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Encyclopedia > Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. Ottoman government collapsed completely and the Ottoman Empire was divided amongst the victorious Entente powers with the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920. Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... Combatants Ottoman Empire Triple Entente Strength 2,850,000 2 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3 891,000 WIA 240,000 Sickness 103,731 MIO 250,000 POW 1 1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. ... now. ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ...


The fall of the empire led to the creation of the modern Middle East and Republic of Turkey. The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Iraq and Palestine (which was comprised of two autonomous regions: Palestine and Transjordan). Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula became part of what is today Saudi Arabia and Yemen. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the Mandate for Palestine issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923. ... Palestine (from Latin: ; Hebrew: Pleshet, פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic: ‎ Filastīn, Falastīn) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ...

Contents

Overview

See also: Balfour Declaration, 1917, Sykes-Picot Agreement, and London Pact
Sykes-Picot Agreement
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Sykes-Picot Agreement

During the war, Great Power politics, Allies had planned secret agreements over the Ottoman Empire. For the Middle East there were a couple of agreements. British and the French concluded a secret treaty (the Sykes-Picot Agreement), to partition between them. The Balfour Declaration the international Zionist movement their support in creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine, which was the site of the ancient Kingdom of Israel but had had a largely Arab population for over a thousand years. Armenians learned the logic of all these activities over them after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. (see: mainly London Pact, also Sykes-Picot Agreement) The tsarist regime had secret wartime agreements with the Triple Entente on the partition of the Ottoman Empire. While The tsarist regime was giving consent to the splitting of the Middle East, Western Anatolia, and Cilicia, they wanted to replace the Muslim residents of the Northern Anatolia and Istanbul with more reliable Cossack settlers. These documents were made public by the February/March revolution in 1917 by Russian journal Izsvestia, in November 1917 to gain the support of the Armenian public for the revolution. The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. ... London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x949, 42 KB) Summary Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x949, 42 KB) Summary Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... now. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. ... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), the small caption (bottom) reads First Palestinian film with sound Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where... This article describes some ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity; for a consideration of the Jewish religion, refer to the article Judaism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia (or Anatolian Peninsula) is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asiatic portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, the Thrace. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia (or Anatolian Peninsula) is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asiatic portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, the Thrace. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural, and economic centre. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ...


The end of the war brought a change to Great Power politics. The empires Russia, Austria-Hungary did not exist anymore. The agreements over some of the Ottoman territories, specially Russian over locating crossacs in the Anatolian north could not happen. Armenians hailed the end of the Romanov dynasty. The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced Ro-MAH-nof), the second and last royal dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...


Modern Middle East

See also: League of Nations mandate

The Treaty of Sèvres formally acknowledged the new League of Nations mandates in the Middle East, the cession of their territories on the Arabian Peninsula, and British sovereignty over Cyprus. Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ...


Syria became a French protectorate (thinly disguised as a League of Nations Mandate), with the Christian coastal areas split off to become Lebanon. Iraq and Palestine became British mandated territories, with one of Sherif Hussein's sons, Faisal, installed as King of Iraq. Palestine was split in half, with the eastern half becoming Transjordan to provide a throne for another of Hussein's sons, Abdullah. The western half of Palestine was placed under direct British administration, and the already substantial Jewish population was allowed to increase, initially under British protection. Most of the Arabian peninsula fell to another British ally, Ibn Saud, who created the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1922. Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... Faisal bin Husayn (Arabic:فيصل بن حسين May 20, 1883 – September 8, 1933) was for a short while king of Greater Syria in 1920 and king of Iraq from 1921 to 1933. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Abdullah I of Jordan King Abdullah I of Jordan (1882 – July 20, 1951) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as Abdullah bin Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن حسين), was, successively, Emir of Trans-Jordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then King of Transjordan (May 25, 1946–1949), and finally King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan... `Abd al-`Azīz as-Sa`ūd ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ...


Another turning point in the history of the Middle East came when oil was discovered, first in Persia in 1908 and later in Saudi Arabia (in 1938) and the other Persian Gulf states, and also in Libya and Algeria. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...

British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine

Download high resolution version (672x633, 58 KB)Map of the British Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan File links The following pages link to this file: British Mandate of Palestine ... Download high resolution version (672x633, 58 KB)Map of the British Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan File links The following pages link to this file: British Mandate of Palestine ...

The resistance

When the Ottomans departed, the Arabs proclaimed an independent state in Damascus, but were too weak, militarily and economically, to resist the European powers for long, and Britain and France soon established control and re-arranged the Middle East to suit themselves. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


During the 1920s and '30s Iraq, Syria and Egypt moved towards independence, although the British and French did not formally depart the region until they were forced to do so after World War II. But in Palestine the conflicting forces of Arab nationalism and Zionist colonisation created a situation which the British could neither resolve nor extricate themselves from. The rise to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany created a new urgency in the Zionist quest to create a Jewish state in Palestine, and the evident intentions of the Zionists provoked increasingly fierce Arab resistance. (For a detailed account of this, see Israel-Palestinian conflict and History of Palestine.) Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Hitler redirects here. ... Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Anatolia

The Greeks had visions of a new Hellenic Empire (Megali Idea), based on particularly British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, who had promised territorial gains. Italians sought the southern part of Anatolia (Mediterranean region) which was promised to them. Under the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, the French obtained Hatay, Lebanon and Syria and desired a part of South-Eastern Anatolia, and the British had already control of Arabia, Palestine, Jordan and Iraq. British was also seeking control over the straits. An artists impression of the Megali Idea. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. ... Hatay is a region in the middle east around the town of Iskenderun. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Palestine (from Latin: ; Hebrew: Pleshet, פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic: ‎ Filastīn, Falastīn) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands. ...


Italy

Italy gained territorial promises over southern Anatolia.


Greece

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Greece and territorial gains.

In May 1917, after the exile of Constantine, Venizélos returned to Athens and allied with the Entente. Greek military forces (though divided between supporters of the monarchy and supporters of Venizélos) began to take part in military operations against the Bulgarian army on the border. At the 1918 Paris Peace Conference Venizelos lobbied hard for an expanded Hellas (the Megali Idea) that would include the large Greek communities in Northern Epirus, Thrace and Minor Asia. The western Allies, particularly British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire if Greece entered the war on the Allied side. These included eastern Thrace, the islands of Imbros (Gökçeada) and Tenedos (Bozcaada), and parts of western Anatolia around the city of Smyrna (İzmir) 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is in practice the most important political office in the UK. He acts as the head of Her Majestys Government and like other Prime Ministers in Westminster Systems is (along with his Cabinet) the de facto... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... now. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Greek: Θράκη, ThrákÄ“; Latin: Thracia or Threcia, Turkish: Trakya, Macedonian: Тракија) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Gökçeada and Bozcaada are two islands in the Aegean Sea which are part of Canakkale Province in Turkey. ... Part of the Venetian fortress on Bozcaada island Gökçeada and Bozcaada are two islands in the Aegean Sea which are part of Çanakkale Province in Turkey. ... Gökçeada and Bozcaada are two islands in the Aegean Sea which are part of Canakkale Province in Turkey. ... Gökçeada and Bozcaada are two islands in the Aegean Sea which are part of Canakkale Province in Turkey. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia (or Anatolian Peninsula) is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asiatic portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, the Thrace. ... For other meanings of Smyrna, see Smyrna (disambiguation). ... Ä°zmir (Greek: Σμύρνη) is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ...


Armenia

See also: Democratic Republic of Armenia

The signing of the Ottoman-Russian friendship treaty (January 1, 1918), helped Vehib Pasha to moved to region where Armenian Republic occupoed. General Tovmas Nazarbekian was the commander on the Caucasus front and he was the governer of the Administration for Western Armenia at that time. Andranik Toros Ozanian took the command of Armenia within the Ottoman Empire. Under heavy pressure from the combined forces of the Ottoman army and the Kurdish irregulars, the Republic was forced to withdraw from Erzincan to Erzurum. Van which was under Armenian control after the Van Resistance was abandoned as well. Vehib Pasha also occupied Trabzon, where the Russians had left huge quantities of supplies. The Republicans in the end were evacuated from Erzurum and Sarikamis after resisting at the Battle of Kara Killisse (1918), the Battle of Sardarapat, and Battle of Bash Abaran. These conflicts concluded with the Treaty of Batum. National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Tovmas Nazarbekian (Nazarbekov) (1855 - 1928) armenian, general in the Russain Army who was the governor of Free Vaspurakan. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire, First Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha, Vehip Pasha, Kerim Pasha, Mustafa Kemal Nikolai Yudenich The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the Caucasus during World War I between the Russian Empire a member of the Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire... Foundation: May 1915 - Dec 1917 Head: Aram Manougian With the Armenian Revolution, Armenian provisional government with the progressive autonomous region [1] that initially set up around of Lake Van, which later at the end of WWI officiated as Wilsonian Armenia in Treaty of Sèvres. ... Andranik Toros Ozanian, or Zoravar Andranik, (Armenian: or Ô¶Õ¸Ö€Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Ô±Õ¶Õ¤Ö€Õ¡Õ¶Õ«Õ¯) (February 25, 1865 – August 31, 1927) was an Armenian general and freedom fighter who was a national hero with big admiration. ... now. ... English page about Erzincan will be add next a little time. ... Panorama of Erzurum. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian residents of Van Commanders Jevdet Bey Armenak Yekaryan Strength 12,000 1,500 Casualties  ? 12,000 ? (mass civilian casualties) The Van Resistance or Van Rebellion was a reaction of the Armenian population in the city of Van to the measures taken by its governor--Jevdet Bey. ... Traditional Trabzon country house Location of Trabzon Province within Turkey Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond or Τραπεζούντα (Trapezoúnda; see also List of traditional Greek place names) in Greek, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey (Lat (DMS) 41° 2 60N Long (DMS) 39° 43 37E). ... In violation of the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, Turkish Nationalist troops under the command of Kemal Atatürk crossed the border in 1918 and attacked Alexandropol (Leninakan). ... Treaty of Batum, June 4, 1918, a treaty between Democratic Republic of Armenia and Ottoman Empire. ...


At the suggestion of Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic Republic of Armenia was to be expanded into present-day eastern Turkey in areas Wilsonian Armenia. National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Foundation: May 1915 - Dec 1917 Head: Aram Manougian Armenian provisional government, First Armenian Republic or sometimes refered as Free Vaspurakan was set up in the city of Van and its provinces during the WWI [1] which had a setback during Battle of Van and reasteblished in June 1916 as Administration...


Republic of Turkey

See also: Turkish War of Independence

However, the Treaty of Sèvres was never applied and Turkish resistance led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk forced out the Greeks and Armenians while the Italians were unable to establish themselves. Kurdish attempts to become independent in the 1920s were suppressed by the Turkish revolutionaries. After Turkish resistance gained control over Anatolia, a new treaty was needed as the conditions of the Treaty of Sèvres were no longer applicable. The Treaty of Lausanne formally ended all hostilities and led to the creation of the modern Turkish republic. Before Lausanne, Turkey and the newly-formed Soviet Union had already signed the Treaty of Kars, which already brought the peace on the eastern border of Turkey. The Treaty of Kars established that the Bolsheviks would cede the provinces of Kars, Iğdır, Ardahan, and Artvin to Turkey in exchange for Adjara. The treaty was ratified in Yerevan on September 11, 1922 after the remainder of Armenia became part of Soviet Union. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionary statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... The people who master mind the Turkish National Movement: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Ismet Inonu Fevzi Cakmak Kazim Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Conference of Lausanne. ... Motto: Turkish: Yurtta Barış, Dünyada Barış (English: Peace at Home, Peace in the World) Anthem(s): Ä°stiklâl Marşı (English: Independence March) Capital Ankara Largest city Ä°stanbul Turkish (Türkçe) Government Republic  - Founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk  - President of the Republic Ahmet Necdet Sezer  - Prime Minister Recep Tayyip... Turkey Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars was a friendship treaty between Turkey and the Soviet governments of the Transcaucasian Republics. ... Kars is a province of Turkey, and is located in the northeastern part of the country, next to the border with Armenia. ... shows the Location of the Province IÄŸdır Igdir is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the border with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. ... shows the Location of the Province Ardahan Ardahan is a province in the northwestern-most corner of Turkey, along part of the border with Georgia. ... Artvin Province is a province in north-eastern Turkey next to the Black Sea and Georgia (country). ... Official language Georgian Capital Batumi ISO code GE.AJ Head of the Government Levan Varshalomidze Area  - Total  - % water 2,900 km² n/a Population  - Total (1989)  - Density 392,432 135. ... Yerevan (Armenian: ÔµÖ€Õ¥Ö‚Õ¡Õ¶ or ÔµÖ€Ö‡Õ¡Õ¶; sometimes written as Erevan; former names include Erebuni and Erivan) (population: 1,088,300 (2004 estimate) [1]) is the largest city and capital of Armenia. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Effect of Turkish National movement and Arabs

Oil wealth also had the effect of stultifying whatever movement towards economic, political or social reform might have emerged in the Arab world under the influence of the Kemalist revolution in Turkey.


 
 

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