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Encyclopedia > Particle number
Conjugate variables
of thermodynamics
Pressure Volume
(Stress) (Strain)
Temperature Entropy
Chem. potential Particle no.

The particle number, N, is the number of so called 'elementary particles' (or elementary constituents) in a thermodynamical system. The particle number is a fundamental parameter in thermodynamics and it is conjugate to the chemical potential. Thermodynamic potentials Maxwell relations Bridgmans equations Exact differential (edit) In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... The volume of a solid object is the three-dimensional concept of how much space it occupies, often quantified numerically. ... Stress is the internal distribution of force per unit area that balances and reacts to external loads applied to a body. ... This article is about the deformation of materials. ... Fig. ... Ice melting - classic example of entropy increasing[1] described in 1862 by Rudolf Clausius as an increase in the disgregation of the molecules of the body of ice. ... In thermodynamics and chemistry, chemical potential, symbolized by μ, is a term introduced in 1876 by the American mathematical physicist Willard Gibbs, which he defined as follows: Gibbs noted also that for the purposes of this definition, any chemical element or combination of elements in given proportions may be considered a... In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle not known to have substructure; that is, it is not made up of smaller particles. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Thermodynamic potentials Maxwell relations Bridgmans equations Exact differential (edit) In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is expressed in terms of pairs of conjugate variables such as pressure/volume or temperature/entropy. ... In thermodynamics and chemistry, chemical potential, symbolized by μ, is a term introduced in 1876 by the American mathematical physicist Willard Gibbs, which he defined as follows: Gibbs noted also that for the purposes of this definition, any chemical element or combination of elements in given proportions may be considered a...


By calling a constituent element, we state that it cannot be broken into smaller pieces at the scale of energy k·T involved in the process (where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature). Our definition of elementary particle is thus temperature dependent. Ludwig Boltzmann The Boltzmann constant (k or kB) is the physical constant relating temperature to energy. ... Fig. ... Fig. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Catalytic Stripper for Solid Particle Number, Size, and Mass Emission Measurement, 08-9293 (0 words)
Dry soot particles are formed in the combustion chamber of an engine, while most of the volatile material enters the particle phase from the gas phase as the exhaust cools.
It also would help in identifying solid particle number and size that may be the subject of future PM regulation, particularly in Europe.
The catalyst and geometry of the substrate were characterized and sized to prevent solid particle losses, in the size range typical of diesel exhaust, and yet achieve near 100-percent removal of volatile materials.
Ultrafine Particle Number Concentrations from Hybrid Urban Transit Buses: Onboard Single-Diameter Scanning Mobility ... (342 words)
This study examines the ultrafine particle (particle mobility diameters of <100 nm) number concentrations and size distributions for conventional diesel and hybrid electric diesel transit buses by the use of onboard exhaust measurements with a scanning mobility particle sizer from TSI, Inc., operated in single-diameter mode.
Particle number concentrations were higher, on average, for high-load routes (freeway 65-mph commuter and steep-grade routes).
There were no significant differences in particle number distributions between the 2003 parallel hybrid electric and the 2002 conventional diesel bus types, likely because of the similar diesel engine specifications and a hybrid control strategy that was not optimized for particulate emissions benefits.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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