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Encyclopedia > Particulate
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Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. Sources of particulate matter can be anthropogenic or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease, altered lung function and lung cancer. Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Subsequent to an Oil Spill An oil spill is the unintentional release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Standing water redirects here. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The environmental radioactivity page is devoted to the subject of radioactive materials in man and his environment. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... // Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case which involved a product called Radithor this contained 1 mCi of 226Ra and 1 mCi of 228Ra per bottle. ... Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2000 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Protocol (disambiguation). ... Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, opened for signature on 31 October 1988 and entered into force on 14 February 1991, was to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides and... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... note - abbreviated as Air Pollution opened for signature - 13 November 1979 entered into force - 16 March 1983 objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution parties - (48) Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... EPA redirects here. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... “Sandstorm” redirects here. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... Sea spray is a spray of water originating from ocean waves. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... For other uses, see Power station (disambiguation). ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ...

Contents

Scale classification

Among the most common categorizations imposed on particulates are those with respect to size, referred to as fractions. PM diameters range from less than 10 nanometres to more than 100 micrometres. These dimensions represent the continuum from a few molecules up to the size where particles can no longer be carried by a gas. A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ...


The notation PM10 is used to describe particles of 10 micrometres or less and PM2.5 represents particles less than 2.5 micrometres in aerodynamic diameter. [1]. These are also sometimes referred to with other equivalent numeric values. Everything below 100 nm, down to the size of individual molecules is classified as ultrafine particles (UFP or UP)[2].

fraction size range
PM10 <=10 μm
PM2.5 <=2.5 μm
PM1 <=1 μm
Ultrafine (UFP or UP) <=0.1 μm
PM10-PM2.5 2.5 μm - 10 μm

These are the formal definitions. Depending on the context, alternative definitions may be applied. In some specialized settings, each fraction may exclude the fractions of lesser scale, so that PM10 excludes particles in a smaller size range, e.g. PM2.5, usually reported separately in the same work [2]. Such a case is sometimes emphasized with the notation PM2.5-PM10. Other exceptions may be similarly specified. This is useful when not only the upper bound of a fraction is relevant to a discussion. The facts that some particle size ranges require greater filter strength and the smallest ones can outstrip the body's ability to keep them out of cells both serve to guide understanding of related public policy, environment, and health topics.


Sources

Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh - Photo: NASA
Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh - Photo: NASA

There are both natural and human sources of atmospheric particulates. The biggest natural sources are dust, volcanoes, and forest fires. Sea spray is also a large source of particles though most of these fall back to the ocean close to where they were emitted. The biggest human sources of particles are combustion sources, mainly the burning of fuels in internal combustion engines in automobiles and power plants, and wind blown dust from construction sites and other land areas where the water or vegetation has been removed. Some of these particles are emitted directly to the atmosphere (primary emissions) and some are emitted as gases and form particles in the atmosphere (secondary emissions). Download high resolution version (1100x1450, 311 KB)Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1100x1450, 311 KB)Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ...

"In Europe and the United States, particulate emissions from vehicles are expected to decline over the next decade. For example, by 2005, the European Union will introduce more stringent standards for particulate emissions from light duty vehicles of 0.025 grams per kilometer [0.04 grams per mile].
The state of California is implementing an even more restrictive standard in 2004, allowing only 0.006 grams per kilometer [0.01 grams per mile] of particulate emissions. Even if the California standard were introduced worldwide, says Jacobson, diesel cars may still warm the climate more than gasoline cars over 13 to 54 years. New particle traps being introduced by some European automobile manufacturers in their diesel cars appear to reduce black carbon emissions to 0.003 grams per kilometer [0.005 grams per mile], even below the California standard." [1]

BlueTec is one technology developed to reduce particulate emissions from Diesel engines in order to meet strigent Californian standards. As explained by Goldberg (1985), black carbon (BC) is an impure form of carbon produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and wood (forming soot) or biomass (forming charcoals). ... BlueTec is DaimlerChryslers name for its two nitrogen oxide (NOx) reducing systems, for use in their Diesel automobile engines. ...


Composition

The composition of aerosol particles depends on their source. Wind-blown mineral dust [2] tends to be made of mineral oxides and other material blown from the Earth's crust; this aerosol is light-absorbing. Sea salt [3] is considered the second largest contributor in the global aerosol budget, and consists mainly of sodium chloride originated from sea spray; other constituents of atmospheric sea salt reflect the composition of sea water, and thus include magnesium, sulfate, calcium, potassium, etc. In addition, sea spray aerosols may contain organic compounds, which influence their chemistry. Sea salt does not absorb. // General information Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil. ... An oxide is a chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom and other elements. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... In physics, absorption is the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Sea spray is a spray of water originating from ocean waves. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... In physics, absorption is the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. ...


Secondary particles derive from the oxidation of primary gases such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides into sulfuric acid (liquid) and nitric acid (gaseous). The precursors for these aerosols, i.e. the gases from which they originate, may have an anthropogenic origin (from fossil fuel combustion) and a natural biogenic origin. In the presence of ammonia, secondary aerosols often take the form of ammonium salts, i.e. ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate (both can be dry or in aqueous solution); in the absence of ammonia, secondary compounds take an acidic form as sulfuric acid (liquid aerosol droplets) and nitric acid (atmospheric gas). Secondary sulfate and nitrate aerosols are strong light-scatterers. [4] This is mainly because the presence of sulfate and nitrate causes the aerosols to increase to a size that scatters light effectively. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Pick one: sulfur monoxide sulfur dioxide sulfur trioxide This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... A biogenic substance is a substance produced by natural processes. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Ammonium sulphate, [NH4]2[SO4] contains 21% nitrogen as ammonia and 24% sulfur as sulfate. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light, sound or moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. ...


Organic matter (OM) can be either primary or secondary, the latter part deriving from the oxidation of VOCs; organic material in the atmosphere may either be biogenic or anthropogenic. Organic matter influences the atmospheric radiation field by both scattering and absorption. Another important aerosol type is constitude of elemental carbon (EC, also known as black carbon, BC): this aerosol type includes strongly light-absorbing material and is thought to yield large positive radiative forcing. Organic matter and elemental carbon together constitute the carbonaceous fraction of aerosols.ii [5] Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light, sound or moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. ... In physics, absorption is the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... As explained by Goldberg (1985), black carbon (BC) is an impure form of carbon produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and wood (forming soot) or biomass (forming charcoals). ... The generalised concept of radiative forcing in climate science is any change in the radiation (heat) entering the climate system or changes in radiatively active gases. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


The chemical composition of the aerosol directly affects how it interacts with solar radiation. The chemical constituents within the aerosol change the overall refractive index. The refractive index will determine how much light is scattered and absorbed. The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ...


Removal processes

In general, the smaller and lighter a particle is, the longer it will stay in the air. Larger particles (greater than 10 micrometers in diameter) tend to settle to the ground by gravity in a matter of hours whereas the smallest particles (less than 1 micrometer) can stay in the atmosphere for weeks and are mostly removed by precipitation.


Radiative forcing from aerosols

Solar radiation reduction due to volcanic eruptions
Solar radiation reduction due to volcanic eruptions

Aerosols, natural and anthropogenic, can affect the climate by changing the way radiation is transmitted through the atmosphere. Direct observations of the effects of aerosols are quite limited so any attempt to estimate their global effect necessarily involves the use of computer models. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, says: While the radiative forcing due to greenhouse gases may be determined to a reasonably high degree of accuracy... the uncertainties relating to aerosol radiative forcings remain large, and rely to a large extent on the estimates from global modelling studies that are difficult to verify at the present time [6]. Mauna Loa Observatory atmospheric transmission. ... Mauna Loa Observatory atmospheric transmission. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


A graphic showing the contributions (at 2000, relative to pre-industrial) and uncertainties of various forcings is available here.


Sulfate aerosol

Sulfate aerosol has two main effects, direct and indirect. The direct effect, via albedo, is to cool the planet: the IPCC's best estimate of the radiative forcing is -0.4 watts per square meter with a range of -0.2 to -0.8 W/m² [7] but there are substantial uncertainties. The effect varies strongly geographically, with most cooling believed to be at and downwind of major industrial centres. Modern climate models attempting to deal with the attribution of recent climate change need to include sulfate forcing, which appears to account (at least partly) for the slight drop in global temperature in the middle of the 20th century. The indirect effect (via the aerosol acting as cloud condensation nuclei, CCN, and thereby modifying the cloud properties -albedo and lifetime-) is more uncertain but is believed to be a cooling. The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all... The generalised concept of radiative forcing in climate science is any change in the radiation (heat) entering the climate system or changes in radiatively active gases. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. ... Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for relatively recent changes observed in the Earths climate. ... Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh - NASA Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles (typically 0. ...


Black carbon

Black carbon (BC), or Carbon Black, or Elemental Carbon (EC), often called soot, is composed of pure carbon clusters, skeleton balls and buckyballs, and is one of the most important absorbing aerosol species in the atmosphere. It should be distinguished from Organic Carbon (OC): clustered or aggregated organic molecules on their own or permeating an EC buckyball. BC from fossil fuels is estimated by the IPCC in the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, TAR, to contribute a global mean radiative forcing of +0.2 W/m² (was +0.1 W/m² in the Second Assessment Report of the IPCC, SAR), with a range +0.1 to +0.4 W/m². As explained by Goldberg (1985), black carbon (BC) is an impure form of carbon produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and wood (forming soot) or biomass (forming charcoals). ... The Icosahedral Fullerene C540 C60 and C-60 redirect here. ...


All aerosols both absorb and scatter solar and terrestrial radiation. If a substance absorbs a significant amount of radiation, as well as scattering, we call it absorbing. This is quantified in the Single Scattering Albedo (SSA), the ratio of scattering alone to scattering plus absorption (extinction) of radiation by a particle. The SSA tends to unity if scattering dominates, with relatively little absorption, and decreases as absorption increases, becoming zero for infinite absorption. For example, sea-salt aerosol has an SSA of 1, as a sea-salt particle only scatters, whereas soot has an SSA of 0.23, showing that it is a major atmospheric aerosol absorber. In physics, absorption is the process by which the energy of a photon is taken up by another entity, for example, by an atom whose valence electrons make transition between two electronic energy levels. ... Scattering is a general physical process whereby some forms of radiation, such as light, sound or moving particles, for example, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which it passes. ... Look up solar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ...


Health effects

Air pollution measurement station in Emden, Germany
Air pollution measurement station in Emden, Germany

The effects of inhaling particulate matter has been widely studied in humans and animals and include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, and premature death. The size of the particle is a main determinant of where in the respiratory tract the particle will come to rest when inhaled. Larger particles are generally filtered in the nose and throat and do not cause problems, but particulate matter smaller than about 10 micrometres, referred to as PM10, can settle in the bronchi and lungs and cause health problems. The 10 micrometer size does not represent a strict boundary between respirable and non-respirable particles, but has been agreed upon for monitoring of airborne particulate matter by most regulatory agencies. Similarly, particles smaller than 2.5 micrometres, PM2.5, tend to penetrate into the gas-exchange regions of the lung, and very small particles (< 100 nanometers) may pass through the lungs to affect other organs. In particular, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association indicates that PM2.5 leads to high plaque deposits in arteries, causing vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis — a hardening of the arteries that reduces elasticity, which can lead to heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems [3]. Researchers suggest that even short-term exposure at elevated concentrations could significantly contribute to heart disease. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (859x1530, 203 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Particulate ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (859x1530, 203 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Particulate ... Emden is a city and seaport in the northwest of Germany, on river Ems. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


There is also evidence that particles smaller than 100 nanometres can pass through cell membranes. For example, particles may migrate into the brain. It has been suggested that particulate matter can cause similar brain damage as that found in Alzheimer patients. Particles emitted from modern diesel engines (commonly referred to as Diesel Particulate Matter, or DPM) are typically in the size range of 100 nanometres (0.1 micrometres). In addition, these soot particles also carry carcinogenic components like benzopyrenes adsorbed on their surface. It is becoming increasingly clear that the legislative limits for engines, which are in terms of emitted mass, are not a proper measure of the health hazard. One particle of 10 µm diameter has approximately the same mass as 1 million particles of 100 nm diameter, but it is clearly much less hazardous, as it probably never enters the human body - and if it does, it is quickly removed. Proposals for new regulations exist in some countries, with suggestions to limit the particle surface area or the particle number. Alzheimers disease (AD), also known simply as Alzheimers, is a neurodegenerative disease that, in its most common form, is found in people over age 65. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Diesel particulate matter (DPM) refers to the particulate components of diesel exhaust, which include diesel soot and aerosols such as ash particulates, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates, and silicates. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ...


The large number of deaths and other health problems associated with particulate pollution was first demonstrated in the early 1970s [4] and has been reproduced many times since. PM pollution is estimated to cause 22,000-52,000 deaths per year in the United States (from 2000) [5] and 200,000 deaths per year in Europe). For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Regulation

Due to the health effects of particulate matter, maximum standards have been set by various governments. Many urban areas in the U.S. and Europe still frequently violate the particulate standards, though urban air on these continents has become cleaner, on average, with respect to particulates over the last quarter of the 20th century.[citation needed] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


United States

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets standards for PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in urban air. (See National Ambient Air Quality Standards.) EPA regulates primary particulate emissions and precursors to secondary emissions (NOx, sulfur, and ammonia). EPA redirects here. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...


EU legislation

In directives 1999/30/EC and 96/62/EC, the European Commission has set limits for PM10 in the air: A directive is a legislative act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...

Phase 1

from 1 January 2005 is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Phase 2¹

from 1 January 2010 is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Yearly average 40 µg/m³ 20 µg/m³
Daily average (24-hour)

allowed number of exceedences per year.

50 µg/m³

35

50 µg/m³

7

¹ indicative value.


Affected areas

Most Polluted World Cities by PM[6]
Particulate matter,
μg/m3 (2004)
City
169 Cairo, Egypt
161 Beijing, China
150 Delhi, India
128 Kolkata, India (Calcutta)
125 Taiyuan, China
123 Chongqing, China
109 Kanpur, India
109 Lucknow, India
104 Jakarta, Indonesia
101 Shenyang, China

The most concentrated particulate matter pollution tends to be in densely populated metropolitan areas in developing countries. The primary cause is the burning of fossil fuels by transportation and industrial sources. For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Beijing (Chinese: &#21271;&#20140;; pinyin: B&#283;ij&#299;ng; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking), is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Taiyuan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tai-yüan lit. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: &#37325;&#24198;; Traditional Chinese: &#37325;&#24950;; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade_Giles: Chung_ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four municipalities, which have provincial_level status. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Chhota Imambara in Lucknow , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... This article is about a city. ...

U.S. counties violating national PM2.5 standards, roughly correlated with population density.
U.S. counties violating national PM2.5 standards, roughly correlated with population density.
U.S. counties violating national PM10 standards.
U.S. counties violating national PM10 standards.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Aerosol science

The field of aerosol science and technology has grown in response to the need to understand and control natural and manmade aerosols. // Aerosols are characterized by a particle size distribution function (PSD). ...


References

  1. ^ "Glossary: P". "Terms of Environment: Glossary, Abbreviations and Acronyms; ". US EPA. Retrieved on November 4, 2007.
  2. ^ a b "A Review of the Measurement, Emission, Particle Characteristics and Potential Human Health Impacts of Ultrafine Particles: Characterization of Ultrafine Particles". PubH 5103; Exposure to Environmental Hazards; Fall Semester 2003 course material. University of Minnesota (2003). Retrieved on November 3, 2007.
  3. ^ Pope, Arden C; et al. (2002). "Cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution". J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 287: 1132-1141. 
  4. ^ Lave, Lester B.; Eugene P. Seskin (1973). "An Analysis of the Association Between U.S. Mortality and Air Pollution". J. Amer. Statistical Association 68: 342. 
  5. ^ Mokdad, Ali H.; et al. (2004). "Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000". J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 291 (10): 1238. 
  6. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/table3_13.pdf

C. Arden Pope III, is an American professor of economics at Brigham Young University. ...

Further reading

See also

The phrase adequately wet is an environmental term referring to asbestos containing material that is sufficiently mixed or penetrated with liquid to prevent the release of particulates. ... // Aerosols are characterized by a particle size distribution function (PSD). ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... This article is about clouds in meteorology. ... Criteria air contaminants (CAC) are a group of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain and other health hazards. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Diesel particulate matter (DPM) refers to the particulate components of diesel exhaust, which include diesel soot and aerosols such as ash particulates, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates, and silicates. ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into respirator. ... Dutch pea soup Pea soup is soup made, typically, from dried peas. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ... It has been suggested that gas mask be merged into this article or section. ... The word scrubber can mean:- The part of a rebreather breathing set which absorbs the carbon dioxide which the individual using the breathing set breathes out. ...

External links

Look up Particulate in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Particulates (292 words)
Particulate matter is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic substances, present in the atmosphere as both liquids and solids.
Particulate matter is emitted from a wide range of man-made sources, the most significant primary sources being road transport (25%), non-combustion processes (24%), industrial combustion plants and processes (17%), commercial and residential combustion (16%) and public power generation (15%).
Particulates may be seen as the most critical of all pollutants, and some estimates have suggested that particulates are responsible for up to 10,000 premature deaths in the UK each year.
Particulate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1857 words)
Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid (a smoke) or liquid (an aerosol) suspended in a gas.
The effects of inhaling particulate matter has been widely studied in humans and animals and include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, and premature death.
EPA regulates primary particulate emissions and precursors to secondary emissions (NOx, sulfur, and ammonia).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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