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Encyclopedia > Particle detector
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is an example of a large particle detector. Notice the person for scale.
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is an example of a large particle detector. Notice the person for scale.

In experimental and applied particle physics and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify high-energy particles, such as produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator. Modern detectors are also used as calorimeters to measure energy of the detected radiation. They may also be used to measure other attributes such as momentum, spin, charge etc. of the particles. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x421, 75 KB) Summary A poster about the set up of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) and the countries that build it. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x421, 75 KB) Summary A poster about the set up of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) and the countries that build it. ... // The sentence producing a rare particle, such as a Higgs boson proves this article was not written and checked by physicists, despiste ip are from cern. ... Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... For the novel, see The Elementary Particles. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... For the DC Comics Superhero also called Atom Smasher, see Albert Rothstein. ...

Contents

Description

Detectors designed for modern accelerators are huge, both in size and in cost. The term "counter" is often used instead of detector, when the detector counts the particles but does not resolve its energy or ionization. Particle detectors usually can also track ionizing radiation (high energy photons or even visible light). If their main purpose is radiation measurement, they are called radiation detector, but as photons can also be seen as (massless) particles, the term particle detector is still correct. In general, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal. ... In modern physics the photon is the elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ...


Examples and types

Many of the detectors invented and used so far are ionization detectors (of which gaseous ionization detectors and semiconductor detectors are most typical) and scintillation detectors; but other, completely different principles have also been applied, like Cherenkov light and transition radiation. In particle physics, gaseous ionization detectors are detectors designed to seek the presence of particles (a particle detector). ... A semiconductor particle detector is a device that uses a semiconductor (usually silicon) to detect the passage of charged particles. ... Scintillation detectors make use of the property of certain chemical compounds to emit short light pulses after excitation by the passage of charged particles or by photons (x-rays and gamma-rays). ...


Historical Examples

Detectors for Radiation Protection A bubble chamber A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it. ... Discovery of the positron in 1932 by Carl D. Anderson in a cloud chamber The cloud chamber, also known as the Wilson chamber, is used for detecting particles of ionizing radiation. ...

Commonly used detectors for Particle and Nuclear Physics A dosimeter is any device used to measure an individuals exposure to a hazardous environment, particularly when the hazard is cumulative over long intervals of time, or ones lifetime. ... An electroscope is a device which is used to detect the presence and magnitude of electric charge on a body. ...

In particle physics, a calorimeter is an experimental apparatus that measures the energy of particles. ... A time of flight detector is a particle detector which can discriminate between a lighter and a heavier elementary particle of same momentum using their time of flight between two scintillators. ... Photographic plates were one of the earliest forms of photographic film, in which a light-sensitive emulsion of silver salts was applied to a glass plate. ... Cherenkov effect at the UMRs nuclear reactor Cherenkov radiation (also spelled Cerenkov) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through an insulator at a speed greater than that of light in the medium. ... A ring imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH detector) is a particle detector that can determine the velocity, , of a fundamental particle. ... A transition radiation detector (TRD) is a particle detector utilizing the -dependent threshold of transition radiation in a stratified material. ... A scintillation counter measures ionizing radiation. ... Photomultipliers, or photomultiplier tubes (PMT) are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared. ... Photodiode closeup A photodiode A photodiode is a semiconductor diode that functions as a photodetector. ... Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are photodetectors that can be regarded as the semiconductor analog to photomultipliers. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A semiconductor particle detector is a device that uses a semiconductor (usually silicon) to detect the passage of charged particles. ... In particle physics, gaseous ionization detectors are particle detectors which detect the presence of particles. ... An ionization chamber is a device used for two major purposes: detecting particles in air (as in a smoke detector), and for detection or measurement of ionizing radiation. ... A proportional counter is a measurement device to count particles of ionizing radiation and measure their energy. ... A Geiger-Müller tube (or GM tube) is the sensing element of a Geiger counter instrument that can detect a single particle of ionizing radiation, and typically produce an audible click for each. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Drift Chambre at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Element of the drift Chambre Function of a wire chamber A multi-wire chamber (or just wire chamber) is a detector for particles of ionizing radiation which is an advancement of the concept of the Geiger counter... This article needs cleanup. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A spark-chamber detector is a particle detector, that is, a device used in particle physics for detecting electrically charged particles. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A straw chamber is a type of Gaseous ionization detector. ... In physics, a time projection chamber is a particle detector consisting of a gas-filled cylindrical chamber with multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) as endplates. ...

Modern detectors

Main article: Hermetic detector

Modern detectors in particle physics combine several of the above elements in layers much like an onion. A currently-operating hermetic detector, the Collider Detector at Fermilab. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ...


Installations of particle detectors

At colliders

CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... , The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a particle accelerator and Hadron collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland. ... // The sentence producing a rare particle, such as a Higgs boson proves this article was not written and checked by physicists, despiste ip are from cern. ... ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the five detector experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, and LHCb) being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland. ... The LHCb (standing for Large Hadron Collider beauty) experiment is one of four large particle physics detector experiments being constructed on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. LHCb is a specialist b-physics experiment, particularly aimed at measuring the parameters of CP violation in the interactions of b-hadrons... ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the five detector experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, and LHCb) being constructed at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is optimized to study heavy ion collisions. ... The LEP tunnel at CERN, now being filled with magnets for the LHC The Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) is one of the largest particle accelerators finished so far. ... ALEPH (Apparatus for LEP Physics at CERN) was one of the four detectors of the LEP collider. ... The OPAL Experiment at LEP 1989-2000 OPAL was one of the major particle physics experiments at CERN. OPAL studied particles and their interactions by collecting and analysing electron-positron collision events at LEP, the Large Electron-Positron collider. ... The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator at CERN. Originally specified as a 300 GeV machine, the SPS was actually built to be capable of 400GeV, an operating energy it achieved on the official commissioning date of 17 June 1976. ... Aerial view of the Fermilab site. ... Tevatron is a circular particle accelerator (or synchrotron) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois. ... The DESY (Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, German Electron Synchrotron) is the biggest German research center for particle physics, with sites in Hamburg and Zeuthen. ... HERA (Hadron-Elektron-Ringanlage) is a particle accelerator at DESY in Hamburg. ... ≠ Aerial view of Brookhaven National Laboratory. ... The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a heavy-ion collider located at and operated by the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York. ... Phenix is a small-scale (250 MW) prototype fast breeder reactor in France. ... The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a U.S. national laboratory operated by Stanford University for the U.S. Department of Energy. ... The BaBar (B and B-bar) experiment is an international collaboration of more than 550 physicists and engineers investigating CP-violation effects using the BaBar particle detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, which is operated by Stanford University in California. ... The University of California, Irvine is a public, coeducational university situated in suburban Irvine, California. ...

Without colliders

Super-Kamiokande, or Super-K for short, is a neutrino observatory in Japan. ... The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array is a neutrino telescope buried in a depth of about 1500 to 1900 meters under the Antarctic ice cap. ...

See also

This is a list of particles in particle physics, including currently known and hypothetical elementary particles, as well as the composite particles that can be built up from them. ...

External articles and references

Filmstrips
  • "Radiation detectors". H. M. Stone Productions, Schloat. Tarrytown, N.Y., Prentice-Hall Media, 1972.
General Information

  Results from FactBites:
 
particle detector - HighBeam Encyclopedia (464 words)
PARTICLE DETECTOR [particle detector] in physics, device for detecting, measuring, and analyzing particles and other forms of radiation entering it.
Such devices play an important role not only in basic research, as in the study of elementary particles, but also in numerous applications of physics, from uses of radioactive tracers in medicine and biology to prospecting for natural ores that exhibit radioactivity.
Typical of these small detectors are pocket-size ionization chambers that resemble fountain pens and film detectors, embedded in badges, that register the amount of radiation by the degree of exposure of the film.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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