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Encyclopedia > Particularism

Particularism is exclusive devotion to the interests of one's own group. Also a literary school, Particularism describes a style of writing applied to fiction, non-fiction or lyrics that indicates an attention to detail, or particulars.

In discussions of multiculturalism, historian and educator Diane Ravitch draws a distinction between what she terms "pluralistic" and "particularistic" varieties. Other writers often blur or ignore this distinction; it is often difficult to discern whether advocacy for "diversity" or "multiculturalism" is intended to promote particularism or not. In some quarters, even to raise the issue is taboo. Multiculturalism is a philosophy that is sometimes construed as ideology advocating that modern society should at least embrace and include distinct cultural groups with equal cultural and political status. ... Diane Ravitch is an author, a professor of Education at New York University (NYU), and a historian of education who sits on the board of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. ... Diversity is the presence of a wide range of variation in the qualities or attributes under discussion. ... Multiculturalism is a philosophy that is sometimes construed as ideology advocating that modern society should at least embrace and include distinct cultural groups with equal cultural and political status. ... . ...

In a long essay about multiculturalism in American education, Ravitch praises the inclusiveness of multicultural pluralism while decrying what she says as multiple flaws and failures of multicultural particularism. [1]

Compare: pluralism Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism Pluralism is, in the general sense, the affirmation and acceptance of diversity. ...


In Epistemology

In the study of knowledge, particularism refers to the approach where one asks the question "What do we know?" before asking "How do we know?" The term appears in Roderick Chisholm's "The Problem of the Criterion", and in the work of his student, Ernest Sosa ("The Raft and the Pyramid: Coherence versus Foundations in the Theory of Knowledge"). Particularism is contrasted with methodism, which answers the latter question before the former. Roderick M Chisholm (Seekonk, Massachusetts, 1916 -- Providence, Rhode Island, 1999) was an American philosopher, known for his work on epistemology, metaphysics, free will, and the philosophy of perception. ... The Regress Argument (also known as The Problem of Criterion and the diallelus) is a problem in epistemology and, in general, a problem in any situation where a statement has to be justified. ... Ernest Sosa is currently the Romeo Elton Professor of Natural Theology and Professor of Philosophy at Brown University, Rhode Island and regular visiting professor of philosophy at Rutgers University. ... In the study of human knowledge, methodism refers to the epistemological approach where one asks How do we know? before What do we know? The term appears in Ernest Sosas seminal essay The Raft and the Pyramid: Coherence versus Foundations in the Theory of Knowledge, and is to be...

Since the question "What do we know" implies that we know, it is fundamentally anti-skeptical.

In Politics

A politics of group identity that trumps universal rights and therefore the rights of minorities or any other kind of “other.” In Particularism the decisive factor of politics becomes religious and ethnic identity and the interests of the communities defined by these bonds. Instead of the ideas and values of political Pluralism with its emphasis on universal rights, separation of religion and the government and an ethic of religious and ethnic tolerance.

In Literature

Adding details to non-fiction, fiction, or song lyrics that give the work a sense of credibility and full dimension. Forebears to this genre include Anne Lamott and the 19th Century's Victor Hugo; songwriters include Phil Vassar and Dierks Bentley. Term used for literature coined by writer Howard Freeman. Anne Lamott is an author of several novels and works of non-fiction. ... Phil Vassar at Fan Fare 2006 Phil Vassar (born May 28, 1962 in Lynchburg, Virginia) is an American country music artist, most notable for his songwriting and use of a piano as his most prominent backing instrument. ...

External links

  • Multiculturalism: E Pluribus Plures - Diane Ravitch

SurfCountry - Howard Freeman

  Results from FactBites:
Particular (230 words)
In metaphysics, particulars are, one might say, identified by what they are not: they are not abstract, not multiply instantiated[?].
Redness, by contrast, is not a particular, because (it is held by metaphysical realists[?]) it is abstract and multiply instantiated (my bicycle, this apple, and that girl's hair are all red).
Particulars might (or might not) be all individuals.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Particular Judgment (1268 words)
Among heretics the particular judgment was denied by Tatian and Vigilantius.
The prompt fulfilment of the sentence is part of the dogma of particular judgment, but until the question was settled by the decision of Benedict XII, in 1332, there was much uncertainty regarding the fate of the departed in the period between death and the general resurrection.
Theologians suppose that the particular judgment will be instantaneous, that in the moment of death the separated soul is internally illuminated as to its own guilt or innocence and of its own initiation takes its course either to hell, or to purgatory, or to heaven (Summa Theologica Supplement 69:2, 88:2).
  More results at FactBites »



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