistance. Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 268 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 268 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The regiments of the Confederation, whose executive board had been forced to leave Austria after that country joined the Prusso-Russian alliance, did not lay down their arms. Every fortress in their command held out as long as possible. Famous was the defence of Tyniec, which lasted until the end of March 1773, and also that of Czestochowa commanded by Pułaski. Kraków fell on April 28th, captured by the Russian general Suvorov who exiled the garrison to Siberia.[citation needed] Neither France nor Britain, upon whom hopes had been based, helped in a sufficient measure or protested when the partition was executed. So came to an end the ill-organized attempt of the Commonwealth to repulse the foreign aggression. It had cost about a hundred thousand men and once more laid the country to waste, although it was the first demonstration of the reviving national consciousness. Tyniec - a historic village in Poland on Vistula river, today a borough of Kraków. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Częstochowa (pronounce: [ʧε̃stɔ:xɔva]) is a city in south Poland on the Warta River with 248,894 inhabitants (2004). ... Kazimierz PuÅ‚aski. ... Wawel Hill. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: ) (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov), Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince of Italy () (November 24, 1729 – May 18, 1800), was the fourth and last Russian Generalissimo (not counting Stalin). ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ...


The partition treaty was ratified by its signatories on September 22, 1772. Frederick II of Prussia was elated with his success, and took great care for the welfare of his new Polish subjects, importing large numbers of Catholic schoolteachers (especially Jesuits whose order was suppressed at about that time) and making it mandatory for Prussian crown princes to learn Polish; Kaunitz of Austria was proud of wresting as large a share as he did, with the rich salt mines of Bochnia and Wieliczka; and Catherine of Russia was also very satisfied. By this "diplomatic document" Russia came into possession of that section of Livonia which had still remained in Polish hands, and of Belarus embracing the counties of Vitebsk, Polotsk and Mstislavl. September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick II of Prussia (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) of Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. ... Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz (Count Anton von Kaunitz), (Václav Antonín hrabě Kounic-Rietberg) (February 2, 1711 - June 27, 1794), born into old Bohemian noble family settled in Moravia, was an Austrian statesman. ... Bochnia (IPA: ) is a town of 30,000 inhabitants on the river Raba in southern Poland, 35 km southeast of Kraków. ... Wieliczka is a town (2005 population: 18,590) in southern Poland in the Kraków metropolitan area, and situated (since 1999) in Lesser Poland Voivodship, previously (1975-1998) in Kraków Voivodship. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729–17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia from June 28, 1762 until... Coat of arms of Vitebsk. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: PoÅ‚ock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... AmÅ›cislaÅ­ (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; sometimes Mstislavl) is a town in Belarus, MahiloÅ­ Province. ...


Prussia took Ermland (Warmia), Royal Prussia without the city of Danzig (Gdańsk) (which in 1773 became a new province called West Prussia), northern areas of Greater Poland along the Noteć River (the Netze District), and parts of Kuyavia (including the city of Thorn [Toruń]). Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Flag Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) Government Monarchy History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... GdaÅ„sk (IPA: ; German: , Kashubian: , Late Latin: ; older English Dantzig; also other languages) is Polands sixth-largest city, and also her principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions Prussia. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... The Netze District or District of the Netze (German: ; Polish: ) was a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 to 1793. ... KUYAVIA (sometimes spelt Cuyavia; in German KUJAWIEN, in Polish KUJAVY) is a historical region of Poland, named after the pagan tribe of the Kujawier (name in German) still known there under that name in the tenth century AD. It is the northernmost part of Greater Poland, west of Masovia and... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ...


To Austria fell Zator and Auschwitz (Oświęcim), part of Little Poland embracing parts of the counties of Kraków and Sandomir and the whole of Galicia, less the City of Kraków. By this partition the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth lost about 30% of its territory, amounting at that time to about 484,000 square miles, with a four million people. The largest share of the spoils, as far as population and revenue were concerned, went to Austria. Arms of OÅ›wiÄ™cim View into part of the market square. ... Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Little Poland or Lesser Poland (Polish Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

"Rejtan - The Fall of Poland", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x 487 cm, Royal Castle in Warsaw.
"Rejtan - The Fall of Poland", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x 487 cm, Royal Castle in Warsaw.

After having occupied their respective territories, the three partitioning powers demanded that King Stanisław and the Sejm approve their action. The King appealed to the nations of Western Europe for help and tarried with the convocation of the Sejm. When no help was forthcoming and the armies of the combined nations occupied Warsaw to compel by force of arms the calling of the assembly, no alternative could be chosen save passive submission to their will. Those of the senators who advised against this step were arrested and exiled to Siberia by the representatives of Catherine.[citation needed] The local land assemblies (Sejmiks) refused to elect Deputies to the Sejm, and after great difficulties less than half of the regular number of representatives came to attend the session led by Marshal of the Sejm, Adam Poniński, the commander of the Malta Order, a cynic and notorious gambler. In order to prevent the disruption of the Sejm and the defeat of the purpose of the invaders he undertook to turn the regular Sejm into a Sejm of a Confederacy, where majority rule prevailed. In spite of the dramatic efforts of Tadeusz Rejtan, Samuel Korsak and Stanisław Bohuszewicz to prevent it, the deed was accomplished with the aid of Michał Radziwiłł and the Bishops Andrzej Młodziejowski, Ignacy Jakub Massalski, and Antoni Kazimierz Ostrowski (primate of Poland), who occupied high positions in the Senate of Poland. The so-called Partition Sejm elected a committee of thirty to deal with the various matters presented. On September 18, 1773, the Committee formally signed the treaty of cession, renouncing all claims of the Commonwealth to the occupied territories. On the other hand, that very Sejm, which continued its deliberations until 1775, shaken by the first partition, has passed several important reforms, among them the creation of the Permanent Council and Commission for National Education. Rejtan - The Fall of Poland painted by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Rejtan - The Fall of Poland painted by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Royal Castle in Warsaw Royal Castle after the Warsaw Uprising Royal Castle in Warsaw (Polish Zamek Królewski), is the royal palace and official residence of the Polish monarchs, in Warsaw. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729–17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia from June 28, 1762 until... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... MarszaÅ‚ek sejmu (Sejm Marshal, Marshal of the Sejm) is the title of the Speaker (chair) of Sejm the lower house of Polish parliament since the 15th century. ... Adam PoniÅ„ski on a fragment of Jan Matejkos picture. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) is an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide care for poor and sick... Confederated sejm (Polish: sejm skonfederowany) was a form of sejm in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 18th century. ... Tadeusz Rejtan (also in the Old Polish spelling: Tadeusz Reytan) (1742-1780) was a Polish nobleman, a member of confederation of Bar, Member of Sejm for the Nowogród constituency. ... Noble Family Massalski Coat of Arms Masalski Parents MichaÅ‚ Józef Massalski Franciszka OgiÅ„ska Consorts none Children none Date of Birth July 30, 1726 Place of Birth Olekszczyce near Grodno Date of Death June 28, 1794 Place of Death Warsaw Prince Ignacy Massalski (1726-1794) was Polish nobleman. ... Archbishops of Gniezno and simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1412. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... Tadeusz Rejtan protesting against the partition treaty. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Permanent Council (Polish Rada Nieustająca) was the highest administrative authority in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1775 and 1789 and the first modern government in Europe. ... Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (KEN, Polish for Commission of National Education) was the central educational authority in Poland, created by the Sejm and king Stanisław August Poniatowski on October 14, 1773. ...


By seizing northwestern Poland, Prussia instantly gained control over 80% of the Commonwealth's total foreign trade. Through levying enormous custom duties, Prussia accelerated the inevitable collapse of the Commonwealth (EB.)


Second Partition

The Second Partition (1793)
The Second Partition (1793)

By 1790, on the political front, the First Polish Republic had deteriorated into such a helpless condition that it was successfully forced into an unnatural and ultimately deadly alliance with its mortal enemy, Prussia. The Polish-Prussian Pact of 1790 was signed. The conditions of the Pact were such that the succeeding and final two partitionings of Poland were inevitable. The Constitution of 1791 enfranchised the bourgeoisie, established the separation of the three branches of government, and eliminated the abuses of Repnin's constitution. Once again Poland dared to reform and improve itself without Russia's permission, and once again the Empress was angered and invaded it in 1792 (EB.) Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 285 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 285 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The adoption by the Commonwealth of the May Constitution of Poland prompted aggressive actions on the part of its neighbours, wary of the potential renaissance of the Commonwealth. In the War in Defense of the Constitution, pro-Russian Polish magnates, the Confederation of Targowica, with neutral support from Austria fought against the Polish forces supporting the constitution. Betrayed by their Prussian allies, pro-constitution forces were defeated and the 2nd and 3rd partitions happened over the next few years, effectively terminating the existence of Commonwealth. In the 2nd partition, Russia and Prussia helped themselves to enough more land so that only one-third of the 1772 population remained in Poland. May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... War in Defense of the Constitution or Polish-Russian War of 1792 took place in 1792 between Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth on one side, and the Russian Empire on the other. ... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ...

See also: Kościuszko Uprising and Grodno Sejm

Kościuszko Uprising 1794 The Kościuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. ... New Castle in Grodno, where the Grodno Sejm took place. ...

Third Partition

Main article: History of Poland (1795–1918)
Three partitions of Poland on one map
Three partitions of Poland on one map

The Russian part included 120,000 km² and 1.2 million people with Wilno, the Prussian part 55,000 km² and 1 million people with Warsaw, and the Austrian 47,000km² with 1.2 million and Lublin and Kraków. Although the majority of the szlachta was reconciled to the end of the Commonwealth in 1795, the possibility of Polish independence was kept alive by events within and without Poland throughout the nineteenth century. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 335 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 335 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ...


Aftermath

Napoleon set up the Duchy of Warsaw in a smaller area of Poland, but after his defeat and the implementation of the Congress of Vienna programme, things became even worse for Poles than before. Russia gained a larger share of Poland and, after crushing an insurrection in 1831, the Congress Kingdom of Poland's autonomy was abolished and Poles faced confiscation of property, deportation, forced military service, and the closure of their own universities. After the rising of 1863, Russification of Polish secondary schools was imposed and literacy rate dropped dramatically. In the Austrian portion, Poles became the second nationality [citation needed] and were allowed representation in Parliament and to form their own universities, and Kraków and Lvov became centers of Polish education. Meanwhile, Prussia Germanized the entire school system of its Polish subjects and had no more respect for Polish culture and institutions than Russia had. It would take the World War I, with the Central Powers losing to the Western Allies, the chaos of the Russian Revolution and the Treaty of Versailles to restore Poland's independence after 123 years. Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language–to read, write, listen, and speak. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ...


Assessment

Reading mainstream historians, one finds the claim that the regional powers partitioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth because of the degeneration of the state and because of the inability of the Poles to rule themselves at the time[citation needed]. Nevertheless the darkest period of Polish history and the nadir in the degeneration of the state occurred in the first half of the 18th century, whereas the partitions happened when Poland had been showing the beginning signs of a slow recovery — in fact many Polish historians see the last two partitions as an answer to strengthening reforms in the Commonwealth and the potential threat they represented to its neighbours.[citation needed] As a result of Partitions, Poles, whose culture usually avoided dealing in the affairs of European states were forced to seek a change of status quo in Europe. Polish poets, politicians, nobleman, writers, artists became the main revolutionaries of 19th century. In every country where people sought to overturn the tyrannical regime imposed on Europe by the Holy Alliance of Prussia, Austria and Russia, Polish revolutionaries would arrive to aid the fight for freedom and against tyranny [2]. It was during this time that there appeared the Polish motto, "Za wolność waszą i naszą" ("For your freedom and ours"). A belief that it is Poland's mission in the world to spread freedom to other countries and to liberate other nations from tyrannical regimes, persists to this day in the Polish psyche[6] The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, also known as the Republic of the Two Nations or Commonwealth of Both Nations (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów; Lithuanian: Abiejų tautų respublika), also referred to as the First Republic was one of the largest and most populous[2] countries in Europe. ... The nadir (from Arabic nazir, opposite) is the astronomical term for the point in the sky directly below the observer, or more precisely, the point in the sky with an inclination of -90°. Geometrically, it is the point on the celestial sphere intersected by a line drawn from the observer... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Holy Alliance was a coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, ostensibly to uphold Christianity in European political life but in practice as a bastion against revolution. ... For your freedom and ours (Polish: 1) is one of the unofficial mottos of Poland. ...


Fourth Partition

German and Soviet soldiers in front of an FAI armoured car
German and Soviet soldiers in front of an FAI armoured car
Partitions of Eastern Europe before, during, and after World War II
Partitions of Eastern Europe before, during, and after World War II

The term "Fourth Partition of Poland" may refer to any subsequent division of Polish lands, specifically: Image File history File links Germans_and_Soviets2. ... Image File history File links Germans_and_Soviets2. ... Categories: | | ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x770, 157 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Partitions of Poland East Prussia General Government History of Poland (1939–1945) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x770, 157 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Partitions of Poland East Prussia General Government History of Poland (1939–1945) ... Regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked salmon):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict...

The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 155,000 km² Population about 4. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Kingdom of Poland 1815-31 The Congress Poland is an unofficial term for the Kingdom of Poland (1815-1831), a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Free City of Kraków (Polish: Wolne Miasto Kraków), also known as Republic of Kraków (Rzeczpospolita Krakowska), was a city-state created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and controlled by its three neighbors, Russia, Prussia and Austria until 1846. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

See also

Great Emigration (Polish: Wielka Emigracja), Polish political (1831–1870). ...

External links

  • The Partitioning Of Poland - historical forum
  • An antique map of Poland before the Partitions

Notes and references

  1. ^ (English) Michael Brecher; Jonathan Wilkenfeld (1997). A Study of Crisis. University of Michigan Press, 255. ISBN 0-472-10806-9. 
  2. ^ Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire. James Wycliffe Headlam 1899. In those days the Poles were to be found in every country in Europe, foremost in fighting on the barricades; they helped the Germans to fight for their liberty, and the Germans were to help them to recover independence. In 1848, Mieroslawski had been carried like a triumphant hero through the streets of Berlin; the Baden rebels put themselves under the leadership of a Pole, and it was a Pole who commanded the Viennese in their resistance to the Austrian army; a Pole led the Italians to disaster on the field of Novara

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