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Encyclopedia > Participle

In linguistics, a participle (from Latin participium, a calque of Greek μετοχη "partaking") is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or as a modifier. Participles often share properties with other parts of speech, in particular adjectives and nouns. For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... A non-finite verb is not limited by the person, tense and number of the subject. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In grammar, a modifier (aka qualifier) is a word or sentence element that limits or qualifies another word, a phrase, or a clause. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ...

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Participles in Modern English

English verbs have two participles. One, called variously the present, active, imperfect, or progressive participle, is identical in form to the gerund, and indeed the term present participle is sometimes used to include the gerund. The term gerund-participle is also used. The other participle, called variously the past, passive, or perfect participle, is usually identical to the verb's preterite (past tense) form, though in irregular verbs the two usually differ. Examples of participle formation include: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages: As applied to English, it refers to what might be called a verbs action noun, which is one of the uses of the -ing form. ... The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ...


Verb
Preterite
(past)
Past
Participle
Present
Participle
Regular/
Irregular
talk talked talking regular
hire hired hiring
do did done doing irregular
say said saying
eat ate eaten eating
write wrote written writing
beat beat beaten beating
sing sang sung singing

The present participle in English is active. It has the following uses:

  • forming the progressive aspect: Jim was sleeping.
  • modifying a noun: Let sleeping dogs lie.
  • modifying a verb or sentence: Broadly speaking, the project was successful.

The present participle in English has the same form as the gerund, but the gerund acts as a noun rather than a verb or a modifier. The word sleeping in Your job description does not include sleeping is a gerund and not a present participle. In English, and sometimes in other languages, the continuous or progressive aspect is an aspect that denotes an incomplete action in progress at a specific time. ... In linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages: As applied to English, it refers to what might be called a verbs action noun, which is one of the uses of the -ing form. ...


The past participle has both active and passive uses:

  • forming the perfect aspect: The chicken has eaten.
  • forming the passive voice: The chicken was eaten.
  • modifying a noun, active sense (certain intransitive verbs only): our fallen comrades
  • modifying a noun, passive sense: the attached files
  • modifying a verb or sentence, passive sense: Seen from this perspective, there is no easy solution.

As noun-modifiers, participles usually precede the noun (like adjectives), but in many cases they can or must follow it: The perfect aspect is a grammatical aspect that refers to a state resulting from a previous action (also described as a previous action with relevance to a particular time, or a previous action viewed from the perspective of a later time). ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... “Intransitive” redirects here. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...

  • Please bring all the documents required.
  • The difficulties encountered were nearly insurmountable.

Participles in other languages

Sireniki Eskimo

Sireniki Eskimo language, an extinct Eskimo-Aleut language, has separate sets of adverbial participles and adjectival participles. Interestingly, adverbial participles are conjugated to reflect the person and number of their implicit subjects; hence, while in English a sentence like "If I were a marksman, we would kill walrus" requires two full clauses (in order to distinguish the two verbs' different subjects), in Sireniki Eskimo one of these may be replaced with an adverbial participle (since its conjugation will indicate the subject). For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages spoken in Northern America Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ...


Arabic

The Arabic verb has two participles: an active participle (الاسم الفاعل) and a passive participle (الاسم المفعول به), and the form of the participle is predictable by inspection of the dictionary form of the verb (see Arabic grammar). These participles are inflected for gender, number and case, but not person. Arabic participles are employed syntactically in a variety of ways: as nouns, as adjectives or even as verbs. Their uses vary across varieties of Arabic. In general the active participle describes a property of the syntactic subject of the verb from which it is derived, whilst the passive participles describes the object. For example, from the verb كتب kataba, the active participle is kaatibun كاتب and the passive participle is maktuubun مكتوب. Roughly these translate to writing and written respectively. However, they have different, derived lexical uses. كاتب kaatibun is further lexicalized as writer, author and مكتوب maktuubun as letter. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ...


In Classical Arabic these participles do not participate in verbal constructions with auxiliaries the same way as their English counterparts do, and rarely take on a verbal meaning in a sentence (a notable exception being participles derived from verbs of motion as well as participles in Qur'anic Arabic). In certain dialects of Arabic however, it is much more common for the participles, especially the active participle, to have verbal force in the sentence. For example, in dialects of the Levant, the active participle is a structure which describes the state of the syntactic subject after the action of the verb from which it is derived has taken place. Aakel, the active participle of akal (to eat), describes one's state after having eaten something. Therefore it can be used in analogous way to the English present perfect tense (i.e.,Ana aakel انا آكل meaning I have eaten, I have just eaten or I have already eaten). Other verbs, such as raaH راح (to go) give a participle (raayeH رايح) which has a progessive (is going...) meaning. The exact tense or continuity of these participles is therefore determined by the nature of the specific verb (especially its Aktionsart and its transitivity) and the syntactic/semantic context of the utterance. What ties them all together is that they describe the subject of the verb from which they are derived. The passive participles in certain dialects can be used as a sort of passive voice, but more often than not, are used in their various lexicalized senses as adjectives or nouns. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Quranic Arabic refers to the type of Arabic used in the Holy Quran. ... This language or phonology related article needs to be fully converted to IPA. See IPA in Unicode for information about the correct codes for IPA characters. ... The present perfect tense denotes a present condition resulting from a previous action. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In fiction, continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, objects, places and events seen by the reader or viewer. ... The aktionsart or lexical aspect of a verb is a part of the way in which that verb it is structured in relation to time. ... In grammar, a verb is transitive if it takes an object. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ...


Latin

Compared with English, Latin has an additional future tense participle: For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ...

  • present active participle: educāns "teaching"
  • perfect passive participle: educatus "(having been) taught"
  • future active participle: educātūrus "about to teach"
  • future passive participle: educāndus "(necessary) to be taught"

Lithuanian

Among Indo-European languages, Lithuanian language is unique for having thirteen different participial forms of the verb, that can be grouped into five when accounting for inflection by tense. Some of these are also inflected by gender and case. For example, the verb eiti ("to go, to walk") has the active participle form einąs/einantis ("going, walking", present tense), the passive participle form einamas ("being walked", present tense), the adverbial participle einant ("while it is being walked"), the semi-participle eidamas ("while [he is/was] going, walking") and the participle of necessity eitinas ("that which needs to be walked"). The first three of those five are inflected by tense, while the active, passive and the semi- participles are inflected by gender and the active, passive and necessity ones are inflected by case. Lithuanian is the official language of Lithuania, spoken by about 4 million native speakers (Lithuanians). ...


French

There are two basic participles:

  • Present participle: formed with the verb root + ant, hence marchant "walking", étant "being"
  • Past participle: formation varies according to verb group, hence marché "walked", été "been", vendu "sold", mis "placed", and fait "done". The past participle requires agreement with the gender of any preceding direct object.

The French present participle, however, is not used to mark the continuous aspect as it is in English. In English, and sometimes in other languages, the continuous or progressive aspect is an aspect that denotes an incomplete action in progress at a specific time. ...


Compound participles are possible:

  • Present perfect participle: ayant appelé "having called", étant mort "having died"
  • Passive perfect participle: étant vendu "being sold, having been sold"

Spanish

In Spanish, the present or active participle (participio activo or participio de presente) of a verb is traditionally formed with one of the suffixes -ante, -ente or -iente, but modern grammar does not consider it a verbal form any longer, as they become adjectives or nouns on their own: e.g. amante "loving", viviente "living" or "live".


The continuous is constructed much as in English, using a conjugated form of estar (to be) plus the gerundio (sometimes called a verbal adverb or adverbial participle as it does not decline) with the suffixes -ando, -endo or -iendo: for example, estar haciendo means to be doing (haciendo being the gerundio of hacer, to do), and there are related constructions such as seguir haciendo meaning to keep doing (seguir being to continue).


The past participle (participio pasado or pasivo) is regularly formed with one of the suffixes -ado, -ido, but several verbs have an irregular form ending in -to (e.g. escrito, visto), or -cho (e.g. dicho, hecho). The past participle is used generally as an adjective meaning a finished action, or to form the passive voice, and it is variable in gender and number in these uses; and also it is used to form the compound tenses (as in English) in which it has only one form, the singular male one. Some examples:

As an adjective
  • las cartas escritas "the written letters"
In the passive voice
  • Los ladrones fueron capturados "The thieves were caught."
To form compound tenses
  • Ella ha escrito una carta. "She has written a letter."

Finnish

Verb: tehdä (to do)


Present active: teke
Present passive: tehtävä
Past active: tehnyt
Past passive: tehty
Agent participle (passive): teke (done by...)


Russian

Verb: слышать slyšat' (to hear, imperfective aspect) The imperfective aspect, sometimes known as the continuous or progressive aspect, is a grammatical aspect. ...


Present active: слышащий slyšaščij
Present passive: слышимый slyšimyj
Past active: слышавший slyšavšij
Past passive: слышанный slyšannyj
Adverbial present active: слыша slyša
Adverbial past active: слышав slyšav Look up Adverbial participle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Verb: услышать (to hear, perfective aspect) In grammar, the perfective aspect is an aspect that exists in many languages. ...


Past active: услышавший uslyšavšyj
Past passive: услышанный uslyšannyj
Adverbial past active: услышав uslyšav


Bulgarian

Verb: правя pravja (to do, imperfective aspect)


Present active: правещ pravešt
Past active aorist: правил pravil
Past active imperfect: правел pravel
Past passive: правен praven
Adverbial present active: правейки pravejki


Verb: направя napravja (to do, perfective aspect)
Past active aorist: направил napravil
Past active imperfect: направел napravel
Past passive: направен napraven


Kinds of participles in various languages

Adverbial and adjectival

In some languages, a distinction between adverbial participle and adjectival participle can be made. Among these is Esperanto. See причастие and деепричастие in Russian grammar, or határozói igenév and melléknévi igenév in Hungarian grammar. Also many Eskimo languages make such a distinction, see for details e.g. the sophisticated participle system of Sireniki Eskimo. Look up Adverbial participle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Adjectival participle is a lexical category in the grammar of some languages (Russian [1], Hungarian, many Eskimo languages, e. ... Russian grammar encompasses: a highly synthetic morphology a syntax that, for the literary language, is the conscious fusion of three elements: a Church Slavonic inheritance; a Western European style; a polished vernacular foundation. ... Hungarian grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of the Hungarian language, a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and in adjacent areas of Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, and Slovenia (all territories lost after World War I). ... Eskimo-Aleut (also called Inuit-Aleut, but both names are considered offensive by some) is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ...


See also

For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ... A hanging participle or adjective, also known as an unattached participle, is a grammatical error in which a participle or adjective does not agree with the noun or pronoun with which it is associated. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Adjectival participle is a lexical category in the grammar of some languages (Russian [1], Hungarian, many Eskimo languages, e. ... Look up Adverbial participle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages: As applied to English, it refers to what might be called a verbs action noun, which is one of the uses of the -ing form. ...

References

  • Participles from the American Heritage Book of English Usage (1996).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Participle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (543 words)
In linguistics, a participle is a kind of verbal adjective; it indicates that the noun it modifies is a participant in the action that the participle refers to.
Participles are adjectives and are often used in front of nouns, as in "I saw a talking horse", "It was a done deal", and "She sold the crashed car at a loss".
By contrast, the past participle is considered an adjective, and agrees with a noun in gender and number, except when used to express the perfect aspect (e.g., to have done, which in Spanish is haber hecho).
Participle and Gerund. Fowler, H. W. 1908. The King's English (796 words)
The participle itself, even when confusion with the other cannot occur, is much abused; and the slovenly uses of it that were good enough in Burke's time are now recognized solecisms.
The participle is an adjective, and should be in agreement with a noun or pronoun; the gerund is a noun, of which it should be possible to say clearly whether, and why, it is in the subjective, objective, or possessive case, as we can of other nouns.
We are quite aware, however, that in the first place a language does not remodel itself to suit the grammarian's fancy for neat classification; that secondly the confusion is not merely wanton or ignorant, but the result of natural development; that thirdly the change involves some inconveniences, especially to hurried and careless writers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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