FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Partisans (Yugoslavia)
Yugoslav Partisan Flag
Yugoslav Partisan Flag

The Partisans (lat.: Partizani; cyr.: Партизани; meaning: Partisans) was a communist resistance military formation engaged in the fight against the Axis forces and their collaborators in the Balkans during the People's Liberation War of Yugoslavia in the Second World War. The movement grew into the People's Liberation Army of Yugoslavia. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Peoples Liberation Army also known as Partisans were the communist resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // The flag of Croato-Serbian friendship, one of the early flags used by Partisans In April 1941, Yugoslavia... Image File history File links Yugoslav_Partisans_flag_1945. ... Image File history File links Yugoslav_Partisans_flag_1945. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne Division in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... The Axis Powers is a term for the loose alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan. ... During World War II Nazi Germany occupied all or parts of the following non-tripartite countries: Poland, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Yugoslavia, Greece, the Soviet Union, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Egypt and Italy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied Powers (communist): Yugoslav Partisans  Soviet Union Axis Powers:  Germany Italy (until 1943) Bulgaria (until 1944) Croatia Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland Commanders Josip Broz Tito many Draža Mihailović Total casualties: ~600,000 - ~1,700,000 The Yugoslav Front of World War II, also known as the Yugoslav... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Yugoslav partisans were the main anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of Yugoslavia by Axis forces during World War II. The uniting force of the anti-fascist partisans on the territory were the Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan detachments of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian NOV i...

Contents

Origins

The flag of Croato-Serbian friendship, one of the early flags used by Partisans
The flag of Croato-Serbian friendship, one of the early flags used by Partisans

In April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany. On July 30 the first rebels made their presence armed action was carried out. The participants then proceeded to Kopaonik and, together with other insurgents from the Ibar valley and the mountain villages, began the struggle against the occupation. On August 10, 1941 in Stanulović, a mountain village, they formed the Kopaonik Partisan Unit Headquarters. Their liberated area was called the Miners Republic and lasted 42 days. They joined the ranks of Tito and the Peoples Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia later on. Image File history File links Partisan_Flag. ... Image File history File links Partisan_Flag. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of People's Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia - (Slovene: Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije; Serbo-Croatian: Narodno-oslobodilačka armija i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije/Народно-ослободилачка армија и партизански одреди Југославије or Macedonian: Народно-ослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија or Narodno osloboditelna vojska i partizanski odredi na Jugoslavija) - and were under the direct command of Marshal Tito and the Yugoslav Communist Party (CPY) Politburo. Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Savez komunista Jugoslavije), before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Komunistička partija Jugoslavije), was a major... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


The occupying forces instituted such severe burdens on the local populace (in certain instances the army of Nazi Germany would hang or shoot indiscriminately, including women, children and the elderly, up to 100 local inhabitants for every one Wehrmacht soldier killed) that the Partisans came not only to enjoy widespread support but for many were the only option for survival. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


Formation

The first resistance movement was formed in Ljubljana, Slovenia on April 26 (although April 27 has been celebrated officially) and it was called "The Anti-Imperialist Front", later renamed to "Liberation Front" (Slovenian: Osvobodilna fronta, OF). It consisted of the Communist Party of Slovenia, the Christian Socialists, Slovenian Sokol and other small groups. First Sisak Partisan Brigade was the first anti-fascist armed unit in Europe, officially founded near Sisak, Croatia on June 22, 1941, the day Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Various military formations more or less linked to the CPY were involved in various armed confrontations with Axis forces which erupted in various areas of Yugoslavia in the ensuing weeks. The CPY formally decided to launch an armed uprising on July 4, 1941, a date which was later marked as Fighter's Day - public holiday in SFRY. Žikica Jovanović Španac shot the first bullet on July the 7, 1941, and it became the day of state of the Socialist Republic of Serbia.   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Liberation Front of the Slovenian People, established 26 April 1941 in Ljubljana as Anti-Imperialist Front, was the political organization of the Slovenian resistance to Axis occupation during World War II. The founding members were Communist party of Slovenia, Slovenian Christian Socialists, Slovenian Sokol and a group of cultural workers. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian socialism generally refers to those... For other uses, see Sokol (disambiguation). ... First Sisak Partisan Brigade or Croatian Prvi Sisački odredwas the first anti-fascist armed unit in Croatia and Europe. ... Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... Sisak on the map of Croatia Sisak (German: Sissek, Hungarian: Sziszek, Italian: Siscia) is a city in central Croatia. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...


In Autumn 1941, the Partisans established the Republic of Užice in the liberated territory of western Serbia. In November 1941, the German troops occupied this territory again, while the majority of Partisan forces escaped towards Bosnia. It was during this time that tenuous collaboration between the Partisans and the royalist Chetnik movement broke and turned into open hostility. The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Chetniks (Serbian Četnici, Четници) were an organization of Yugoslavs (mostly Serbs) who supported the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed a notable resistance force during World War II. The name is derived from the Serbian word četa which means company (of about 100...


On December 22, 1941 Partisans formed 1st Proletarian Brigade - the first "regular" unit able to operate outside its local area. This became the Day of the Yugoslav People (National) Army, December 22. In 1942 those units and partisan detachments merged into PLA & PDY (NOV i POJ), into a regular force, the Yugoslav Army, on March 1, 1945. is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA) was the army of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia prior to its dissolution. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On September 19, 1942 partisans in Dalmatia formed their first naval unit made of fishing boats, which gradually evolved into a force able to engage the Italian Navy and Kriegsmarine and conduct complex amphibious operations. is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ...


In May 1942 pilots of two aircraft belonging to NDH air force, Franjo Kluz and Rudi Cajevec, defected to the partisans in Bosnia and later used their planes against Axis forces. Although short-lived due to a lack of infrastructure, this was the first instance of resistance movement having its own air force. Partisans later gained permanent air force by getting aircraft, equipment and training from the Royal Air Force in 1944. Croatian Home Guard (Croatian: Hrvatsko domobranstvo, often abbr. ... “RAF” redirects here. ...


Operations

Main article: Yugoslav People's Liberation War

The Partisans and the People's Liberation Army staged a guerrilla campaign which enjoyed gradually increased levels of support among the population. People's committees were organized to act as civilian governments in liberated areas of the country, and even limited arms industries were set-up. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ...


At the very beginning, partisan forces were relatively small, poorly armed and without any infrastructure. But they had two major advantages over other military and paramilitary formations in former Yugoslavia.


The first and most immediate was a small but valuable cadre of Spanish Civil War veterans who, unlike anyone else at the time, had some experience with modern war fought in circumstances quite similar to those in World War II Yugoslavia. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


Another, which became apparent in later stages of war, was in Partisans being founded on communist ideology rather than ethnicity. Therefore Partisans could expect at least some levels of support in almost any corner of the country, unlike other paramilitary formations limited to territories with Croat or Serb majority. This allowed their units to be more mobile and fill their ranks with larger pool of potential recruits.


Occupying and quisling forces were quite aware of the Partisan problem, and tried to solve it in seven major anti-partisan offensives. The biggest were combined by Wehrmacht, the SS, Fascist Italy, Ustaše and Bulgarian forces. They included the so-called Fall Weiss (Plan White) and Operation Schwarz (Operation Black), or as they were known in the Yugoslav annals: the 4th (Battle of Neretva) and 5th (Battle of Sutjeska) offensives. Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ... The seven anti-partisan offensives is the name given to major Axis military operations on the territory of former Yugoslavia during World War II, undertaken against the Yugoslav partisan resistance movement. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Fall Weiss (Plan White) was a German strategic plan for a combined Axis attack launched in early 1943 against the Partisans throughout occupied Yugoslavia, in the Independent State of Croatia. ... The Sutjeska offensive (May-June 1943) was a failed attempt by the Axis forces to destroy the anti-occupation Yugoslav partisan force, marking a turning point for Yugoslavia during World War II. This action--codenamed Operation Schwarz (Black) by the Germans--took place near the Sutjeska river, in Italian-occupied... Fall Weiss (Plan White) was a German strategic plan for a combined Axis attack launched in early 1943 against the Partisans throughout occupied Yugoslavia, in the Independent State of Croatia. ... The Sutjeska offensive in mid-1943 was a joint attack of the Axis forces that aimed to destroy the Yugoslav partisan force, near the Sutjeska river in southeastern Bosnia. ...


Later in the conflict the Partisans were able to win the moral, as well as limited material support of the Allies, who until then had supported General Dragoljub "Drazha" Mihailović's Royalist Chetnik Forces, but were finally convinced of who was doing the fighting against the Axis in the region by many military missions dispatched to both sides during the course of the war. To gather intelligence, Allied agents were infiltrated to both the Partisans and the Chetniks. The intelligence gathered by Allied liaisons to the resistance groups was crucial to the success of supply missions and was the primary influence on Allied strategy in Yugoslavia. The search for intelligence ultimately resulted in the demise of the Chetniks and their eclipse by Tito’s Partisans. In 1942, though supplies were limited, token support was sent equally to each. The new year would bring a change. The Germans were executing Operation Schwarz, one of a series of offensives aimed at the resistance fighters, when F. W. D. Deakin was sent by the British to gather information. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dragoljub Drazha Mihailovich (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, also ÄŒiča, Draža Mihailović), (April 26, 1893–July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general who became a war hero in World War I and who later led the Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland aka: Chetniks during World War II. U.S. president Harry S... The Sutjeska offensive (May-June 1943) was a failed attempt by the Axis forces to destroy the anti-occupation Yugoslav partisan force, marking a turning point for Yugoslavia during World War II. This action--codenamed Operation Schwarz (Black) by the Germans--took place near the Sutjeska river, in Italian-occupied...


His reports contained two important observations. The first was that the Partisans were courageous and aggressive in battling the German 1st Mountain and 104th Light Division, had suffered important casualties, and needed more support. The second observation was that the entire German 1st Mountain Division had transited from Russia on rail lines through Mihailović-controlled territory. British intercepts (ULTRA) of German message traffic reportedly confirmed Chetnik timidity. Even though today many circumstances, facts, and motivations remain unclear, intelligence reports resulted in increased Allied interest in Yugoslavia air operations and shifted policy. In September 1943, at Churchill’s request, Brigadier General Fitzroy Maclean was parachuted to Tito’s headquarters near Drvar to serve as a permanent, formal liaison to the Partisans. While the Chetniks were still occasionally supplied, the Partisans received the bulk of all future support. [1] Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle MacLean of Duart and Strachur, 1st Baronet of Dunconnel, (March 11, 1911, Egypt - June 15, 1996, Scotland) was a Scottish diplomat, adventurer, writer and politician. ...


Activities increase 1943-45

Image:1943sept17.jpg

After the Teheran Conference in 1943 the Partisans received official recognition as the legitimate national liberation force by the Allies, who subsequently set-up the RAF Balkan Air Force under the influence and suggestion of Brigadier-General Fitzroy MacLean, and with the aim to provide increased supplies and tactical air support for Tito's forces. Vis is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, the furthest one from the coast that is also inhabited. ... From left to right, Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill The Tehran Conference was the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943 that took place in Tehran, Iran. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The RAFs Balkan Air Force was a late-World War II air formation. ... Brigadier General (sometimes known as a one-star general from the United States insignia) is the lowest rank of general officer in some countries, usually ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle MacLean of Duart and Strachur, 1st Baronet of Dunconnel, (March 11, 1911, Egypt - June 15, 1996, Scotland) was a Scottish diplomat, adventurer, writer and politician. ...


With Allied air support and assistance from the Red Army, in the second half of 1944 Partisans turned their attention to Serbia, which had seen relatively little fighting since the fall of the Republic of Užice in 1941. On 20 October the Red Army and the Partisans liberated Belgrade in a joint operation. At the onset of winter, the Partisans effectively controlled the entire eastern half of Yugoslavia - Serbia, Vardar Macedonia and Montenegro, as well as the Dalmatian coast. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Vardar Macedonia (Macedonian: Вардарска Македонија, Vardarska Makedonija; Bulgarian: Вардарска Македония, Vardarska Makedoniya), also known as Southern Serbia]/Old Serbia (Serbian:Јужна Србија / Стара Србија, Južna Srbija / Stara Srbija) is the north-western area of the Macedonia region. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


In 1945 the Partisans, numbering over 800,000[1] defeated Ustaše and the Wehrmacht, breaking through a hard-fought front in Syrmia in late winter, taking Sarajevo in early April, and the rest of Croatia and Slovenia through mid-May. After taking Rijeka and Istria, which were part of Italy before the war, they beat the Allies to Trieste by a day. Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ...


The last battle of World War Two in Europe, the Battle of Poljana, was fought between the Partisans and retreating Wehrmacht and quisling forces at Poljana, near Prevalje in Koroška, on 14 and 15 May 1945. The Battle of Poljana was the last battle of World War II in Europe. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Quisling, after Norwegian fascist politician Vidkun Quisling, is a term used to describe traitors and collaborationists. ... Area: 58. ... Carinthia before 1900. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Partisan rescues of Allied airmen

The Partisans were responsible for the successful and sustained evacuation of Allied airmen from the Balkans. For example, between January 1, 1944, and October 15, 1944, according to statistics compiled by the US Air Force Air Crew Rescue Unit, 1,152 American airmen were airlifted from Yugoslavia, 795 with Partisan assistance and 356 with the help of the Chetniks. During the war, 33 flying fortresses crashed on Slovenian territory and Slovenian partisans, with the help of the civil population, rescued 303 American and 30 British airmen.


Partisan rescues of Allied POWs

The Partisans assisted hundreds of Allied escapers from POW camps, mostly in southern Austria, to freedom throughout the war, but especially from 1943-45. These were transported across Slovenia, from where many were airlifted from Semič, while others made the longer overland trek down through Croatia for a boat passage to Bari in Italy. In the spring of 1944 the British military mission in Slovenia reported that there was a ‘steady, slow trickle’ of escapers from these camps. They were being assisted by local people, and on contacting Partisans on the general line of the River Drava, they were able to make their way to safety with Partisan guides. Area: 146,7 km² Population  - males  - females 3. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... The Drava at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary The Drava at Vízvár, Hungary The Drava at Maribor, Slovenia Drava or Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. ...


The raid on St Lorenzen. A total of 132 Allied prisoners were freed by the Partisans in a single operation in August 1944 in what is known as the raid at St Lorenzen. In June 1944 the Allied escape organisation began to take an active interest in assisting escapers from camps in southern Austria and evacuating them through Yugoslavia. A post of the Allied mission in northern Slovenia had found that at Sankt Lorenzen ob Eibiswald, just on the Austrian side of the border, about 30 miles (50km) from Maribor, there was a poorly guarded working camp from which a raid by Slovene Partisans could free all the prisoners. Over a hundred POWs were transported from Stalag XVIII-D at Maribor to St. Lorenzen each morning to do railway maintenance work, and returned to their quarters in the evening. Contact was made between Partisans and the prisoners with the result that at the end of August a group of seven slipped away past a sleeping guard at three o'clock in the afternoon, and at nine o'clock the men were eating and dancing with Partisans in a village, five miles (8km) away on the Yugoslav side of the border. The seven escapers arranged with the Partisans for the rest of the camp to be freed the following day. Next morning the seven returned with about a hundred Partisans to await the arrival of the work-party by the usual train. As soon as work had begun the Partisans, to quote a New Zealand eye-witness, “swooped down the hillside and disarmed the eighteen guards”. In a short time prisoners, guards, and civilian overseers were being escorted along the route used by the first seven escapers the previous evening. At the first headquarters camp reached, details were taken of the total of 132 escaped prisoners for transmission by radio to England. Progress along the evacuation route south was difficult, as German patrols were very active. A night ambush by one such patrol caused the loss of two prisoners and two of the escort. Eventually they reached Semič, in Bela Krajina, Slovenia, which was a Partisan base catering for escapers. They were flown across to Bari on 21 September 1944. [2] [3] A total of 132 Allied prisoners of war were freed by Yugoslav Partisans in a single operation in August 1944 in what is known as the raid at St Lorenzen. ... Stalag XVIII-D (also known as Stalag 306) was a German Prisoner of War camp at Maribor (German: Marburg-am-Drau) in what is now Slovenia. ... Area: 147. ... Area: 146,7 km² Population  - males  - females 3. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ...


Post-war

Yugoslavia was one of the two European countries that were liberated by its own communist forces during the Second World War, with the assistance and active participation of the Soviet regime (the other one being Albania with the aid of Yugoslavia). It received support from both Western Allies and the Soviet Union, and at the end of the war no foreign troops were stationed on its soil. As a result, the country found itself halfway between the two camps at the onset of the Cold War. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


This part seems inaccurate. For what I have been taught, Albanian partisans went on deep in Yugoslavia up to Visegrad (Bosnia-Herzegovina) in helping the Yugoslav partisans. There are private accounts of Armenian battalions coming in aid of Albanian partisans too. No reports of Yugoslavian partisans fighting in Albania, though in the eastern part there were joint operations of Albanian and Macedonian partisan battalions.


In 1947 and 1948 Soviet Union attempted to command obedience from Yugoslavia, primarily on issues of foreign policy, which resulted in the Tito-Stalin split and almost ignited an armed conflict. A period of very cool relations with the Soviet Union followed, during which the U.S. and the UK considered courting Yugoslavia into the newly-formed NATO. This however changed in 1953 with the Trieste crisis, a tense dispute between Yugoslavia and the Western Allies over the eventual Yugoslav-Italian border (see Free Territory of Trieste), and with Yugoslav-Soviet reconciliation in 1956. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ...


This ambivalent position at the start of the Cold War matured into the non-aligned foreign policy which Yugoslavia actively espoused until its dissolution. Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...


War crimes controversy

The Partisans and the local population (whose massive support they enjoyed) engaged in retribution in the immediate postwar period against people who had collaborated with the Axis, fought against the Partisans, or wanted a non-Communist Yugoslavia, . Known incidents include the Bleiburg massacre of Chetnik Royalists, Slovenian Belogardists and Ustashe soldiers who were fleeing in fear of retribution at the end of war, and the "foibe massacres" — pits in which Croatian (and Slovenian) Partisans along with groups of angry civilians shot Italian fascists, Italian nationalists as well as other enemies of the new government. According to a mixed Slovene-Italian historical commission[4] established in 1993, which investigated only on what happened in places included in present-day Italy and Slovenia, the killings seemed to proceed from endeavours to remove persons linked with fascism (regardless of their personal responsibility), and endeavours to carry out preventive cleansing of real, potential or only alleged opponents of the communist government. Similar events involved Hungarian fascist separatists in Vojvodina (the 1944-1945 Killings in Bačka). During World War II Nazi Germany occupied all or parts of the following non-tripartite countries: Poland, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Yugoslavia, Greece, the Soviet Union, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Egypt and Italy. ... Bleiburg memorial in Zagrebs Mirogoj cemetery The Bleiburg massacre, (also known in a more emotional context as the Bleiburg tragedy[1]) is a generalising name that encompasses events that took place during May 1945, after the formal end of World War II in Europe, but at a time when... Location of some of the foibe where killings took place Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... The 1944-1945 Killings in Bačka were the killings of certain number of ethnic Hungarians in Bačka allegedly organised by members of the Yugoslav Partisan Movement after they gained control over the area between 1944 and 1945. ...


The numbers of dead due to Italian, German and collaborationist organised killings, however, far outstrip even the most lavish estimates of the Partisan crimes' death toll. Indeed, the Partisans didn't have an official genocidal agendas (unlike the Ustaše, the Italians and the Germans), as that would be fundamentally opposed to their cardinal ideal of "brotherhood and unity" (the phrase became the motto for the new Yugoslavia). An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ...


To put the extent of the actual genocide occurring in Yugoslavia during the War, it suffices to say the country suffered about one million dead during the fascist occupation, civilian and military (the two are undiscernable), three times more than the combined casualties of the USA. Only a small fraction constitute civilians actually killed by the Partisans.


This chapter of Partisan history was a taboo subject for conversation in the SFRY until the late the 1980s, and as a result, decades of official silence created a reaction in the form of numerous data manipulation for nationalist propaganda purposes.[5]


Cultural Legacy

Partisan ranks included some of the most important artists and writers of 20th Century Yugoslavia.


The Partisan experience would have had a major impact on the culture of second half of the 20th Century in any event, but much of the result is now considered government propaganda.


Partisan struggle was well-chronicled through the memoirs of its participants, and later those experiences served as basis for important literary works, most notably by authors like Jure Kaštelan, Joža Horvat, Oskar Davičo, Antonije Isaković, Branko Ćopić, Mihailo Lalić and others. Oskar Davičo (1909-1989) was a popular Serbian novelist and poet. ... Branko Ćopić (Бранко Ћопић; January 1, 1915 – March 26, 1984) was a Bosnian Serb writer. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Comic books depictings the Partisan struggle also became very popular, most notably works by Croatian artist Jules Radilović. The most popular, however, was the Mirko i Slavko comic book series.

The Monument commemorating the Battle of Sutjeska in Tjentište, Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Monument commemorating the Battle of Sutjeska in Tjentište, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The most visible aspect of Partisan legacy in the former Yugoslavia was the series of monuments commemorating their struggle. Most of those monuments are now considered soc-realist kitsch, while only a few proved to be artistically valuable and important. Some of them became victims of state-sponsored vandalism following the break-up of SFRY in early 1990s. Image File history File links Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... Image File history File links Note: This image is freely available on the internet from various sources in the public domain. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Ustase regime Bulgaria Chetniks YNLA Commanders Alexander Löhr Rudolf Lüters Josip Broz Tito Strength 127,000 men 300+ airplanes 18,000 men Casualties Unknown 6,391 The Sutjeska offensive from 15 May to 16 June 1943 was a joint attack of the Axis... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...


The Partisan struggle also influenced the film industry, which developed its own genre of Partisan film, with its own set of unofficial rules and motives, very much like American Western or Japanese Jidaigeki. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jidaigeki (時代劇) is a genre of film and television in Japan. ...


An outsider's perspective of the partisans is recorded in Evelyn Waugh's 1961 novel Unconditional Surrender, the last of The Sword of Honour trilogy. Waugh was posted to Croatia towards the end of the war, and to some extent fictionalises his experience. Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ...


References

  1. ^ 7David Martin, Ally Betrayed: The Uncensored Story of Tito and Mihailovich, (New York: Prentice Hall, 1946), 34..
  2. ^ http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2Pris-_N95868.html
  3. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/lateline/content/2003/s966136.htm
  4. ^ Slovene-Italian historical commission
  5. ^ cf David.B. MacDonald (2003) Balkan Holocausts? (Manchester)

Further reading

  • Hoare, Marko Attila, Genocide and Resistance in Hitler's Bosnia: The Partisans and the Chetniks, Oxford University Press, 2006
  • Bokovoy, Melissa, Peasants and Communists: Politics and Ideology in the Yugoslav Countryside, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1998
  • Irvine, Jill, The Croat Question: Partisan Politics in the Formation of the Yugoslav Socialist State, Westview Press, 1992
  • Roberts, Walter R., Tito, Mihailovic and the Allies, Duke University Press, 1987

See also

Combatants Allied Powers: Yugoslav Partisans Axis Powers: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy (until 1943, when Italy joined the Western Allies), Fascist Croatia, Kosta Pećanacs Chetniks Draža Mihailovićs Chetniks Commanders Josip Broz Tito many Draža Mihailović The Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War (Serbo-Croat: Narodnooslobodilački rat... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... AVNOJ (Antifašističko V(ij)eće Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije), standing for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, was the political umbrella organization for the peoples liberation committees that was established on November 26, 1942 to administer terrorities under their control. ... Serbs were heavily persecuted during World War II. Following the invasion of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941, the Kingdom was divided into several occupation zones. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... OZNA or Organ Zaštite Naroda (Armije) (lit. ... The Battle of Poljana was the last battle of World War II in Europe. ... Fall Weiss (Plan White) was a German strategic plan for a combined Axis attack launched in early 1943 against the Partisans throughout occupied Yugoslavia, in the Independent State of Croatia. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia awarded the title Peoples Hero of Yugoslavia (Narodni heroj Jugoslavije) mostly to individuals for valor in combat during World War II. Order of Peoples Hero of Yugoslavia, 1st Class Notable people that received the title include: Boško Pavkovljević Pinki, Božidar... The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ... The Franja Partisan Hospital was a secret Second World War hospital at Dolenji Novaki near Cerkno in western Slovenia. ... Sava Kovačević (Serbian: Сава Ковачевић) (1905 – June 13, 1943) was a Montenegrin Serb partisan commander during World War II. Kovačević was born in Nudo, close to Nikšić, (today in Montenegro) to a family of Montenegrin peasants. ... Boško Buha (1926 - 1943) was a young Partisan who used to be one of the greatest icons of World War Two in Yugoslavia. ... Ivan Ribar and Tito during World War II Ivan Ribar (1881-1968), was a Yugoslav politician of Croatian descent. ... Koča Popović as SFRJ Minister of Foreign Affairs Koča Popović (March 14, 1908 - October 20, 1992) was a communist volunteer in the Spanish Civil War, 1937-1939. ... Josip Kraš (March 26, 1900 – 1941) was a Croatian communist and partisan who died in World War II and was proclaimed a Peoples Hero of Yugoslavia. ... Edvard Kardelj - Sperans (January 27, 1910 - February 10, 1979) was a Slovene prewar communist, politician, statesman and publicist. ... Pijade bust Moše Pijade (1890-1957) was a prominent Yugoslav Communist of Serbian Jewish origin, and a close collaborator of Josip Broz Tito, former President of Yugoslavia. ... Milovan Đilas or Djilas (Serbian Cyrillic: Милован Ђилас) (4 June 1911 - 20 April 1995) was a Montenegrin Serb[1] Communist politician, theorist and author in Yugoslavia. ... General-colonel Arso R. Jovanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Арсо Р. Јовановић) (1907 - 1948) was one of the foremost military commanders that participated in the Fight for National Liberation in Yugoslavia (as WWII is known there). ... Randolph Frederick Edward Spencer Churchill (May 28, 1911-June 6, 1968) was the son of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and his wife Clementine. ... Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ... Ivan Goran Kovačić (1913-1943) was one of the greatest Croatian writers of the 20th century. ... Stjepan Filipović moments before death Stjepan Stevo Filipović (Стјепан Стево Филиповић) (27 January 1916 – 22 May 1942) was a Croatian partisan who was executed during World War II and posthumously declared a national hero in 1949. ... Rade Končar (b. ... For other persons named Christopher Lee, see Christopher Lee (disambiguation). ... Milan Nedić Serbian Cyrillic Милан Недић (September 2, 1878 – 1946) was a Serbian soldier and politician who was a major collaborator during World War II. Nedić was born in Grocka, Serbia. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Yugoslavia - MSN Encarta (1801 words)
Under Josip Broz Tito, founder and leader of the Partisans, Yugoslavia emerged as a faithful copy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), with a dictatorial central government and a state-controlled economy.
Yugoslavia was unique among Communist countries in its relatively open and free society and its international role as a leader of nonaligned nations during the Cold War.
The population of Yugoslavia recorded in the country’s last census in 1991 was 23,528,230.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m