FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Participants in World War II
Map of the World with the Participants in World War II. The western allies are shown in blue, the eastern allies in red, the Axis Powers in black, and neutral countries in grey.
World War II series
v  d  e
Precursors
Asian events  · European events  · Timeline
1939 · 1940 · 1941 · 1942 · 1943 · 1944 · 1945
Eastern front  · Battles  · Military operations  · Commanders
Technology  · Atlas of the World Battle Fronts  · Manhattan project
Aerial warfare  · Home front  · Collaboration  · Resistance
Aftermath
Casualties · Further effects · War crimes · Consequences of Nazism
Depictions

World War II topics
Alphabetical index: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Campaigns  |  Countries  |  Equipment
Timeline  |  Basic topics  |  Portal  |  Category Combatants  United Kingdom  Canada  United States(1941–5)  Norway Poland Free French Navy  Germany  Italy (1940–3) Commanders  Sir Percy Noble  Sir Max K. Horton  Percy W. Nelles  Leonard W. Murray  Ernest J. King  Erich Raeder  Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ... Below is the timeline of the events of the Eastern Front of World War II, the conflict between the Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1945. ... This is a list of known World War II (WW2) era military operations, and missions commonly associated with WW2. ... The Commanders of World War II were for the most part career officers. ... Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ... The following is a timeline of the Manhattan Project, the effort by the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada to develop the first nuclear weapons for use during World War II. The following includes a number of events prior to the official formation of the Manhattan Project as the Manhattan... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Publicity photo of American machine tool worker in Texas. ... During World War II Nazi Germany occupied all or parts of the following non-tripartite countries: Poland, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Yugoslavia, Greece, the Soviet Union, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Egypt and Italy. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne Division in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... The Aftermath of World War II covers a period of history from roughly 1945-1950. ... Chart showing World War II deaths by country in millions as well as by percentage of population, and piechart with percentage of military and civilian deaths for the Allies and the Axis Powers. ... The bumsItalic textBold text effects of World War II had far-reaching implications for the international community. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Convention of 1907. ... German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II. While the attempt of Germany to exterminate several nations viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology, was stopped by the Allies, Nazi aggression neverthless led to deaths... The influence of World War II has been profound and diverse, having an impact on many parts of life. ... // Military engagements For military topics (land, naval, and air engagements as well as campaigns, operations, defensive lines and sieges), please see List of military engagements of World War II. Political and social aspects of the war Causes of World War II Appeasement Occupation of Denmark Netherlands in World War II... // Military engagements For military topics (land, naval, and air engagements as well as campaigns, operations, defensive lines and sieges), please see List of military engagements of World War II. Political and social aspects of the war Causes of World War II Appeasement Occupation of Denmark Netherlands in World War II... Campaigns of World War II were the military operations which decided the outcome of the war. ... // Aircraft List of aircraft of World War II List of World War II military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the Armée de lAir, World War II List of aircraft of the USAAF, World War II List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force, World War II... For events preceding September 1, 1939, see the timeline of events preceding World War II. This is a timeline of events that stretched over the period of World War II. // 1: The Invasion of Poland begins at 4:30 a. ...

Participants in World War II involves all nations who either participated directly or were affected by any of the theaters or events of World War II. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


World War II was primarily fought between two large alliances. The Axis Powers were a group of countries led by Germany, Italy (in the final years only its northern part as Italian Social Republic) and the Empire of Japan, and are considered the aggressors of the conflict. The Allies, led by the United Kingdom and, until its defeat, France, were joined in the European theatre by the Soviet Union in June 1941 and by the United States in December 1941. In the Asia-Pacific theater, the Allies were led by the Republic of China from the invasion of China by Japan in 1937 and then joined by the United States and British Commonwealth following Japanese attacks. A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...

Contents

Axis Powers

Originally founded on the concept of the Rome-Berlin-axis (the Pact of Steel), later the Tripartite Pact, the Axis was not primarily a formal alliance. Each of the major countries went to war on their own initiative (Nazi Germany in 1939, Italy in 1940, and Japan in 1937 against China and 1941 against the United States and British Commonwealth), and not necessarily to assist each other. There was little sharing of technology or resources, and also little in the way of cooperative strategic planning between the major Axis Powers.[1] This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ...


With the demise of Italy, Germany and Japan each functioned as wholly separate powers, each conducting the war in their theatre (Germany in Europe and Japan in the Pacific). There were a number of smaller powers on the side of the Axis, although for the most part the war effort was directed and powered by Germany and Japan. Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


National impacts

Each country involved in or affected by World War II is listed with a brief description of its role in the conflict.


Countries are listed alphabetically.


Andorra

Andorra remained officially neutral for the duration of World War II. At the beginning of the war, a small detachment of French troops was stationed in the country which was left over from the Spanish Civil War, but these forces were withdrawn in 1940. When France fell, Philippe Pétain of the Vichy regime was declared the new French Co-prince. After the German invasion of Vichy France in 1942, a German military force moved to the Andorran border near Pas de la Casa but did not cross. In response, a Spanish force was established at La Seu d'Urgell, but it too remained outside Andorran territory. In 1944, Charles de Gaulle established a new provisional government, and assumed the position of French Co-Prince. He ordered French forces to occupy Andorra as a "preventative measure" to secure order. Throughout the war, Andorra was used as a smuggling route between Spain and Vichy France, and an escape route for people fleeing German-occupied areas. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... This is a list of Co-Princes of Andorra. ... Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... The pass and resort, looking towards France The pass El Pas de la Casa is a ski resort and mountain pass in Andorra, lying on the border with France. ... La Seu dUrgell is the capital of the comarca of Alt Urgell, in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. ... This article is about the person. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Argentina

During the period of World War II, Argentina was ruled by a series of fraudulent conservative governments and dictatorial military juntas. While a large majority of the Argentine economic elite was considerably anglophilic and wanted Argentina to join the Allied side, neutralist feelings prevailed in the military, which saw the war as a potential source of economic benefit for the country, by exporting supplies and agricultural products to both sides of the conflict. The government of Edelmiro Farrell eventually caved in to international pressure, and Argentina joined other Latin American countries and declared war on Germany and Japan, albeit by this time the war was all but over (March 27, 1945). An Anglophile is a person who is fond of English culture and England in general[1]. Its antonym is Anglophobe. ... Edelmiro Julián Farrell Plaul (1887 - 1980) was President of Argentina from 24 February 1944 to 4 June 1946. ...


It is worth noting that many citizens opposed the nation's official neutralist stance. Over 750 Argentine volunteers, fought in the British, South African and Canadian Air Forces, mainly in the 164 Argentine-British RAF squadron, which saw action in Northern France and Belgium.[2] Nearly 4,000 Argentine volunteers fought on the Allied side.[3] No. ...


Armenia

During World War II, Armenia was part of the Soviet Union as Armenian SSR. Over five hundred thousand Armenians fought for the Soviet army, and half of them fell in battles.[4] Five Armenian infantry divisions were formed. Armenia gave 4 marshals and 60 generals. The Armenian Church and overseas Armenian donated large sums of money. After the war, the Armenian and Georgian Republics laid territorial claims to Turkey. However, the Soviet government was not willing to return the Armenian lands and shortly thereafter stated to have no claims to Turkey. State motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


Some captured Armenians chose to fight for the Axis. They fought in the following units:

Category: Possible copyright violations ...

Australia

Australia was among the first countries to declare war on Germany, on September 3, 1939. More than one million Australian men and women served in the war out of a total population of around seven million. Although it was ill-prepared for war, the Australian government had soon dispatched Royal Australian Air Force squadrons and personnel to serve with the Royal Air Force. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) commenced operations against Italy after its entry into the war in June 1940. Later that year the Australian Army entered campaigns against Italy and Germany in North Africa and Europe. German submarines and raiding ships operated in Australian waters throughout the war. The most intensive and numerically largest part of Australia's war effort came after the outbreak of hostilities with Japan in late 1941. The Australian mainland came under direct attack for the first time in 1942, when Japanese aircraft launched a major bombing attack on Darwin, and attacked many other towns in northern Australia. Axis covert raiding ships and submarines struck at shipping and shore targets around Australia, including a submarine attack on Sydney Harbour. Australia entered World War II shortly after the invasion of Poland. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... RAF redirects here. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... Combatants  Australia  United States Empire of Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties 251 killed 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk one aircrew confirmed killed, several missing in action, six taken prisoner; six Japanese aircraft confirmed destroyed, four probably destroyed. ... From February 1942 to November 1943, during the Pacific War, the Australian mainland and offshore islands were attacked at least 97 times by aircraft from the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force. ... Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... A propaganda poster calling on Australians to avenge the sinking of the Australian Hospital Ship Centaur by the Japanese submarine I-177 in May 1943. ... Combatants Australia, United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands. ...


For the remainder of the war, the Australian war effort was concentrated in south-east Asia and the South West Pacific Area: they were involved from January 1942 in Malaya, the Dutch East Indies and the Australian territory of New Guinea. Before the bulk of the Australian Army had returned from overseas, from July onwards a small number of Militia troops fought a stubborn rearguard action in the trying conditions of the Kokoda Track. In August 1942, at the Battle of Milne Bay, Australian infantry became the first Allied soldiers to defeat Japanese ground forces during the war. The bitter and deadly New Guinea campaign came to occupy the attention of most of the Australian armed forces until 1945. Later that year, as the war drew to a close, Australian forces led the campaign to retake Borneo. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii â€  Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500... Combatants Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Nishizo Tsukahara Shojiro Hayashi Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 3,200 Casualties about 550 dead 1,000 dead New Guinea campaign Battle for Australia Air raids – Darwin – Broome – Coral Sea – Naval attacks – Sydney & Newcastle – Kokoda – Milne... The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese... The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. ...


Austria

Austria became part of Germany in 1938 amongst popular acclaim during the Anschluss. After the defeat of the Axis Powers, the Allies occupied Austria at the end of World War II in Europe until 1955, when the country again became a fully independent republic under the condition that it remained neutral. German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ...


Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan was part of the Soviet Union, therefore on the side of the Allies in June 1941. Azerbaijan was a key strategic location of oil resources in the Caspian Sea during World War II. It was Germany's goal during the invasion of the USSR, to capture the oil fields in Baku in order to put the war in Germany's favour. However the German army was stopped in the Caucasus and driven back, and came very close to getting foothold in Azerbaijan.


Bahrain

The Sheikh of Bahrain declared war on Germany on September 10, 1939. Bahraini forces fought[citation needed] under British command in the Middle East theater. The position of king of Bahrain was created in February 2002 when the then emir of Bahrain Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah gave himself the title of king. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Belgium

Like the Netherlands, Belgium declared its neutrality in an effort to avoid being caught in another war between Germany and France. Germany, however, did not respect Belgium's neutrality and marched through Belgium as part of the invasion of France in 1940. Thus, Belgium joined the Allies and maintained a government-in-exile with control over its colonial possessions until the country was liberated in 1944. Map of the Belgian colonial empire The Belgian colonial empire was the set of colonies of Belgium, lasting from 1901 to 1962. ...


Bolivia

Bolivia was one of many Latin American countries to declare war on Germany late in the war, joining the Allies on April 7, 1943. Shortly after war was declared, the President of Bolivia, Enrique Peñaranda, was overthrown in a coup. The new ruler, Gualberto Villarroel, had fascist and anti-Semitic leanings, but foreign pressure compelled Villarroel to remain at war and to purge the more extreme Nazi sympathizers from among his supporters. Bolivia was a supplier of vital war material, tin, to Allied militaries. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of Bolivia is the head of state of Bolivia. ... Enrique Peñaranda del Castillo (born in La Paz on November 15, 1892; died in Madrid, Spain, on December 22, 1969) was a Bolivian general who served as commander of his countrys forces during the second half of the Chaco War (1932-35). ... Gualberto Villarroel López (b. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ...


Brazil

Brazil was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas and maintained its neutrality until the beginning of 1942. After several German submarine attacks against Brazilian ships between February and August that year in the Atlantic Ocean Brazil sided with the Allies declaring war against Germany and Italy on August, 22 1942. Brazilian naval forces helped to patrol the South and Central Atlantic combating the German's U-boats. Brazil hosted, in the Northeast of the country, at Natal, the largest United States air base outside its own territory, and, at Recife, the U.S. Fourth Fleet. This air base gave support to the North Africa campaign. In 1944 Brazil sent the 25,000-soldier Brazilian Expeditionary Force (FEB) to fight in Europe, the only Latin American nation to send troops to Europe. This force joined the U.S. Fifth Army under General Mark Wayne Clark's command and participated in the Italian campaign until the end of war. Brazil sent two Air Force Groups, one of them a Fighter Group (the 1º GAVCA, or 1st Air Group, nicknamed 'Senta a Pua', which means 'Feel the Spur'), also based in Italy. Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (pron. ... The Brazilian Expeditionary Force (Portuguese: Força Expedicionária Brasileira, or FEB) was the 25,300-man force formed by the Brazilian Navy, Army and Air Force that fought alongside the Allied forces in the Italian Campaign of World War II. // Overview It was not at all obvious that Brazil... The U.S. Fifth Army was one of the principal formations of the US Army in the Mediterranean during World War II. It was activated on January 4, 1943 and made responsible for the defence of Algeria and Morocco. ... Mark Wayne Clark was an American general during World War II and the Korean War. ... Combatants  United Kingdom Indian Empire  United States Poland  Brazil  New Zealand  Canada  Free French  South Africa Italy  (after September 8th) Italian Resistance  Germany Italy  (until 8 September 1943) RSI  (until 25 April 1945) Commanders C-in-C AFHQ: Dwight D. Eisenhower (until January 1944) Henry Maitland Wilson (Jan to Dec... The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces and one of the three national uniformed services. ...


Bulgaria

Bulgaria was a minor German ally, signing the Tripartite Pact on March 1, 1941, their main contribution being transit rights for German units involved against Yugoslavia and Greece. Bulgaria occupied portions of Greece and Yugoslavia to recreate the 19th century boundaries of Greater Bulgaria, but it did not participate in the Invasion of the Soviet Union. Macedonian Bulgarians greeting the Germans in Sofia in 1941 as future liberators of occupied Macedonia. ... The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano Greater Bulgaria territory would include the plain between the Danube and the Balkan mountain range (Stara Planina), Northern and Southern Dobruja, the region of Sofia, Pirot and Vranje in the Morava valley, Northern Thrace, parts of Eastern Thrace and nearly... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


After the Communist-dominated coup d'etat of September 9, 1944 and the simultaneous arrival of Soviet troops in the country, the Bulgarian government declared war on Germany. Four Bulgarian armies attacked the German positions in Yugoslavia. An armistice was signed with the Allies in Moscow on October 28, 1944. After the Nazis fled Yugoslav territory, the 1st Bulgarian Army continued its offensive in Hungary and Austria under the command of Major Georgi Marinov Mandjev from the village of Goliamo Sharkovo (Elhovo). It managed to withstand the Nazi offensive on the Drava. Bulgaria's participation in WWII ended when its soldiers met their British comrades-in-arms in Klagenfurt in May 1945. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Drava at Drávaszabolcs, Hungary The Drava at Vízvár, Hungary The Drava at Maribor, Slovenia Drava or Drave (German: Drau, Slovenian, Croatian and Italian: Drava, Hungarian: Dráva) is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. ... Lindwurm fountain in the center of Klagenfurt Klagenfurt (Slovene: Celovec), officially known as Klagenfurt am Wörthersee,[1] is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia in Austria. ...


Canada

At the time of World War II, Newfoundland, including Labrador, was not part of Canada. See separate Newfoundland section.

Within days of the invasion of Poland, Canada declared war on Germany on September 10, 1939. As in World War I, Canadian formations fought under British theatre command, and they played an important role in the Allied campaigns in Europe. Canadian forces contributed heavily in the air raids against Germany, the Battles of Britain, the Battle of the Atlantic, the Italian campaign and Normandy, the Scheldt and the fighting before and after the Rhine crossings. In Italy, an army corps was fielded beginning in January 1944, and forces in Normandy built up from a single division in June 1944 to a full corps in July 1944, and the activation of an Army in the field in August 1944, under which several foreign national formations were under command, including at various times British, Polish, Dutch and American forces. In addition, Canada was the key participant in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan where the British Commonwealth members' aircrew were trained. A recruiting poster in Canada. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War II. The western allies are shown in blue, the eastern allies in red, the Axis Powers in black, and neutral countries in grey. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 1,000,000[1] 56 German divisions, 33+ Soviet... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the Second World War battle. ... Battle of the Atlantic can refer to either of two naval campaigns, depending on context: World War I - First Battle of the Atlantic World War II - Second Battle of the Atlantic A Third Battle of the Atlantic was envisioned to be be part of any Third World War that arose... Combatants  United Kingdom Indian Empire  United States Poland  Brazil  New Zealand  Canada  Free French  South Africa Italy  (after September 8th) Italian Resistance  Germany Italy  (until 8 September 1943) RSI  (until 25 April 1945) Commanders C-in-C AFHQ: Dwight D. Eisenhower (until January 1944) Henry Maitland Wilson (Jan to Dec... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... This article is about a military unit. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... RCAF Harvards were used as a trainer aircraft by thousands of Commonwealth aviators from 1940 onwards. ...


In March 1945, both I and II Canadian Corps came under command of First Canadian Army in The Netherlands after the former was repatriated from Italy in February. From 1941, Canadian forces also participated in the defense of British territories against Japanese forces, especially Hong Kong where an understrength brigade was deployed and ultimately destroyed. As the war in Europe wound down, from late 1944, many Royal Canadian Navy ships and personnel were transferred from the Atlantic to join the British Pacific Fleet. About one million Canadians served in uniform during WWII. For history after 1968, see Canadian Forces Maritime Command The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) was the navy of Canada from 1911 until 1968 when the three Canadian armed services were unified to form the Canadian Forces. ... The British Pacific Fleet (BPF) was a multinational Allied naval force which saw action against Japan during World War II. The fleet was comprised mainly of British Commonwealth naval vessels. ...


Ceylon

Ceylon (later known as Sri Lanka), was a British colony and a major Allied naval base. On April 5, 1942 over 300 aircraft from Japanese carriers bombed the island. Winston Churchill called it "the most dangerous moment" of World War II, because the Japanese wished to replicate a grander success of the attack at Pearl Harbor. The British ships, however, were moved to Addu Atoll, 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) southwest of Ceylon. Nevertheless, the British lost an aircraft carrier, two cruisers and two destroyers, while Royal Air Force squadrons on Ceylon suffered severe damage. The British fleet retreated to East Africa until 1944. The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... After the outbreak of the Second World War, in the British Crown Colony of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), the collaborationist government of Sir Baron Jayatilleke assured the British King and his government of its continued support. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Addu or Seenu Atoll is the southernmost atoll of the Republic of Maldives. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... The USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... RAF redirects here. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


The Ceylon Garrison Artillery Regiment was stationed on Horsburgh Island in the Cocos Islands, to defend it from Japanese attack. However, following agitation by the Lanka Sama Samaja Party, the regiment mutinied on the night of May 8, 1942, intending to hand the islands over to the Japanese. The mutiny was suppressed and three of the Ceylonese soldiers became the only British Commonwealth troops to be executed for mutiny during World War II. Bombardier Gratien Fernando, the leader of the mutiny, was defiant to the end. The Sri Lanka Artillery (SLA) a corps of the Sri Lanka Army. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Ceylon Equal Society Party, in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය, in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் கட்சி) is a trotskyist political party in Sri Lanka. ... Cocos (Keeling) Islands The Cocos Islands Mutiny was one of many among British Commonwealth forces during the Second World War. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For Bombardier Group, Canada see: Bombardier United Kingdom Bombardier and lance-bombardier are British Army ranks used in the Royal Artillery instead of (respectively) corporal and lance-corporal. ... Gratien Fernando (1915 – 1942) was the leader of the Cocos Islands Mutiny, an agitator for the freedom of Sri Lanka from the British and a hero of the Sri Lanka Independence Struggle. ...


Following the Cocos Islands Mutiny, no Ceylonese combat unit was deployed in a front-line combat situation, although Supply & Transport Corps troops were used in rear areas in the Middle East. The defences of Sri Lanka were beefed up to three Allied army divisions because the island was strategically important, as a producer of rubber. Rationing was instituted so that Sri Lankans were comparatively better fed than their Indian neighbours, in order to prevent disaffection among the ordinary people. This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sri Lankans in Japanese-occupied Malaya and Singapore were recruited by the Japanese for the Lanka Regiment of the Indian National Army, to fight against the Allies. While there was a plan to land them in Sri Lanka to start a guerrilla war, they never actually saw action. The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second...


Chile

Initially, Chile chose to remain neutral in the war, having close trading links with Germany. Later in the war, however, Chile distanced itself from the Axis powers, and the Chilean government took steps to dismiss pro-German military officers. Relations with Axis countries were broken in 1943, and in 1945, Chile declared war on Japan. As with Argentina, by this time the war was almost over.


China

Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War

The Republic of China had been fighting Japan intermittently since the 1931 Mukden Incident, when Japan annexed Manchuria. On July 7, 1937, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident led the two countries to full-scale war. Already engaged in war with Japan, as well as enduring a civil conflict between the Kuomintang (Nationalists, KMT) and the Communist Party of China, the Chinese Nationalist Government's full attention was within its borders in resisting the Japanese during the war. However, Chiang Kai-shek still managed to send troops to Britain's aid in Burma, in early 1942. China's participation in the war was also pivotal in a sense that more than 1.5 million Japanese military personnel were sent to China and bogged down. Japanese casualties in China are estimated at 1.1-1.9 million. Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... Combatants National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Zhang Xueliang, Ma Zhanshan, Feng Zhanhai Shigeru Honjo, Jiro Minami Strength 160,000 30,000 - 66,000 Casualties  ?  ? The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931, known in Japanese as the Manchurian Incident, occurred in southern Manchuria... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Belligerents National Revolutionary Army, Republic of China Imperial Japanese Army, Empire of Japan Commanders Song Zheyuan Kanichiro Tashiro Strength 100,000 - Casualties and losses 16,700 - The Marco Polo Bridge Incident (盧溝橋事變; also known as 七七事變, 七七盧溝橋事變 or the Lugouqiao Incident) was a battle between the Republic of Chinas National Revolutionary Army... Belligerents China United States1 Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army2 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Albert Wedemeyer Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China and also the worlds largest political party. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Many of China's urban centers, industrial resources, and coastal regions were occupied by Japan for most of the war. China suffered a large death toll from the war, both military and civilian. The Chinese Nationalist army suffered some 3.2 million casualties, and 17 million civilians died in the crossfire. After the war, China became one of the main victorious countries and gained one of the permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. “Security Council” redirects here. ...


After the war ended, the Chinese Civil War resumed between the Nationalists and the Communists. The Nationalist government, with its military strength greatly reduced and its economy devastated by the war against Japan, was defeated by the Communists in 1949. The Republic of China retreated to Taiwan while the communist People's Republic of China was established on the mainland. Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War...


Colombia

After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Colombia broke diplomatic relations with the Axis powers. Colombia provided the Allies with petroleum products. Then, in 1943, the German submarine U 505 destroyed a Colombian schooner, which caused Colombia to declare a "status of belligerency" against Germany on November 26. The German ambassador left the country, and measures of control were implemented, including internment of German citizens in designated areas. Photographs and reconnaissance airplanes belonging to the Colombian-German company Scadta, who used to take aerial shots of Colombian and German cities were also handed to the United States. During the recovery years, Colombia sent Nestle products (coffee, baby food, etc.) and carbon for heating all over Europe. Two-masted fishing schooner A schooner (IPA: ) is a type of sailing vessel characterized by the use of fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. ... A belligerent in warfare describes one of the contracting parties in the conflict; that is, one of the powers at war in contrast to neutral countries and non-belligerents. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... Nestlé S.A. or Société des Produits Nestlé S.A. (SWX:NESN), headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland, is the worlds biggest food and beverage company. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Costa Rica

Costa Rica joined the Allies on December 8, 1941. The leftist administration of President Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia was hostile to Nazism and introduced numerous measures to decrease German influence in the country. Costa Rica declared war on Japan the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and on Germany and Italy shortly afterwards. It allowed the United States to establish an airfield on Cocos Island. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Rafael Ángel del Socorro Calderón Guardia was the president of Costa Rica from 1940 to 1944. ...


Cuba

Cuba joined the Allies on December 8, 1941, when it declared war on Japan. On December 11, it also declared war on Germany and Italy. The United States naval station at Guantanamo Bay served as an important base for protecting Allied shipping in the Caribbean, and on May 15, 1943, a Cuban warship sank a German submarine in waters near Havana. Cuba began to plan a conscription program in order to contribute troops, but this had not materialized by the end of the war. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gitmo redirects here. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ...


Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia was dismembered by Nazi Germany, starting with Neville Chamberlain's Munich Agreement with Hitler in 1938 and the German–Italian Vienna Awards. The Czech part (western) of the country became the so-called Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under so-called State-President Emil Hácha, the newly separated Slovak Republic, a Nazi-dependent puppet regime, led by Roman Catholic priest Jozef Tiso was ultimately inserted in Slovakia. Part of southern Slovakia as well as the complete Ruthenia (the former most eastern part of Czechoslovakia) was annexed by Hungary. Zaolzie was annexed by Poland, only to be snatched from them by the Germans 11 months later. In 1945 the victorious Soviet Union returned Zaolzie to Czechoslovakia. From 1940, a government-in-exile in London under former Czechoslovak President Edvard Beneš was recognized as an Allied power. The Slovak National Uprising, commenced in August 1944, was suppressed by German forces at the end of October, however partisans continued fighting in the mountains till the end of the war. In April 1945, the Red Army defeated the Germans and ousted Tiso's government, annexing Carpathia Ruthenia to the USSR. The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy. ... Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals are various names for two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940) by which arbiters of National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy sought to enforce peacefully the territorial claims of Revisionist Hungary, ruled by Regent Admiral... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Emil Hácha (July 12, 1872 – June 26, 1945) was a Czech lawyer, the third President of Czechoslovakia, taking office in 1938, and the first and only State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Josef Tiso in photo Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Independent Slovak Republic from 1939-1945, allied with Nazi Germany. ... Zaolzie (Czech: , Polish: , literally: Trans-Olza River Silesia) was an area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia, west of Cieszyn. ... The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ... Edvard BeneÅ¡ with wife 1921, autochrome portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl Edvard BeneÅ¡ with his wife 1934 Edvard Benes meeting with Munkacs Wonder-Rabbi Chaim Elazar Spira Statue of Edvard BeneÅ¡ in front of headquarters of Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Prague Edvard BeneÅ¡ (IPA: ) (May 28, 1884... Combatants Nazi Germany Slovakia Commanders Heinrich Himmler Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ Ján Golian† Rudolf Viest† Strength 40,000, later increased to 83,000 18,000 initially, later increased to 78,000 Casualties ≈10,000 ≈10,000 + 5,304 captured and executed Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica The... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj...


Denmark

Denmark remained neutral from the outbreak of the war. It was invaded and occupied by Germany on April 9, 1940, as part of Operation Weserübung, surrendering after a few hours of fighting and never declaring war on the Germans. The Danish government remained in office in Copenhagen until 1943 and signed the Anti-Comintern Pact. On August 29, 1943, the government handed in its resignation to the King as a response to German demands for more concessions. Each Permanent Secretary took control of his own ministry. On May 10, 1940, the British occupied Iceland. Shortly before they had occupied the Faroe Islands. The United States occupied Greenland, a position later supported by the Danish envoy in Washington, Henrik Kauffmann. Iceland, which was later transferred from British to American control, declared its independence in 1944. On May 4, 1945, the German forces in Denmark surrendered to the British army. Since the German commander on Bornholm refused to surrender to the Soviet Union, two local towns were bombed and the garrison forced to surrender. Bornholm remained under Soviet control until 1946. Headquarters of the Schalburgkorps, a Danish SS unit, after 1943. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. ... The Permanent Secretary, in most departments officially titled the Permanent Under-Secretary of State (although the full title is rarely used), is the most senior civil servant of a British Government ministry, charged with running the department on a day-to-day basis. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the 1940 invasion. ... Immediately following the German invasion of Denmark and Norway in April 1940, the United Kingdom occupied the stragically important Faroe Islands to pre-empt a German invasion. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Henrik Kauffmann (August 26, 1888 - June 5, 1963) was the Danish ambassador to the United States during World War II. On April 9, 1941, the anniversary of the German occupation of Denmark, he signed on his own initiative in the Name of the King (Danish: I Kongens Navn) an Agreement... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Denmark Region Hovedstaden Bornholms Regionskommune 588 km² (227 mi²)  - coordinates , , 43,040 () since January 2003 CET (UTC+1)  -  CEST (UTC+2) Bornholm Island (far right) in Denmark : www. ...


Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic declared war on Germany and Japan following the attacks of Pearl Harbor and the Nazi declaration of war on the U.S. However, it did not contribute with troops, aircraft, or ships.


Ecuador

Ecuador was another of the South American nations to join the Allies late in the war (joined against Germany on February 2, 1945). Ecuador let the U.S. use Baltra Island for a naval base. [1], [2] is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Baltra Island or Isla Baltra is a small island of the Galápagos Islands. ...


Egypt

Egypt had become fully independent in 1936, but British troops remained to protect the Suez Canal, and a treaty provision allowed British troops to use the country as a military base in time of war. Egypt was seen by both the Axis and the Allies as a vital strategic point, because of access to the Suez Canal. The Egyptian government remained officially neutral during the war, but King Farouk allowed British troops to use Egypt as a base of operations and placed his Navy at the disposal of the British. Initially Egypt was targeted by Italy, but after a heavy defeat by the British forces under the command of General Wavell, the Germans were compelled to enter the fray with a division under the command of General Erwin Rommel. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Farouk I of Egypt (Arabic: فاروق الأول FārÅ«q al-Awwal) ‎ (February 11, 1920 – March 18, 1965), was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 - May 24, 1950) was a British Field Marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was perhaps the most famous German Field Marshal of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he waged...


Rommel's successes in the deserts of Libya and west Egypt, and the fact that they came to within 160 kilometres (100  mi) of Cairo, gave the Allied forces (in particular the British) a major fright. The revolutionary officers that eventually came to power in 1952 (led by Colonel Abdel Nasser) plotted to support the Germans in their push for Cairo, seeing a German victory as an opportunity to liberate Egypt from the British colonial occupation. For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Nasser redirects here. ...


El Salvador

From 1931 to 1944, El Salvador was ruled by Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez, an admirer of Hitler and Mussolini. Nonetheless, the dictator declared war on both Japan (December 8, 1941) and Germany (December 12, 1941) shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor, for economic reasons. El Salvador's economy depended heavily on the United States. Martinez removed Germans from the government and interned Japanese, German, and Italian nationals. The Second World War made Salvadoreans leery of their dictatorship, and a general national strike in 1944 forced Martinez to resign and flee to Guatemala. [3] Maximiliano Hernández Martínez (1882–1966) was the President of El Salvador from 1931 to 1944. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Estonia

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union left Estonia in the Soviet sphere of interest. The Soviet Union threatened Estonia with war if Estonia did not agree with the mutual assistance pact, which required allowing the Soviet Union to build military bases into Estonia. Estonian government, convinced that winning a war against the Soviet Union was impossible, agreed on September 28, 1939. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Soviets conducted a coup with support of the Red Army in June 1940, and an election was held with great Soviet political influence. The new government took command and the Estonian Socialist Republic (ESR) was proclaimed on July 2, 1940. The ESR was formally accepted into the Soviet Union on August 6, and the official name of the country became the "Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic". Estonia was occupied by Germany in 1941 after war broke out between Germany and the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation over Estonia was restored in 1944. Estonia was formally part of the USSR until 1991. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ethiopia

At the outbreak of the war, Emperor Haile Selassie was in exile in England trying in vain to obtain Allied support for his nation’s cause. The Ethiopian Patriots Movement had begun its guerilla war against the occupying Italian forces the day Addis Ababa fell in May 1936. Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ...


Upon the emperor's flight into exile, remnants of Ethiopia's disbanded imperial army had transformed into guerilla units. Urban city residents throughout the country formed underground movements to aid the Patriots as the overall population led a passive resistance campaign aimed at stifling Mussolini's economic agenda for the region. As a result, the Italians were never able to successfully occupy and secure the entire country including the emperor's relocated capital at Gore in the southwest. Throughout the occupation and into the beginning of the Second World War, the constant harassment of Italian columns and communication and supply lines reduced their fighting capabilities and their morale. A state of paranoia among Italian troops and civilians alike had sunk in as they became increasingly isolated from Rome. Fascist retaliation to Patriot attacks were brutal and often targeted the civilian population, which only further filled the ranks of the Patriots creating a cycle that lead to the eventual demise of Mussolini’s Italian East Africa. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Map of Italian East Africa Italian East Africa or Empire of Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was a short-lived (1936-1941) Italian colony in Africa consisting of Ethiopia (recently occupied after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) and the colonies of Italian Somaliland and Eritrea. ...


Britain’s declaration of war against Italy reinvigorated the Patriot movement and paved the way for the final ousting of the Italians in Ethiopia and in the Horn of Africa. The Allied liberation campaign of Ethiopia began in the winter of 1940. Emperor Haile Selassie, with the support and cooperation of the British, was transported to the Sudan to work alongside Major Orde Wingate to organize and lead the main Ethiopian Patriot divisions that had fled fascist-controlled Ethiopia upon news of Britain’s declaration of war. The Horn of Africa. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Major General Orde Charles Wingate, DSO (February 26, 1903 – March 24, 1944), was a British major general and creator of two special military units during World War II. // Orde Wingate was born 26 February 1903 in Naini Tal, India to a military family. ...


The East African Campaign was conducted by a largely multi-African force and consisted of Ethiopian, Eritrean, British, Sudanese, Kenyan, Rhodesian, South African, Indian, Nigerian, Ghanaian and Free French units. Within months, the liberation of Ethiopia was achieved, and on May 5, 1941, five years to the day that the Emperor fled his capital, Haile Selassie was restored to his throne. The defeat of fascists in Ethiopia marked the first victory for the Allies in the Second World War and allowed for the remaining forces to be quickly moved up to Egypt to confront the Axis advance towards Cairo. The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italy in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... National motto: None Official languages Tigrigna, Arabic and English Capital Asmara President Isaias Afewerki Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 96th 121,320 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2002)  - Density Ranked 118th 4,298,269 37/km² Independence  - Limited  - Fully From Ethiopia  May 29, 1991  May 24, 1993 Currency Nakfa Time zone UTC... The Republic of the Sudan, or Republic of Sudan (in recent years the definite article has increasingly been dropped in common usage) is the largest country in Africa, situated in the northeast part of the continent. ... Kenya (pronounced as KEN-ya) is a country of East Africa, bordering Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and the Indian Ocean. ... This article is about the break-away colony of (Southern) Rhodesia , today Zimbabwe. ... Look up South Africa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government South Africa Government Online official government site Parliament of South Africa official site Statistics South Africa official government site News AllAfrica. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... The Federal Republic of Nigeria is a country in West Africa and, by far, the most populated nation in Africa. ... The Republic of Ghana is a nation in West Africa. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Fiji

Fiji was a British colony during World War II. The Fiji Defence Force served with New Zealand Army formations, under the Allied Pacific Ocean Areas command. The Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF), with a total manpower of only 3500 men, is one of the smallest in the world. ... Ngāti Tumatauenga or New Zealand Army is the land armed force of the New Zealand military and comprises around 4,500 regular personnel and 2,500 non-regulars and civilians. ... Pacific Ocean Areas was a major Allied military command during World War II. It was one of four major commands during the Pacific War, and one of two United States commands in the Pacific theatre of operations. ...


Finland

Finland was left to the Soviet sphere of interest in Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and when it refused to allow the Soviet Union to build bases on its territory, it was attacked by Soviet forces in the Winter War (November 30, 1939 - March 13, 1940). After the war, Finland unsuccessfully sought protection from the United Kingdom and Sweden. Then Finland pursued better relations with Nazi Germany to counter the continued Soviet pressure. This produced cooperation between the countries, which led to a Soviet pre-emptive air attack on Finland after the start of Operation Barbarossa, thus beginning the Continuation War (June 25, 1941 - September 4, 1944), where Finland was a co-belligerent of Nazi Germany. The United Kingdom declared war on Finland on December 6, 1941, but the United States never did. To secure military support needed to stop Soviet offensive coordinated with D-day, the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement was signed on June 26, 1944, in which Finland and Nazi Germany became active allies. An armistice was signed after the Soviet offensive was stopped and Wehrmacht was retreating from the Baltic States. The treaty required Finland to expel all German troops, which led to Lapland War (September 15, 1944 - April 25, 1945). Peace with the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union was concluded in the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947. Finnish ski troops in Northern Finland in January 1940 The Military history of Finland during World War II covers the history of Finland from 1939 to 1944. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A preemptive attack (or preemptive war) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat an imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (usually unavoidable) war. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Belligerents Finland Germany Italy1 Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2] Casualties and losses 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian deaths[3] 3401 captured... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Co-belligerence is a term for waging of war together - against a common enemy. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim Karl Lennart Oesch Leonid Govorov Kirill Meretskov Strength 268,000 375,000 Casualties 18,000 killed, 45,000 wounded, 3,000 prisoners 40,000 killed, 130,000 wounded During World War II, in the Continuation War, the Fourth Strategic Offensive was... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... The Ryti-Ribbentrop letter of agreement (Finnish: Ryti-Ribbentrop sopimus) of June 26, 1944, signifies the closest to an alliance Finland and Nazi Germany came during World War II. According to the agreement, Risto Ryti, then President of Finland, undertook not to conclude peace in the Continuation War with the... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... Combatants Germany Finland Commanders Lothar Rendulic Hjalmar Siilasvuo Strength 200,000 60,000 Casualties 950 killed 2,000 wounded 1,300 captured 774 killed 3,000 wounded 262 missing The Lapland War (Finnish: ; German: ; Swedish: ) is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ...


France

France was one of the original guarantors of Polish security and as such was one of the first countries to declare war on Germany. In 1940, following the Battle of France, the French government surrendered to Germany, leading to the foundation of Vichy France and Free French Forces in exile. The military history of France during World War II covers the period from 1939 until 1940, which witnessed French military participation under the Third Republic, and the period from 1940 until 1945, which was marked by colonial struggles between Vichy France and the Free French Forces under Charles de Gaulle... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... The Second Armistice at Compiègne, France was signed on June 22, 18:50, 1940, between Nazi Germany and France. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to...


Free France

The Free French Forces of the French National Committee, a London-based exile group led by Charles de Gaulle, were formed in 1940 to maintain the French commitment to the Allies and liberate French territory occupied by Germany. Together with the French resistance, they played a part in the Mediterranean Theatre and the liberation of western Europe, including France in 1944. The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in... This article is about the person. ... The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... The Mediterranean region. ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Vichy France

When France signed armistice agreements with Germany and Italy, the country was split into two parts, an occupied sector and an unoccupied sector. The government was located in unoccupied Vichy, and became known as the Vichy regime. The Vichy regime was led by Marshal Pétain. Vichy France is generally considered to have been an Axis state[citation needed], although it remained officially neutral during the conflict. Prime Minister Pierre Laval repeatedly sought France's entry into the war on the Axis side, but was vetoed by Pétain. On several occasions Vichy forces were attacked by the Allies during the war, most notably in the invasion of Syria in 1941, during landings in French North Africa in November 1942 and the Madagascar campaign of 1943. In the fall of 1942 the Germans occupied all of continental France but allowed the Vichy government to continue operating as a result of Vichy North Africa violating the terms of the 1940 armistice by calling a cease-fire following Operation Torch. Vichy North Africa's government and military joined the Allies afterward. Laval was executed for high treason after the war. Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Philippe Pétain Marshal Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French soldier and Head of State of Vichy France, from 1940 to 1944. ... Pierre Laval, prime minister of Vichy France Pierre Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician and four times Prime Minister of France, the final time being under the Vichy government. ... Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Mandate of Syria Mandate of Lebanon Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and... Belligerents Free French Forces United Kingdom United States Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 107,000 (33,000 in Morocco,39,000 near Algiers,35,000 near Oran) 60,000 Casualties and losses 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch... Combatants  United Kingdom  Rhodesia British East African colonies South Africa  Australia (naval only) Vichy France Japan (naval only) Commanders Robert Sturges Armand Léon Annet Strength 10,000-15,000 (land forces) 8,000 (land forces)[1] Casualties 107 killed in action; 280 wounded;[2] 620 casualties in total (including... Belligerents Free French Forces United Kingdom United States Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 107,000 (33,000 in Morocco,39,000 near Algiers,35,000 near Oran) 60,000 Casualties and losses 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ...


Germany

Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler, was the primary Axis Power in the European Theatre. The surrender of the German forces between May 4 and May 8, 1945 signaled the end of the war in Europe. Even after losing two World Wars, Germany has rebuilt its economy and prestige through the "Wirtschaftswunder" movement in the 1950s and reunification in 1990. This page is intended to serve as a focal point for information pertinent to understanding German military activity during World War II. // Foreword When in 1933 Hitler gained power, and set on a massive program of rearmament, no one could have predicted the scope, intensity, and duration of the armed... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ...


Georgia

Reaching the Caucasus oilfields became one of the main objectives of Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union. But the armies of the Axis powers never got as far as the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR). The Georgian SSR contributed almost 700,000 fighters (about 20% of the total 3,2-3,4 million citizens mobilized), out of which 79,500-170,000 were killed.[5] It was also a vital source of textiles and munitions. State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km2 -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked...


Some captured Georgians and emigrants chose to fight for the Axis. They fought in the following units:

  • Georgische Legion (Georgian volunteers but also included volunteers from other peoples of the region)
  • Freiwilligen-Stamm-Regiment 1 (Georgians volunteers)
  • SS-Waffengruppe Georgien (Georgian volunteers)
  • I. Sonderverband Bergmann Battalion (Georgian volunteers)

One Georgian battalion in Holland (822-th Infantry Battalion) staged what has sometimes been described as Europe's last battle of World War II. This event was the Georgian Uprising of Texel. Texel island The Georgian Uprising of Texel (Dutch: Opstand der Georgiërs) (April 5, 1945–May 20, 1945) was an insurrection by the 882nd infantry battalion of the Georgian Legion stationed on the German occupied Dutch island of Texel (pronounced Tessel). ...


Gibraltar

The British overseas territory of Gibraltar has been a British fortress and bulwark for over 300 years. From the first days of World War II, the Rock became a pivot of the Mediterranean, Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa, was coordinated from the Rock. Operation Tracer, a top-secret mission in which six men were to be buried alive inside the Rock of Gibraltar so that they could monitor enemy movements if the Rock was captured. Searchlights in action, 1940 (Imperial War Museum) Gibraltar has been a British fortress and bulwark for over 300 years and a vital factor in British strategy in all wars, both as a last foothold on the Continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power. ... Location of the British Overseas Territories The British Overseas Territories are fourteen[1] territories which the United Kingdom considers to be under its sovereignty, but not as part of the United Kingdom itself. ... For the racehorse of the same name, see Rock of Gibraltar (horse). ... Belligerents Free French Forces United Kingdom United States Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 107,000 (33,000 in Morocco,39,000 near Algiers,35,000 near Oran) 60,000 Casualties and losses 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch... Searchlights in action, 1940 (Imperial War Museum) Gibraltar has been a British fortress and bulwark for over 300 years and a vital factor in British strategy in all wars, both as a last foothold on the Continent of Europe, and as a bastion of British sea power. ... For the racehorse of the same name, see Rock of Gibraltar (horse). ...


Greece

Further information: Military history of Greece during World War II and Axis Occupation of Greece during WWII

Greece dealt the first victory for the Allies by resisting initial attempts of Italian invasion and pushing Mussolini's forces back into Albania. Hitler was reluctantly forced to send forces and delay the invasion of the Soviet Union by six weeks. The Germans also met fierce resistance on the island of Crete as the paratroopers suffered almost 7,000 casualties. These heavy losses eliminated the option of a massive airborne invasion of the Soviet Union and further expansion in the Mediterranean saving Malta, Gibraltar, Cyprus, and the Suez Canal from airborne invasion. Greece dealt the first victory for the allies by resisting initial attempts of Italian invasion and pushing Mussolinis forces back into Albania. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Guatemala

Guatemala initially stayed out of World War II, with President Jorge Ubico declaring the country's neutrality on September 4, 1941. This pronouncement was reinforced on September 9 with another declaration. Ubico implemented strong prohibitions on Nazi propaganda in Guatemala, which had one of Latin America's largest German immigrant populations. Later, Guatemala moved into the Allied camp — on December 9, 1941, it declared war on Japan, and three days later, it declared war on Germany and Italy. Jorge Ubico, President of Guatemala (1931-1944) Jorge Ubico y Castañeda (November 10, 1878; † 14 July 1946) was President of Guatemala from 14 February 1931 to 4 July 1944. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Haiti

Haiti remained neutral in World War II until the bombing of Pearl Harbor, declaring war on Japan the day after the attack, and on Germany and Italy shortly afterwards. Haiti gave food supplies to Allied forces and hosted a detachment of the United States Coast Guard but did not contribute troops. The President of Haiti, Élie Lescot, introduced several unpopular emergency measures during the war, which critics claimed were designed to increase his power. Lescot was deposed the year after the war ended. USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... Steve ruled the world The President of Haiti is the head of state of the Republic of Haiti. ... Elie Lescot (December 9, 1883 – October 20, 1974) was the President of Haiti from May 15, 1941 to January 11, 1946. ...


Honduras

Honduras was initially neutral in the war but joined the Allied side after the attack on Pearl Harbor. It declared war on Japan on December 8, 1941, and on Germany and Italy on December 13. It contributed food and raw materials to the Allied war effort but did not send troops. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hong Kong

Hong Kong was under the jurisdiction of the British but came under the control of the Japanese after the gruelling Battle of Hong Kong drew to a close on Christmas Day of 1941. The city was liberated in 1945. The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began after the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Mark Young surrendered the territory of Hong Kong to Japan on 25 December 1941 after 18 days of fierce fighting between British and Canadian defenders against Japanese Imperial forces. ... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ...


Hungary

Hungary was a significant German ally. It signed the Tripartite Pact on November 20, 1940, and joined in the invasion of the Soviet Union the next year. When, in 1944, the government of Regent Miklós Horthy wished to sign a ceasefire with the Allies, he was overthrown by the Nazis and replaced by a government run by the fascist Arrow Cross movement, which ruled the country until it was overrun by the Soviets. The Tripartite Treaty (1906) also refers to a 1906 treaty concerning the Nile river (see Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Horthy redirects here. ... Flag of the Arrow Cross Party The Arrow Cross (Nyilaskereszt) originated in Hungary in the 1930s as the symbol of the leading Hungarian fascist political party, the Arrow Cross Party, led by Ferenc Szálasi, an ex-army major. ...


Iceland

Main articles: Iceland during World War II and Invasion of Iceland

Iceland was a free state at the outbreak of war in personal union with the King of Denmark acting as head of state. After the invasion of Denmark by German forces, Iceland lost all contact with the King. Following this, British forces invaded Iceland on May 10, 1940, primarily to deny Germany the same option. Though most of Reykjavík's modest police force was absent, ironically preparing for a potential invasion, a small armed force was present, but was ordered not to resist. The British proceeded to arrest a number of German citizens, including the German Consul, Werner Gerlach, and Bruno Kress, an authority on the Icelandic language and father of Helga Kress, seized communications and blocked roads leading into the town, effectively isolating Reykjavík from the rest of the country. The Icelandic government objected to the invasion on grounds of Icelandic neutrality and national sovereignty, but provided the British with de facto cooperation. This article is about the 1940 invasion. ... Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... Consulate redirects here. ...


During the height of the occupation, 25,000 British soldiers were stationed in Iceland, compared to roughly 40,000 inhabitants of Reykjavík. On July 7, 1941, control of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States, since British forces were required elsewhere. Iceland experienced an economic boom during the occupation, as many Icelanders took jobs for the foreigners, working mostly as carpenters, and some say that bretavinnan (roughly, the British Jobs) provided some of the successes of the post-war Icelandic economy. is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


On June 17, 1944, Iceland became an independent republic and cut all ties with Denmark. Despite being invaded by Allied forces in 1940, Iceland was and remained neutral throughout the duration of the Second World War. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


India

Main article: India in World War II

The British Raj (including the areas covered by the later Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh), controlled by Britain during the war, was covered by Britain's declaration of war. On September 12, 1939, the Upper House of the Central Legislature of India sent a formal message of admiration to Poland. On the same day, the Aga Khan placed his services at the disposal of the Government of India. The Indian Empire was a key allied nation during the World War II. The Provinces of India (which included most of modern-day India and parts of Pakistan and Bangladesh), being imperial colonies of Great Britain, were by default a part of the Allies of World War II. Several Indian... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the hereditary title. ...


The Indian 5th Division fought in the Sudan against the Italians before being moved to defend Libya against the Germans. The Division was then moved to Iraq to protect the oilfields. After this the division was moved to the Burma front, together with eight other Indian Divisions, and then occupied Malaya. It was finally moved to Java to disarm the occupying Japanese garrison. The Indian 4th Division fought in North Africa, Syria, Palestine and Cyprus before being sent into Italy. Together with the 8th and 10th Divisions it participated in the taking of Monte Cassino, after which it was moved to Greece. India also provided the Allies with assault and training bases, and provided huge quantities of food and other materials to other Commonwealth forces, and to people on the British home front. Indian 5th Infantry Division fought in several theatres of World War II and more than earned its nickname the Ball of Fire. Lord Louis Mountbatten said: When the Division came under my command in South-East Asia towards the end of 1943, it had already had three years hard fighting... Fourth Indian division during world war two served first in egypt where with western desert force it fought the italians who had decided to invaded egypt. ... The restored Abbey. ... Rosie the Riveter represented civilian wartime mobilization in the United States during World War II. Home front is the informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. ...


Over 6.8 million Indian citizens fought with the Indian Army, Royal Indian Air Force, and Royal Indian Navy, forming the largest army raised by voluntary enlistment. Part of India was occupied by Japanese forces during the war, and India suffered 1.5 million civilian casualties, as well as up to 4 million dead from famine in the Bengal region, which was created by both the Japanese military actions and the British administration. Over 96,000 Indian members of the armed forces were killed or went missing in action, and 74,354 were wounded during the war. Indian personnel received 2,000 awards for gallantry, including 31 Victoria Crosses. About 40,000 Indians fought on the side of the Japanese in the Indian National Army, about 1,000 were recruited by Nazi Germany for the Tiger Legion. A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... History Formation and early pilots The Indian Air Force (IAF) was established the passing of the Indian Air Force act on October 8, 1932. ... Bharatiya Nau Sena:-The Indian Navy is one of the worlds largest navies. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... During World War II, the Tiger Legion was a unit of the German Wehrmacht made up of men from India. ...


Andaman & Nicobar Islands

On March 23, 1942, Japanese forces invaded the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. In December 1943, the Japanese-sponsored Free India Movement (Provisional Government of Free India) was formed. The Andaman Islands were renamed Shaheed Islands, and the Nicobars were renamed Sawaraj Islands. Andaman & Nicobar Islanders fought alongside the Japanese during this time. The islands were not re-occupied by the British until October 6, 1945. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (8,293 sq km on 139 islands), are a group of islands situated in the Bay of Bengal at about 780 miles from Kolkata, 740 miles from Chennai and 120 miles from Cape Nargis in Burma. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a union territory of India. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Indonesia

See Netherlands East Indies

Map of the World with the Participants in World War II. The western allies are shown in blue, the eastern allies in red, the Axis Powers in black, and neutral countries in grey. ...

Iran

During the start of the war 15.000 Iranian volunteers joined the Axis Powers army, The Allies demanded that Iran remove German nationals from Iran fearing they might be Nazi spies or harm the British-owned oil facilities, but Reza Shah refused, stating that they had nothing to do with the Nazis. Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British...


German demand for oil rose and the Allies worried that Germany would look to neutral Iran for help. Soon the Allies questioned themselves about Iranian neutrality and they gave Reza Shah a final warning to remove the German workers. He refused once again. In August 1941, the British and Soviet troops invaded Iran (Operation Countenance) and, in September 1941, forced Reza Shah Pahlavi to abdicate his throne. He was replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was willing to fight the Axis Powers. Within months Iran entered the war on the side of the Allies and became known as "The Bridge of Victory". Operation Countenance was the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia (now Iran), starting 25 August 1941 and completed on 17 September 1941. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until 1979. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ...


Iran's geographical position was also important to the Allies. It provided a 'blue water' supply route to the Soviet Union via the port of Bandar Abbas and a specially constructed railway route. The supply routes were known collectively as the Persian Corridor. Soviet political operatives known "agitprops" infiltrated Iran and helped establish the Comintern affiliate Tudeh Party in early in 1942. The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II. Map of Iran & Borders with former Soviet Republics of Armenia, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan // Background Note: The... Agitprop poster by Vladimir Mayakovsky. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ...


By January 1942, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union agreed to end their occupation six months after the end of the war. The Soviet Union fomented revolts among Azeris and Kurds in Iran and soon formed the People's Republic of Azerbaijan (December 1945) and the Kurdish People's Republic not long after, both being run by Soviet-controlled leaders. However, Soviet troops remained in Iran following the January 1946 expiration of a wartime treaty providing for the presence of American, British, and Soviet troops in Iran during the war. [4] This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Capital Tabriz Government Socialist republic Chairman Jafar Pishevari History  - Established November, 1945  - Disestablished November, 1946 A surcharged stamp published under the name of Azerbaijan Peoples Government The Azerbaijan Peoples Government (APG) was a short-lived, Soviet-backed client state (November 1945 - November 1946) in northern Iran. ... The Republic of Mahabad (Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد ), officially Republic of Kurdistan, established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Soviet backed Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey. ...


Iraq

Further information: Anglo-Iraqi War

Iraq was important to Britain through its position on a route to India and the strategic oil supplies that it provided. After the ejection of the Ottoman Turks at the end of the First World War, these were protected by a significant Royal Air Force base at Habbaniya and the maintenance of sympathetic governments. Because of the United Kingdom's weakness early in the war, Iraq backed away from its Anglo-Iraqi Alliance with the country. When the British High Command requested to send reinforcements to Iraq, the country's Prime Minister, Nuri-es Said, allowed a small British force to land. Consequently he was forced to resign after a pro-German coup under Rashid Ali in April 1941. Later British requests to reinforce Iraq were denied by the new leadership. Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist...


The new regime secretly began negotiations with the Axis Powers. The Germans quickly responded and sent military aid by Luftwaffe aircraft to Baghdad via Syria. Indian troops consequently invaded in mid-April 1941 and reached Baghdad and RAF Habbaniyah in May. The Iraqi army attacked Habbaniyah but quickly capitulated and Rashid Ali fled the country. The United Kingdom forced Iraq to declare war on the Axis in 1942. British forces remained to protect the vital oil supplies. British and Indian operations in Iraq should be viewed in conjunction with events in neighbouring Syria and Persia (Iran).


Ireland

The island of Ireland was divided politically between Éire (as the Republic of Ireland is officially known; it was the Irish Free State until 1949) and Northern Ireland. This article is about the Irish-language name of the island called Ireland and the state of the same name. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Éire

Further information: The Emergency and IRA Abwehr World War II

At the outbreak of war, Éire was still a member of the then British Commonwealth but chose to remain neutral, the only such member state to do so. The Emergency was an official euphemism used by the Irish Government (of the State now known as the Republic of Ireland) during the 1940s to refer to its position during World War II. The State was officially neutral during World War II and in government media, direct references to the... Collaboration between the IRA and Abwehr during World War II ranged in intensity during the period 1937 - 1943 and ended permanently around 1944. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ...


Irish citizens were free to fill manpower shortages in Britain and join the British armed forces. "In January 1942 it was found that in the whole of the British Army 23,549 men were born in Éire and 28,287 in Northern Ireland ... [I]n 1944 the Éire figure had increased to 27,840 and that for Northern Ireland had reduced to 26,579." [6] Éire exported desperately needed food and labour[citation needed] to Britain and relaxed restrictions on the over-flying by British warplanes over County Donegal's airspace. The Catalina flying-boat that located the Bismarck was based inland at Lough Erne in County Fermanagh. Irish airspace would have been used en route to the Atlantic. "Hot-pursuit" into its territorial waters of German U-boats by Royal Naval warships also occurred.[citation needed] Both Allied and Axis personnel were interned by the government of Éire, although the Irish Government exercised its discretion when dealing with Allied belligerents often allowing them to 'escape' and eventually releasing them all back to British custody by 1943. Daily weather, shipping and aircraft reports were also afforded the Allied side as was the breaking of diplomatic protocol with the seizure of a transmitter in the German Legation. Statistics Province: Ulster Dáil Éireann: Donegal North East, Donegal South West County seat: Lifford Code: DL Area: 4,841 km² Population (2006) 146,956 Website: www. ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... Location map of Lough Erne. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Enniskillen Area: 1,691 km² Population (est. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


While the British did not have access to sea and air bases that would have helped to protect its convoy shipping in the western approaches there was a political consensus in Ireland that neutrality was a wise policy. The Irish government knew that the resources to protect the island from air attack and/or land invasion didn't exist, although there was strong opinion that the Axis would not attack Éire due to perceived Irish-American political influence before Pearl Harbor enabled the American government to enter the War. The war did reach the island however; a total of some 40 Irish people were killed in Dublin and County Carlow in apparently accidental bombings by the Luftwaffe.[7] Irish shipping was also a constant target for attack by both Axis and Allies. Other infringements of neutrality included the use of Irish territorial waters for laying of mines, convoy shipping, and submarines. All infringements were protested vociferously by the de Valera government. Belfast was also bombed (Belfast blitz) and the dispatch of Dublin's fire brigades to assist in the rescue work has been lauded as an act of solidarity since then. Éire also suffered via restrictions of certain strategic materials, such as coal and in the establishment of a state of emergency. This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Carlow Code: CW Area: 896 km² Population (2006) 50,471 Website: www. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... The Belfast Blitz was an event that occurred on Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, when 200 German Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... The Belfast Blitz was an event that occurred on Easter Tuesday, April 15, 1941, when 200 German Luftwaffe bombers attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... The Emergency was an official euphemism used by the Irish Government (of the State now known as the Republic of Ireland) during the 1940s to refer to its position during World War II. The State was officially neutral during World War II and in government media, direct references to the...


Harsh policing measures including military tribunal and internment were employed to entirely stamp out the activities of the IRA.[8] Substantive contacts between the British and Irish authorities came in the form of Plan W- the British reoccupation of Ireland in response to a feared German invasion (Case Green). This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... Plan W (sometimes referred to as the W Plan), was a joint Irish and British plan of military operations drawn up in the period mid 1940–1942. ... Operation Green (Unternehmen Grün in German) often also referred to as Case Green (Fall Grün) or Plan Green (Plan Grün), was a fullscale operations plan for the invasion of the island of Ireland in support of Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe in German). ...


In 1945, the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Éire, Eamon de Valera, paid a visit to the German Minister in Dublin to express sympathy over the death of the Führer, Adolf Hitler. This action has been defended as proper given the state's strict adherence to a policy of neutrality. Yet no such consideration was extended to the United States on the death of the President Franklin Roosevelt. The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Eamon de Valera (born Edward George de Valera, sometimes Gaelicised Éamon de Bhailéara; October 14, 1882 – August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Irelands struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and... Hitler redirects here. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ...


Northern Ireland

As a part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland participated fully as a belligerent. The particular contributions were manpower (see above), food, armaments, and its unique geographical location. Despite urgings from the Stormont government, conscription was never implemented in the region as the British Government could not impose conscription in Northern Ireland due to nationalist opposition, which echoed nationalist agitation against conscription during World War I.[9] As part of fears over the invasion of Northern Ireland via Plan Kathleen, or the invasion of Éire via Plan Green, the British and Irish conducted joint planning to repel a German invasion under the guise of Plan W. Joint training between Irish Defense Force personnel and British special operations personnel also took place in County Down. Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Northern Ireland Parliament Buildings Northern Ireland Parliament Buildings undergoing works during the 2007 summer break The Mile Parliament Buildings, known as Stormont because of its location in the Stormont area of Belfast, served as the seat of the Parliament of Northern Ireland and successive Northern Ireland assemblies and conventions. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Plan Kathleen, sometimes referred to as Artus Plan (Artus Plan in German), was a plan for the invasion of Northern Ireland sanctioned by Stephen Hayes Acting Irish Republican Army (IRA) Chief of Staff in 1940. ... Operation Green (Unternehmen Grün in German) often also referred to as Case Green (Fall Grün) or Plan Green (Plan Grün), was a fullscale operations plan for the invasion of the island of Ireland in support of Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe in German). ... Plan W (sometimes referred to as the W Plan), was a joint Irish and British plan of military operations drawn up in the period mid 1940–1942. ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Downpatrick Area: 2,448 km² Population (est. ...


Italy

Italy had completed two conquests (Ethiopia and Albania) prior to its entry into World War II. Despite the Pact of Steel with Nazi Germany, Italy did not join in the war until June 1940, planning to get a share of Allied territory with the defeat of France. Italy's war effort went poorly, resulting in defeats in Greece, North Africa, Ethiopia, and the Mediterranean Sea. The Allies started to invade Italy in the summer of 1943 and Mussolini's government collapsed. The new royal government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio signed an armistice with the allies, but most of the country was quickly occupied by the Germans, who established a puppet government under Mussolini in the north, the Italian Social Republic (also known as the Salò Republic, from its headquarters). Badoglio and the king escaped to Brindisi without giving any order to the army which surrendered to the Germans without putting up a fight. The royal government remained in control of the south, declared war to Germany, and was eventually re-established as the government of all of Italy shortly before the end of the war in the spring of 1943. Partisan actions took place in northern Italy. Italy would become a member of NATO after the war, but lost the regions of Istria and Dalmatia to Yugoslavia, and all its colonies. During the era of World War II (1939 - 1945), Italy had a very varied and tumultuous military history. ... The Pact of Steel, known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany signed on May 22, 1939, by the foreign ministers of each country and witnessed by Count Galeazzo Ciano for Italy and Joachim von Ribbentrop... Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... Anthem Giovinezza (The Youth)¹ From the Gustav Line to the Gothic Line Capital Salò Language(s) Italian Religion None defined. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Japan

Japan was leader of the Axis Powers in the Pacific Theatre. Japan was the only Asian island country besides The Philippines in WWII. Some people consider that World War II actually began with the invasion of China by Japan. The war ended with the capitulation of Japan after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the US. Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ...


Korea

While the Korean peninsula was annexed and occupied by Japan in 1910, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in exile in China was recognized by the allies after 1941 of holding the de jure sovereignty of the Korean people. The provisional government declared war against Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, and its small Korean Liberation Army participated in the allied side in the Chinese and Southeast Asian Theatres. As well, many civilians were involved in active resistance movements against the Japanese occupation, supporting the allied cause. In 1945, the KLA was preparing for the incursionary operation into Korea with the cooperation of United States, but days before the departure of the leading unit, the war had ended. After the surrender of the Japanese emperor to the allied forces in August 15, 1945, the Korean peninsula was jointly occupied by Soviet and American forces, with political disagreements leading to the separation of the peninsula into two independent nations. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Korean Liberation Army was the armed force of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and was created on September 17, 1941 in Chongqing, China. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Laos

In 1945 the Japanese occupied Vientiane and Luang Phrabāng in April. King Sīsavāngvong was detained by the Japanese, but his son Crown Prince Savāngvatthanā called on all Lao to resist the occupiers. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Savang Vatthana (full name Samdach Brhat Chao Maha Sri Vitha Lan Xang Hom Khao Phra Rajanachakra Lao Parama Sidha Khattiya Suriya Varman Brhat Maha Sri Savangsa Vadhana) (13 November 1907 − 13 May (?), 1978 or 1984) was the last king of the Kingdom of Laos. ...


Prince Phetxarāt, however, opposed this position, and thought that Lao independence could be gained by siding with the Japanese, who made him Prime Minister of Luang Phrabāng, though not of Laos as a whole. In practice the country was in chaos and Phetxarāt's government had no real authority. Another Lao group, the Lao Sēri (Free Lao), received unofficial support from the Free Thai movement in the Isan region.


Thailand re-annexed a small portion of Laos following the conclusion of the French-Thai War in 1941. The territories were only returned to French sovereignty in October 1946. Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Latvia

After the conclusion of Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Latvia was compelled to accept Soviet garrisons.[10] On June 16, 1940, threatening an invasion,[11] Soviet Union issued an ultimatum demanding that government be replaced and that unlimited number of Soviet troops be admitted.[12] Knowing that the Red Army had entered Lithuania a day before, and that its troops were massed along the eastern border and mindful of the Soviet military bases in Western Latvia, the government acceded to the demands, and Soviet troops occupied the country on June 17. On August 5, 1940, following mock parliamentary elections, Latvia was annexed into USSR. The following year, August 1940 to June 1941 is known as the Year of Terror in Latvia; USSR security agencies "Sovietized" Latvia, in the process killing or deporting to their deaths in slave labor camps between 35,000 and 50,000 residents of Latvia.[13] Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the outbreak of German-Soviet hostilities, Soviet forces were quickly driven out of the territory of Latvia by German forces, with Riga being liberated from the Soviets on July 1, 1941 (eight days after the start of hostilities). Initially, the German forces were almost universally hailed as liberators, but Nazi occupation policies gradually changed that. With the gradual defeat of the German Armies on the Eastern Front, the Red Amy started reoccupying Latvia in the late summer of 1944. Riga was retaken by Soviet forces on October 13, 1944, and a major part of the German Army Group North (Heersgruppe Nord) was cut off in Kurzeme, the peninsula that forms the north western part of Latvia. There they locally raised Latvian units formed the "Kurland Fortress", which successfully held out until the end of the war and only surrendered because it was ordered to by Admiral Donitz as part of the overall German surrender. Both occupation powers recruited volunteers and drafted conscripts for their armies from the local population, but for both practical reasons and the staunchly anti-communist inclination of the population, the vast majority of men fought on the Axis side. The Latvian Waffen SS Volunteer Legion was officially formed on March 16, 1943, but the first Latvian Security Police Battalions had been formed more than a year earlier. Despite the word "volunteer" in the name of the Legion, the German Occupation Government soon resorted to conscription to increase it size, and Latvia became one of two countries (the other was Estonia) from where the Waffen SS soldiers were draftees. By July 1, 1944, more than 110,000 men were under arms in German controlled units. The Latvian Legion consisted of 87,550 men, of them 31,446 serving in the combat units that were directly part of the Waffen SS (the 15th and 19th Waffen-Grenadier Divisions), 12,118 in Border Guard regiments, 42,386 in various Police Forces, and 1,600 in other units. 22,744 men served in units outside Legion such as Wehrmacht Auxiliaries.[14] On September 12, 1950, Harry N. Rosenfield, the United Nations Refugee Relief Association Commissioner, wrote the following to Latvian Ambassador J. Feldmanis, minister plenipotentiary, charge d'affaires of Latvia: "That the Baltic Waffen SS. Units (Baltic Legions) are to be considered as separate and distinct in purpose, ideology, activities, and qualifications for membership from the German SS, and therefore the Commission holds them not to be a movement hostile to the Government of the United States under Section 13 of the Displaced Persons Act, as amended."[15] Some Latvian personnel did take part in the Holocaust however, working as part of both the Soviet and the Nazi occupation governments.[16] . Some Latvian units formed in the Red Army participated in the defense of Moscow and experienced heavy casualties. According to Krivosheev, between 1941 and 1945, 11,600 people of Latvian nationality lost their lives while serving in the RKKA. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


Lebanon

Lebanon was under the control of France during the war and thus controlled by the puppet Vichy government after France's capitulation. Lebanon was wrested from Vichy France by Allied forces during the Syria-Lebanon campaign. De Gaulle declared Lebanon independent on November 22, 1943. Combatants Australia U.K. British India British Palestine  Czechoslovakia Government-in-Exile Free France Vichy France Mandate of Syria Mandate of Lebanon Commanders Henry Maitland Wilson Henri Dentz Strength Approximately 35,000 troops Australian: 18,000 British: 9,000 Indian: 2,000 Free French: 5,000 Between 35,000 and... This article is about the person. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Liberia

Liberia granted Allied forces access to its territory early in the war. It was used as a transit point for troops and resources bound for North Africa, particularly war supplies flown from Parnamirim (near Natal) in Brazil. Perhaps more importantly, it served as one of the Allies' only sources of rubber during the war; the plantations of Southeast Asia had been taken over by the Japanese. The importance of this resource led to significant improvement of Liberia's transport infrastructure and a modernisation of its economy. Liberia's strategic significance was emphasised when Franklin Roosevelt, after attending the Casablanca Conference, visited Liberia and met President Edwin Barclay. Parnamirim is a city in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. ... Nickname: Location of Natal Country Region State Rio Grande do Norte Founded 25 December 1599 Government  - Mayor Carlos Eduardo(PSB) Area  - City 170. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. ... Edwin James Barclay (1882-1955) was a Liberian politician. ...


Despite its assistance to the Allies, however, Liberia was reluctant to end its official neutrality and declare war on Germany. This did not occur until January 27, 1944. is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Liechtenstein

Shortly following the end of World War I, Liechtenstein concluded a customs and monetary agreement with neighboring Switzerland. In 1919, the close ties between the two nations were strengthened when Liechtenstein entrusted Switzerland with its external relations. At the outbreak of war, Prince Franz Josef II, who had ascended the throne only months before, promised to keep the principality out of the war and relied upon its close ties to Switzerland for its protection. HSH Franz Josef II, Prince of Liechtenstein, Franz Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred Karl Johannes Heinrich Michael Georg Ignaz Benediktus Gerhardus Majella , (August 16, 1906 - November 13, 1989) was the prince of Liechtenstein from 1938 until his death. ...


Attempts to sway the government did occur. After an attempted coup in March 1939, the National Socialist "German National Movement in Liechtenstein" was active but small. The organization, as well as any Nazi sympathies, virtually disappeared following the eruption of war. The German National Movement in Liechtenstein (Volksdeutsche Bewegung in Liechtenstein, VDBL) was a National Socialist party active in Liechtenstein in the years leading up to World War II. The organization disseminated its ideology through its newspaper, “The Upheaval” (Der Umbruch). ...


Lithuania

As a result of Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, Lithuania was occupied by the Red Army and forcibly annexed into the Soviet Union along with Latvia and Estonia, without giving any military resistance. This made some Lithuanians side with the Germans when Hitler eventually invaded the Soviet Union in the hopes to restore Lithuania's independence. Some of the collaborators were involved in the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity. A Lithuanian division was also formed in the Red Army. According to Krivosheev, 11,600 Lithuanians died fighting for the DNA. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


Luxembourg

When Germany invaded France by way of the Low Countries in the spring of 1940, Luxembourg, despite its neutrality, was quickly invaded and occupied (despite attempts by the government to slow the advancing German forces), having put up little resistance and immediately surrendering. The Luxembourgeois government never declared war on the Axis, and Luxembourg was effectively annexed by Germany. Luxembourg remained under German control until liberated by the Allies at the end of 1944. The military history of Luxembourg during World War II was a period in the history of Luxembourg when the country was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II. On 10 May 1940 the German Wehrmacht attacked Luxembourg and quickly defeated its small defence force. ...


Malaya

Malaya was under British rule before the war began. It was occupied by Japan in 1942 through 1945. The Malayan Communist Party became the backbone of the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army. British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... Communist Party of Malaya (CnoPM), also known as the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) until the 1960s was founded in Singapore in 1930 with a predominantly Chinese membership, carrying out armed resistance to the Japanese during World War II. From 1948 to 1960, its military arm, the Malayan Peoples Liberation Army... The Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) originated from among ethnic Chinese cadres of the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) who became increasingly opposed to Japan due to its invasion of China in 1937. ...


Malta

Malta was a British colony during World War II. The Legislative Council of Malta reaffirmed the people's loyalty to Britain on September 5, 1939. is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Between June 1940 and December 1942, Malta was one of the most heavily bombed places on earth.[citation needed] Malta became the besieged and battered arena for one of the most decisive struggles of World War II, with some historians calling this battle The Mediterranean Stalingrad. The UK awarded the George Cross to the island of Malta in a letter dated April 15, 1942, from King George VI to the island's Governor William Dobbie: "To honour her brave people, I award the George Cross to the Island Fortress of Malta to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history". The George Cross (GC) is the highest civil decoration of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (December 14, 1895 - February 6, 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from December 11, 1936 to February 6, 1952. ... Sir William Dobbie, during World War II, was a Lieutenant General, of the British Army, who served as the military governor of Malta. ...


The fortitude of the population under sustained enemy air raids and a naval blockade which almost saw them starved into submission, won widespread admiration in Britain and other Allied nations. The George Cross is woven into the Flag of Malta. Flag ratio: 2:3 Civil ensign; Flag ratio: 2:3 The Flag of Malta is a basic bi-colour, with white in the hoist and red in the fly -- the banner of the arms of Malta. ...


Manchukuo

Established in 1931 as a puppet state of Japan, the state of Manchukuo was led by Pu Yi, the last Emperor of China, who reigned as Emperor Kang De. The state contributed little to the war but remained a loyal ally to Japan until 1945. In 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, and Manchukuo was subsequently invaded and abolished. Roughly half the state was returned to China whilst the Korean peninsula was partitioned to form North Korea and South Korea. Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... Aisin-Gioro Puyi (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. ...


Mexico

The Mexican Air Force's Escuadron Aereo de Pelea 201 (201st Fighter Squadron) served with the U.S. Fifth Air Force in the South West Pacific Area.[5] The Mexican Air Force Fuerza Aérea Mexicana or FAM is the aviation branch of the Mexican defense forces and depends on the National Defense Secretariat. ... El Escuadrón 201 (also known as The Aztec Eagles) was a Mexican fighter squadron, part of the Fuerza Aerea Expedicionaria Mexicana (FAEM - Mexican Expeditionary Air Force) that aided the Allied war effort during World War II. The Aztec Eagles were attached to the 58th Fighter Group of the United... The Fifth Air Force (5AF), with headquarters currently located at Yokota Air Base,Japan, is one of very few numbered air forces of the United States Air Force never to have been based in the United States itself. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ...


Monaco

While Prince Louis II's sympathies were strongly pro-French, he tried to keep Monaco neutral during World War II, and he supported the Vichy France government of his old army colleague, Philippe Pétain. In 1943, the Italian army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a fascist government administration. Shortly thereafter, following Mussolini's collapse in Italy, the German army occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population. Among them was René Blum, founder of the Ballet de l'Opera, who died in a Nazi extermination camp. Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de lÉtat Français), from 1940 to 1944. ... René Blum (Paris, 13 March 1878 - Auschwitz, 30 April 1943), choreographer, was the founder of the Ballet de lOpera at Monte Carlo. ...


Mongolia

During the war, Mongolia was ruled by the communist government of Khorloogiin Choibalsan and was closely linked to the Soviet Union. After the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact of 1941, Mongolia remained neutral throughout most of the war, but its geographical situation meant that she in fact served as a buffer between Japanese forces and the Soviet Union. In addition to keeping around 10% of the population under arms, Mongolia provided supplies and raw materials to the Soviet military, and financed several units, for example the Revolutionary Mongolia tank squadron. For other uses, see Choibalsan. ... The Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact refers to a pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939). ...


Mongolian troops took part in the Battle of Khalkhyn Gol in Summer 1939 and in Operation August Storm in August 1945, both times as small part in Soviet-led operations against Japanese forces and their Manchu cf. Inner Mongolian allies. For Mongolia, the most important result of WWII was the eventual recognition of her independence by China, as provided by the Yalta agreement. Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... Manchukuo was a nominally independent puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria (Northeastern China) which existed from 1931 to 1945. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4 to 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ...


Morocco

Most of Morocco was a protectorate of France during World War II. When France was defeated, Morocco came under the control of the Vichy regime, and therefore was nominally on the side of the Axis powers, although an active resistance movement operated. In November 1942, it was invaded by the Allies as part of Operation Torch. From that point, Moroccan volunteers (the Goumiere) fought on the side of the Allies. This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Belligerents Free French Forces United Kingdom United States Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 107,000 (33,000 in Morocco,39,000 near Algiers,35,000 near Oran) 60,000 Casualties and losses 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch... // Introduction The Goumiere were the Algerian and Moroccon troops who fought alongside the Allied forces during their campaigns in WWII. From November 17, 1942 to July 14, 1943 their unrivalled persistence, and love of night invasion brought trembling and many a sleepless night into the hearts of the Italians and...


A small area in northern Morocco, Spanish Morocco, was a Spanish protectorate and remained neutral throughout the war, as did the international city of Tangier. Spanish Morocco, was the area of Morocco ruled by Spain from up to 1956, when France and Spain recognised Moroccan independence. ... For other uses, see Tangier (disambiguation). ...


Nauru

Nauru was administered by Australia under a League of Nations mandate. It was extensively shelled by a German hilfskreuzer in December 1940, aiming to incapacitate its phosphate mining operations (this action is possibly the most distant military activity carried out by Germany during the war). Nauru was occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945, suffering additional bombing by Allied air power. A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...


Nepal

Nepal declared war on Germany on September 4, 1939, and offered Gurkha troops to Britain. is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of North India, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ...


Netherlands

Main article: Military history of the Netherlands during World War II

Like the Belgians, the Netherlands declared neutrality in 1939. In May 1940, after the capitulation of Norway, the Netherlands was invaded after fierce resistance against the Nazis. Rotterdam and Middelburg were heavily bombed. The Dutch joined the Allies and contributed their surviving naval and armed forces to the defense of East Asia, in particular the Netherlands East Indies. Until their liberation in 1945, the Dutch fought alongside the Allies around the globe, from the battles in the Pacific to the Battle of Britain. On the island of Aruba (Netherlands West Indies) a large oil-refinery was of major importance for the war-effort in Europe, especially after D-day. As protection, a considerable U.S. military force was stationed on the island. The Netherlands became involved in World War II on May 10, 1940, when German forces invaded the country. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 53. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands Indië) was the name of the colonies colonised by the Dutch East India Company which came under administration of the Netherlands during the ninteenth century (see Indonesia). ... This article is about the Second World War battle. ...


Netherlands East Indies

The rich oil resources of the Dutch East Indies were arguably a prime objective of the Japanese military in its attack on the Allies from December 7, 1941. The Royal Netherlands Navy and the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army were part of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, until the Allied forces in the Netherlands East Indies were defeated by Japan in March 1942. Some Dutch personnel and ships escaped to Australia, where they continued to fight the Japanese. The Dutch East Indies was occupied by the Japanese for the remainder of the war. The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... Petro redirects here. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Royal Navy of the Netherlands. ... KNIL is an acronym for Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger or the Royal Netherlands Indies Army. ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ...


Newfoundland

During World War II the country of Newfoundland was a dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations. It joined the war on September 4, 1939, declaring war on Germany. Fearing that a German invasion of Newfoundland could be used as a prelude to an attack on Canada, in 1940 Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King and Newfoundland Governor Sir Humphrey T. Walwyn entered into negotiations regarding the strengthening of defense positions along the Newfoundland coast. Not withstanding their separate political identity, the defense of Newfoundland and the Newfoundland Home Guard armed forces were integrated with the Canada military, and both governments agreed to the formation of a joint coastal defense battery. As part of the Anglo-American Lend Lease agreement, the United States was granted military air and naval bases on Newfoundland territory at Argentia, Stephenville and St John's. Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Not to be confused with William Lyon Mackenzie, Mackenzie Kings grandfather. ... Sir Humphrey Thomas Walwyn (January 25, 1879 - December 29, 1957) served most of his life in the Royal Navy rising to the position of Vice-Admiral of the Royal Indian Navy retiring in 1934. ... This article is about the World War II program. ... Satellite image of Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland Naval Station Argentia is a former base of the United States Navy and was located in Argentia, Newfoundland. ... Stephenville (2005 est. ... Nickname: Motto: Avancez (Go forward) Coordinates: , Country Province Established August 5, 1583 by Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I Government  - City Mayor Andy Wells  - Governing body St. ...


Newfoundlanders were encouraged to enlist in the forces of the United Kingdom and Canada. The Royal Navy enlisted some 3,500 from the Newfoundland Naval Reserve of those whom Churchill called, "the best small boat sailors in the world." The Royal Artillery raised two regiments, the 57th (later 166th) Newfoundland Field Regiment which saw action in North Africa and Italy and 59th Newfoundland Heavy Artillery which began service as coastal artillery unit in England and later participated in the campaigns in Normandy and northwestern Europe. Another 700 Newfoundlanders served in the Royal Air Force, most notably with the 125th Newfoundland Squadron. In all, some 15,000 Newfoundlanders saw active service, and thousands more were engaged in the hazardous work of the Merchant Navy. Some 900 Newfoundlanders (including at least 257 merchant mariners) lost their lives in the conflict, and over 100 Newfoundland civilians were killed in the sinking of the SS Caribou by a German U-boat.


Newfoundland was the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces in World War II when German U-boats attacked four allied ore carriers and the loading pier at Bell Island. The carriers S.S. Saganaga and the S.S. Lord Strathcona were sunk by U 513 on September 5, 1942, while the S.S. Rosecastle and P.L.M. 27 were sunk by U 518 on November 2, 1942 with the loss of 69 lives. For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Bell Island, Newfoundland Bell Island is an island located off Newfoundlands Avalon Peninsula in Conception Bay. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


New Zealand

New Zealand was one of the first countries to declare war on Germany if you go by the local time, it declared war before Britain on 9.30 pm (NZT) September 3, 1939, Prime Minister Savage declaring war from his bed: New Zealand entered the Second World War by declaring war on Nazi Germany at 9. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"With gratitude for the past and confidence in the future we range ourselves without fear beside Britain. Where she goes, we go; where she stands, we stand. We are only a small and young nation, but we march with a union of hearts and souls to a common destiny."

New Zealand sent a division to the European Theatre and also participated in the Pacific. While New Zealand's home islands were not attacked, the casualty rate suffered by the military was the worst per capita of all Commonwealth nations, except for Britain.[citation needed]


Nicaragua

During the war, Nicaragua was ruled by Anastasio Somoza García, who had assumed the presidency after a military coup in 1937. Somoza was an ally of the United States, and Nicaragua declared war on Japan immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Three days later, on December 11, Nicaragua declared war on Germany and Italy, and on December 19, it declared war on Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary. Anastasio Somoza García (February 1, 1896 – September 29, 1956) was officially the thirty-fourth and thirty-ninth President of Nicaragua, but ruled effectively as dictator from 1936 until his assassination. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Northern Rhodesia

Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia) was a British colony. As such, it was covered by the British declaration of war. Northern Rhodesian units served in East Africa. Flag of Northern Rhodesia. ... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke of Aosta Guglielmo Nasi...


Norway

Norway was strategically important because it was a route for the transport of iron ore from Sweden to Germany, via Narvik. Churchill had from the beginning of the war stated his wish for fighting Nazi Germany on Norwegian and Scandinavian soil, to prevent damages to central Europe as was seen in the previous war. The German Kriegsmarine had also promoted the advantages of naval bases in Norway. The integrity of her territory was further compromised when the German tanker Altmark was boarded, in Norwegian waters, from the British destroyer HMS Cossack in order to release British merchant seamen held captive (Altmark incident). German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign, lasting from 9 April to 10 June 1940, led to the first direct land confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France — against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for... Norwegian resistance to the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945 took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled Norwegian government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of the Quisling regime and Terboven administration The initial defense in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganized, but... Starting with the invasion of April 9, 1940, Norway was under military occupation of German forces and civil rule of a German commissioner in collaboration with a Pro-German puppet government. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Churchill redirects here. ... The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ... The Altmark was a German tanker / unarmed supply vessel, best known for her support of the Admiral Graf Spee and later involvement in the Altmark Incident. ... HMS Cossack (L-03/F-03/G-03) was a Tribal-class destroyer which became famous for the boarding of the German supply ship Altmark in Norwegian waters, and the associated rescue of sailors originally captured by the Admiral Graf Spee. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Despite this, Norway remained neutral until it was invaded by Germany on April 9, 1940, as part of Operation Weserübung. The Norwegian government fled the capital and after two months of fighting went to Britain and continued the fight in exile. is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign, lasting from 9 April to 10 June 1940, led to the first direct land confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France — against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for...


After the occupation, the Germans began producing a critical material used in the manufacture of atomic bombs in Norway: heavy water. An Anglo-Norwegian operation to destroy the facility at Norsk Hydro Heavy Water Plant was aborted after the loss of British airborne engineers. A subsequent operation by Norwegian commandos in February 1943 successfully destroyed stores of heavy water and equipment. A raid of American heavy bombers in November persuaded the Germans that the area was unsafe, and they decided to move heavy water supplies to Germany. While en route, Norwegian agents planted explosives and sank a ferry carrying the heavy water and other machinery needed for bomb development. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of ammonia production with a militarily important byproduct, heavy water. ... Norsk Hydro ASA is a Norwegian oil and energy and integrated aluminium company, headquartered in Oslo. ...


The Allies maintained a deception of a planned invasion of Norway and commando raids on coastal installations supported this. As a result, additional German troops were held there and the German surface fleet were kept in Norwegian waters to repel any attempts. The British Commandos were first formed by the Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but non-regimental raider force employing unconventional and irregular tactics to assault, disrupt and reconnoitre the enemy in mainland Europe and Scandinavia. ...


In 1944, Finnmark was liberated by the Soviet Union, and (together with the northern parts of Troms) totally destroyed by the retreating Nazis, while the German forces in the rest of Norway surrendered on May 8, 1945. County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... County NO-19 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Tromsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 4 25,877 km² 8. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


After the war, Norway became one of the founding members of NATO. This article is about the military alliance. ...


Oman

The Sultan of Oman declared war on Germany on September 10, 1939. Omanese forces fought[citation needed] under British command in the Middle East theatre. is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Panama

Panama was under continued American control throughout the war; the Panama Canal provided the U.S. military with the ability to move troops and materiel rapidly between the Pacific and European theaters. The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... German Führer Adolf Hitler Preceding events (See also Events preceding World War II in Europe and Causes of World War II.) br Germany was in debt after World War I, due to the Great Depression and the forced payments to the victors of World War I. Germans wanted a leader...


Paraguay

Paraguay's authoritarian government under Higinio Morínigo was sympathetic to the Axis powers early in the war; the country's large German community in particular were supporters of Nazism. Serious thought was given to joining the war on Germany's side, however Franklin Roosevelt managed to avoid this happening with aid and military hardware in 1942. Despite this, Paraguay did not declare war on Germany until February 2, 1945, when it was clear the Allies were going to win. General Higinio Morínigo (11 January 1897 – 1985) was a Paraguayan dictator, general and political figure. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Peru

Peru was the first nation to break off relations with the Axis on January 24, 1942 due to earlier conflicts in the Olympics of 1936 and several tensions that followed afterwards.Due its ability to produce aviation fuel and proximity to the Panama Canal, the oil refinery and port city of Talara, in northwest Peru, became a very major American air base. And although Peru did not declare war with Germany and Japan until 1945 (actually, Peru declared a "state of belligerency"), the Peruvian Navy patrolled the Panama Canal. Talara is a city in the Talara Province and Piura Region of northwestern Peru. ... Peruvian Navy Jack The Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Perú) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles from the peruvian littoral. ...


Philippines

See also: Military history of the Philippines during World War II

In 1941, the Philippine Commonwealth was a semi-independent commonwealth of the United States. The Philippine Army was commanded by the U.S. General Douglas MacArthur, and the Philippines was one of the first countries invaded by Japan. Filipino forces and the U.S. Army maintained a stubborn resistance. MacArthur withdrew his headquarters to Australia, where he made his famous statement "I came out of Bataan and I shall return". Allied forces in the Philippines officially surrendered at Corregidor, on May 8, 1942. Despite the surrender, resistance in the Philippines continued. Elements of the Philippine Army continued their activity and were able to free all but twelve of the fifty provinces. Other groups such as the Hukbalahap were also involved. While in exile, President Quezon continued to represent the Philippines until his death in 1944. Allied forces under MacArthur made their return in October 1944, beginning with the landings at Leyte. In September 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan had allied under the Tripartite Pact. ... The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the political designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth of the United States. ... For other uses of Commonwealth, see Commonwealth. ... The Philippine Army (PA) is the ground arm of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... This article is about province of the Philippines. ... Corregidor and the entrance to Manila Bay Corregidor in 1941 Corregidor is an island in the entrance of the Philippines Manila Bay. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The province (Filipino: lalawigan... The Hukbalahap was the militant arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), formed in 1942 to fight the Japanese occupation in the Philippines during World War II. The term is a contraction of the Filipino term Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon which means Peoples Army... Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (b. ... The Pacific War Council was an inter-governmental body established in 1942 and intended to control the Allied war effort in the Pacific and Asian campaigns of World War II. Following the establishment of the short-lived American-British-Dutch-Australian military command (ABDACOM) in January 1942, the governments of... Belligerents United States, Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese troops Casualties and losses 3,500 killed 12,000 wounded...


Poland

Second World War started in September 1939, as Poland suffered an attack by Nazi Germany and later by the USSR. Many Polish troops and servicemen escaped the country, reorganized in France and took part in the Battle of France. Later Poles organized troops in Britain and were integrated into the forces of the British with Polish pilots serving with distinction in the Battle of Britain. The Polish resistance was also established and, along with the Greek and Yugoslavian resistance movements, is remembered for its daring and brave methods of resisting occupation, often facing German forces in pitched battle. Polish armies have also been formed on the Soviet territory. Poles were considered to be a threat to "the master race", and thus millions of Poles were sent to concentration camps. Main engagements of Polish forces Westerplatte – Mokra – Bzura – Enigma – Narvik – Battle of Britain – Tobruk – Gazala – Dieppe – Lenino – Monte Cassino – Ostra Brama – V2 Capture – Warsaw Uprising - Falaise – Studzianki - Market Garden – Scheldt – Seelow Heights – Bautzen – Berlin // 1939 poster. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 1,000,000[1] 56 German divisions, 33+ Soviet...


On the other hand the role of the Polish Police force (so-called 'Granatowa Policja', or Blue Police) in the illegal General Gouvernment (a quasi-state under the full control of Nazi Germany) remains a debatable issue. There was some co-operation between the Polish 'Blue Police' and the Nazis in persecuting the Jewish community while at the same time some 'Blue Police' officers secretly supported the underground resistance movement. Blue Police, more correctly translated as Navy-Blue Police (Polish: , name originating from the colour of their uniforms) was the popular name of collaborationist Polish police in General Government during Second World War. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ...


There were instances of military and political co-operation between Poles (both communists and non-communists) and the Nazis (e.g. at least one instance of taking part in a parachuting action using a German plane, the ceasefire between Germans and 'Brygada Swietokrzyska' - the Holy Cross Mountain Brigade, the attempts of professor Wladyslaw Studnicki to turn Poles into Hitler's allies etc.). The Holy Cross Mountains Brigade (Polish: Brygada Świętokrzyska) was a tactical unit of the Polish underground NSZ organization during World War II. It was created in August 1944 in the Kielce region out of the 204th infantry battalion and Special Action Groups of the NSZ. The purpose of the...


Between 75 and 150 thousand Poles fought in the Wehrmacht, about 700 Poles joined the 'Polnische Wehrmacht' (formed in 1944 - not to be confused with the 'Polnische Wehrmacht' of World War One). The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Polnische Wehrmacht (German for Polish Army, Polish: ) was a military formation created by Imperial Germany during World War I as the armed forces of their puppet Kingdom of Poland. ...


Portugal

For the duration of World War II, Portugal was under the control of the dictator António de Oliveira Salazar, who led a similar government to the Franco regime in neighbouring Spain. Early in September 1939, Portugal proclaimed its neutrality because its sympathies were clearly on the side of the Allies. This action was welcomed by Great Britain and reaffirmed historic Anglo-Portuguese treaties with England dating from 1373 (Anglo-Portuguese Alliance) and 1386 (Treaty of Windsor). Germany's invasion of France brought the Nazis to the Pyrenees, which allowed Hitler to bring unanticipated pressures on Portugal and Spain. Following the Nazi invasion of Russia which cut-off their supply of wolfram (tungsten) from Asia, Germany initiated tactics to extract wolfram from Portugal. Initially Germany artificially ran up prices in an attempt to get the people to by-pass the Portuguese government and sell directly to German agents. Salazar attempted to limit this, and in October 1941, Germany sank a Portuguese merchant ship, the first neutral ship to be sunk in World War II. Germany torpedoed a second Portuguese ship in December. António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force. ... The Treaty of Windsor signed on 16 June 1522 was made between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ...


Despite efforts to resist, and because of the German threat to Portuguese merchant trade, in January 1942 Salazar signed an agreement to sell wolfram to Germany. In June 1943, Britain invoked the long standing Anglo-Portuguese Alliance requesting the use of the Azores to establish a naval base. Salazar complied at once. The Allies then promised all possible aid in the event of a German attack against Portugal. Additionally, the United States and Great Britain guaranteed the integrity of Portugal's territorial possessions. In 1944, Portugal declared a total embargo of wolfram to Germany. Although the German Ambassador in Lisbon protested the Azores agreement, Germany never retaliated against Portugal. Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ...


Even while under intense German pressure and the presence of Nazi spies in Portugal, Lisbon became a safe haven to Jews from all over Europe. At the outbreak of World War II, Jewish refugees from Central Europe were granted resident status. After the German invasion of France, Portugal adopted a liberal visa policy allowing thousands of Jewish refugees to enter the country. As the war progressed, Portugal gave entry visas to those coming via rescue operations, on the condition that Portugal would only be used as a transit point. Portugal also joined other neutral countries in the efforts made to save Hungarian Jewry. More than 100,000 Jews and refugees were able to flee Nazi Germany into freedom via Lisbon. By the early 1940s, there were hundreds of thousands of Jews arriving in Lisbon and leaving weeks later, to the United States. Of those, only a minority decided to stay in Portugal. All of the Jews and Jewish refugees living in Portugal survived the war. Visa or VISA has several meanings: Look up visa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Visa (document) — a document required to enter a specific country. ...


Macau

Although the Japanese military invaded and occupied the neighbouring British colony of Hong Kong in 1941, they initially avoided direct interference in the affairs of Macau. Although it remained neutral territory — in much the same fashion as Portugal — Portuguese authorities lacked the ability to prevent Japanese activities in and around Macau. In 1943, Japan ordered the government of Macau to accept Japanese advisors. The limited Portuguese military forces at Macau were also disarmed, although it was never occupied.


Portuguese Timor

Main article: Battle of Timor (1942-43)

In early 1942, Portuguese authorities maintained their neutrality, in spite of warnings from the Australian and Dutch East Indies governments that Japan would invade. To protect their own positions in neighbouring Dutch Timor, Australian and Dutch forces landed in Portuguese Timor and occupied the territory. There was no armed opposition from Portuguese forces or the civilian population. Within a matter of weeks, Japanese forces landed but were unable to subdue substantial resistance, in the form of a guerrilla campaign launched by Allied commandos and continued by the local population. It is estimated that 40,000-70,000 Timorese civilians were killed by Japanese forces during 1942-45.[6] The Battle of Timor (1942–43) occurred on the island of Timor, in the Pacific theatre of World War II. It involved forces from the Empire of Japan, which invaded on February 20, 1942, on one side and Allied personnel, predominantly from Australia and the Netherlands, on the other. ... Map of Timor (island only) West Timor is a political region that comprises the western half of Timor island with the exception of Oecussi-Ambeno district (which is politically part of East Timor) and forms a part of the Indonesian province of Nusa Tenggara Timur, (NTT or East Nusa Tenggara). ... Portuguese Timor is the former name (1596 - 1975) of East Timor when it was under Portuguese control. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ...


Romania

Romania had its first involvement in the war in providing transit rights for members of the Polish government, its treasury, and many Polish troops in 1939. During 1940, threatened with Soviet invasion, Romania ceded territory to the Soviet Union, Hungary, and Bulgaria, and following an internal political upheaval, Romania joined the Axis. As a member of the Axis, the Romanian war effort was almost entirely spent on the Eastern Front, with its forces taking part in the capture of Odessa. With the entry of Soviet troops into Romania near the end of the war, a pro-Soviet government was installed, and Romania joined the Allies as a co-belligerent for the remainder of the war. Romania became a key member of the Warsaw Pact after the war. In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Co-belligerence is a term for waging of war together - against a common enemy. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


San Marino

Ever since the times of Garibaldi, San Marino has maintained strong ties with the Italian state. San Marino joined Italy in declaring war on Great Britain in 1940. Following the Italian surrender, San Marino immediately declared its neutrality. On September 21, 1944, San Marino declared war on Germany, which eventually occupied the nation while retreating northward. Following the war, San Marino provided for nearly 100,000 refugees. Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and General of the Risorgimento. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia's contribution to the war effort was mainly in the form of resources. Although officially neutral, the Saudis did provide the Allies with large supplies of oil. King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, despite resenting the British and French colonial presences in the Middle East, was a personal friend of Franklin D. Roosevelt (in fact the President gave King Abdul Aziz a wheelchair as a present during a 1945 visit to the kingdom). As a result, Saudi Arabia remained on favourable terms with the Allies. Ibn Saud Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal Al Saud (1880 - November 9, 1953), also known by several abbreviated forms of this name, or simply as Ibn Saud was first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ...


Singapore

Singapore was a crown colony under British rule and is in a strategic location for shipping routes connecting Asia to Europe. For these reasons, Japan invaded Singapore in the Battle of Singapore from February 7, 1942 to February 14, 1942. The city was renamed Syonan and kept under Japanese occupation until the end of the war in September 1945. The Japanese Occupation of Singapore was to become a major turning point in the history of several nations, including that of the Japanese, who rampaged down the Malay Peninsula with the singular intent of occupying Singapore to gain greater control over her war-time resource gathering efforts, the British, with... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


South Africa

As a member of the British Commonwealth, the Union of South Africa declared war on Germany shortly after the United Kingdom, on September 6, 1939. Three South African infantry divisions and one armoured division fought under Allied commands in Europe and elsewhere, most notably in the North African campaign. Most of the South African 2nd Division was taken prisoner with the fall of Tobruk on June 21, 1942. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The South African 2nd Infantry Division was an infantry division of the South African Army during World War II. History The division was formed on 23 October 1940 with its divisional HQ at Voortrekkerhoogte, South Africa. ... Tobruk is on the Mediterranean Sea in northeastern Libya. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Southern Rhodesia

Southern Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) was a self governing British colony. As such, it was covered by the British declaration of war. Rhodesian units served in East Africa, Europe, North Africa and notably Burma. Flag Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Salisbury Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1923-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1952 George VI  - 1952-1980¹ Elizabeth II Governor  - 1923-1928 Sir John Robert Chancellor  - 1959-1969² Sir Humphrey Gibbs  - 1979-1980 Lord Soames Premier, then Prime Minister... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke of Aosta Guglielmo Nasi...


Southern Rhodesian troops were not allowed to serve as a composite unit (unlike their Australian, Canadian or South African counterparts) because they constituted a significant part of the settler population. A significant number of Southern Rhodesian troops, especially in the Rhodesian African Rifles, were not of white origin (mainly Ndebele and mixed race). Their service has never been recognised by the ZANU (PF) government in Harare. There are two versions of Ndebele in South Africa, they both belong to the Nguni group of Bantu Languages. ...


Future Prime Minister, like most of his white contemporaries, Ian Smith, served under British command, as a fighter pilot during the Battle of Britain. For other persons named Ian Smith, see Ian Smith (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Second World War battle. ...


Soviet Union

Soviet participation in World War II began with a short border war with Japan in Mongolia in 1939. Later that year, protected with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, it invaded eastern Poland about three weeks after the Germans invaded the west of the country. During the next eleven months the Soviets occupied and annexed the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). Soviet Union supported Germany in the war effort against Western Europe through the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement with supplies of raw materials, significantly weakening the British naval blockade. The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in eastern Europe, notorious for its unprecedented ferocity, destruction, and immense loss of life. ... CCCP redirects here. ... The Battle of Halhin Gol, sometimes spelled Khalkhin Gol or Khalkin Gol and alternately known as the Nomonhan Incident (after a nearby village) in Japan, was the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939), or Japanese-Soviet War. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... The German-Soviet Commercial Agreement was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed on September 28, 1939. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ...


Following Finland's refusal of Soviet demands for military bases and a territorial swap, the Soviet Union attacked on November 30, 1939, in the Winter War. The Soviet Union also annexed Bessarabia (a Romanian province since 1918), leading Romania to ally with Germany. Germany launched a surprise attack on the Soviet Union in 1941. Thereafter, most of the German forces were concentrated on the Eastern Front. The USSR played a crucial role in the defeat of Nazi Germany. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


The Soviet Red Army mounted a successful counter-offensive during the winter, and gained the initiative with a series of major victories in 1943, culminating in the ultimate advance of Soviet forces into Eastern Europe and Germany in 1945, concluded with the Battle of Berlin. The Soviet Union suffered greater losses, both among civilians and military forces, than any of the other participants in the war. However, the RKKA took out more axis soldiers than all other allies together. Following the end of the war in Europe and the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the USSR declared war on Japan in 1945. The Soviet Union became one of the main victors and gained one of the permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. After the war, the Soviet sphere of influence was widened to cover most of Eastern Europe, formalized in the Warsaw Pact, to counter the western Allies and NATO. The Soviet Union came to be considered one of the two superpowers of the Cold War. Belligerents Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovsky 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[3] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defence Area – Hellmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[4] Strength Total strength 2... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... Superpowers redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Spain

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The Franco government of Spain had risen to power as a result to a significant degree of Italian and German intervention and support. Spain, which was suffering the aftermath of the recently-finished Spanish Civil War, did not have the resources to join the war on its own, and Franco and Hitler did not achieve an agreement about the terms of the Spanish participation. Spain however did send volunteers to fight alongside Germans against the Soviet Union in the form of the División Azul. However, Spain was considered a non-belligerent country. As the Allies emerged as possible victors, the regime became more neutral, finally declaring its neutrality in July 1943. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... The Corpo Truppe Volontarie (Division of Volunteer Troops) was an Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain when Franco during the Spanish Civil War. ... The Condor Legion (Legión Cóndor in Spanish) was a unit of Nazi Germanys air force which was sent as volunteers to support the Nationalists (i. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul), also known as , was a unit of Spanish volunteers that served on the German side of the Second World War, mainly on the Eastern Front. ...


Sweden

Sweden maintained neutrality throughout the war, though some Swedish volunteers participated in the Winter War as well as in the Continuation War against the Soviet Union. Sweden also supplied many materials for Germany, in particular high-quality iron ore which enabled Germany to build up its army and bearings which were crucial for fighter planes, almost as tribute to avoid invasion. The Allies put a lot of effort into the Norwegian theatre simply to force Sweden into joining the war.[citation needed] Belligerents Finland Germany Italy1 Soviet Union  United Kingdom2 Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Kirill Meretskov Leonid Govorov Strength 530,000 Finns[1] 220,000 Germans 900,000–1,500,000 Soviets[2] Casualties and losses 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian deaths[3] 3401 captured...


Switzerland

Switzerland intended to be a neutral power during the war, but German threats and military mobilizations towards its borders prompted the Swiss military to prepare for war. Following the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, the country was completely mobilized within three days. Though a Nazi invasion of Switzerland, codenamed Operation Tannenbaum was planned for 1940, the event never ultimately occurred because Hitler decided such a conflict would be a waste of resources at a time when he preferred to concentrate on the invasion of Britain. Unlike the Netherlands, Belgium, and other western European nations which had easily fallen under Nazi invasion, Switzerland had a strong military and a mountainous geographic terrain that would have likely made an invasion long and difficult. During both World War I and World War II, Switzerland managed to keep a stance of armed neutrality, and was not involved militarily. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of a planned German invasion of Switzerland during World War II (12 August 1940) Map of a planned Italian invasion of Switzerland during World War II (12 August 1940) Nazi Germany started planning the invasion of Switzerland during World War II on 25 June 1940, the day France surrendered. ...


Despite its neutrality, Switzerland was not free of hostilities. Early in the war, several German aircraft were shot down by Swiss fighters for violating Swiss airspace. Hundreds of aircraft on both sides, which were forced to land in Switzerland, were interned at Swiss airports and their crews held until the end of the war. Allied airmen were interned, in some cases, contrary to Swiss Law and some were subject to severe abuse and torture in internment camps. Several Swiss cities were accidentally bombed by the Allies.


Although the Swiss government was anti-Nazi, Swiss troops did not directly intervene into the European conflict. Switzerland however remains tainted by its treatment of airmen as well as its role in the theft of Jewish assets. It became embroiled in post-war controversies regarding the appropriation of assets belonging to Holocaust victims and Nazi officials' use of Swiss banks to keep their money safe. Swiss banks are world-renowned for their stability, privacy and protection of clients. ...


Syria

Syria was under French control throughout the war. From the French surrender in 1940, this was the 'Vichy' government that was sympathetic to the Nazi regime. Churchill had fears about the use of Syria to threaten Britain's Iraqi oil supplies. These appeared to be substantiated when Luftwaffe supply flights to the new pro-German Iraqi regime (under Rashid Ali) refuelled in Damascus. For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


In June 1941, British and Free French forces invaded Syria, and after giving effective opposition, the Vichy forces surrendered in July 1941. British occupation lasted until the end of the war.


The province of Iskanderoun was given to Turkey to keep them neutral in the war. İskenderun, formerly known in the west as Alexandretta (Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) or previously as Scanderoon (Arabic الإسكندرون al-ʼIskandarūn), is a city in the Turkish province of Hatay. ...


Tannu Tuva

Tannu Tuva was under effective Soviet control for the duration of the war. It entered the conflict on June 25, 1941, three days after the Soviet Union. Tannu Tuva was integrated directly into the Soviet Union on October 11, 1944, before the war concluded. Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thailand

Thailand was an ally of Japan during the war. The country was ruled by Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram, a military dictator with nationalist leanings. Thailand remained uninvolved when war broke out in Europe but took the opportunity of France's defeat to settle historical claims to parts of French Indochina. The conflict between Thailand and the Vichy regime is known as the French-Thai War. In 1941, the Japanese invaded the country; Phibun, while reluctant, believed that Japan's superior military power gave Thailand no choice but to order an armistice and allow the Japanese to pass through. The Premier became more enthusiastic about co-operation with Japan when the Japanese performed well in Malaya, and on December 21, a formal alliance was concluded. At noon on January 25, 1942, Thailand declared war on the United States and Great Britain. Some Thais supported the alliance, arguing that it was in the national interest, or arguing that it was better sense to ally oneself with a victorious power. Others formed the Free Thai Movement to resist. Eventually, when the war turned against the Japanese, Phibun was forced to resign, and a Free Thai-controlled government was formed. On August 16, 1945, Thailand rescinded its declarations of war. Field Marshall Phibunsongkhram (July 14, 1887 - June 11, 1964) (also sometimes spelled Phibul Songkhram or Pibul Songgram) was prime minister and military dictator in Thailand from 1938-1944 and 1948-1957. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Free Thai Movement (Thai: ขบวนการเสรีไทย, Khabuankarn Seri Thai) was an underground resistance movement against Japan during World War II. The movement was one of the important sources to the Allies for military intelligence in this region. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Tonga

The Queen of Tonga put all the country's resources at the disposal of Britain and was a loyal supporter of the Allied cause throughout the war.


Transjordan

Transjordan was nominally a British protectorate, and the Transjordanian forces were under British command during the war. Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ...


Turkey

Throughout the World War II Turkey was neutral just until towards the end of the war when the Allied forces advanced in Germany then Turkey supported the Allied forces economically and politically. However, Turkey did not participate in any military activities throughout the war. They did support other countries with military supplies.


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom was one of the original Allies, entering the war in 1939 to honour its guarantees to Poland. After the fall of France, the United Kingdom was the only Allied nation left in Europe until the invasion of Greece. It remained the only one of the Big Three in the war until 1941 when the Soviet Union was invaded. The United Kingdom was heavily engaged in the Western European, Atlantic, Mediterranean, African and South East Asian theatres, and was considered one of the Big Three during Allied conferences in the second half of the war. The United Kingdom maintained close ties with the nations of the British Empire, and the forces of those countries were often incorporated into British military operations. The United Kingdom, along with France, declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939 as part of the United Kingdoms pledge to defend Poland to the invasion of Poland. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ...


Channel Islands

The Channel Islands are self-governing British dependences, off the French coast and were the only British territory occupied by Germany. As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey The Occupation of the Channel Islands refers to the Military occupation of the Channel... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


They were occupied by German forces after the fall of France and after British forces had been withdrawn. They played little active part in the war. Strong German defences were set up, but the islands were not assaulted, except by occasional hit-and-run commando raids. German forces surrendered at the end of the war.


Almost all Jewish people managed to flee the islands before the German occupation, but those who remained were deported to Auschwitz. Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ...


United States of America

See also: Military history of the United States during World War II

The United States of America was neutral early in the war, although it steadily grew ties with the Allies and began providing increased levels of assistance to them. The United States joined the Allies in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, when war on Japan was declared by Congress on December 11. Germany and Italy declared war on the United States 3 days later. The United States subscribed to the Allied plan of making German defeat the priority, where it operated in coordination with the United Kingdom in most major operations. However, it also maintained a strong effort against Japan, being the primary Allied power in the Pacific Theatre. The U.S. played an important role in providing valuable industrial production to support the Allied war effort. After the war, the United States retained military commitments to European security while providing economic investment to rebuild nations suffering devastation during the war. Politically, the U.S. became the leader of the western Allies in forming NATO, and hosts the United Nations in which it gained one of the permanent seats on the Security Council. The Military history of the United States during World War II covers the involvement of the United States during the Second World War. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article is about the actual attack. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... UN redirects here. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Uruguay

Uruguay was neutral for most of World War II, although later joined the Allies. It declared its neutrality on September 4, 1939, although President Alfredo Baldomir was poorly disposed towards the Axis powers. Uruguay's neutrality included a 500-kilometre (300-mi) exclusion zone extending from its coast, established as part of the Declaration of Panama. Neither side of the conflict acknowledged the exclusion zones established by the declaration, and in December, British warships and the German ship Admiral Graf Spee fought a battle not far off Uruguay's coast. This prompted a joint protest from several Latin American nations to both sides. (Admiral Graf Spee took refuge in Uruguay's capital, Montevideo, claiming sanctuary in a neutral port, but was later ordered out.) Later, in early 1942, President Baldomir broke off diplomatic relations with the Axis Powers. On February 15, 1945, near the end of the war, Uruguay dropped its policy of neutrality and joined the Allies. is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of Presidents of Uruguay. ... Alfredo Baldomir Ferrari (August 27, 1884 February 25, 1948) was an Uruguayan soldier, architect and politician. ... The Admiral Graf Spee is one of the most famous German naval warships of World War II, along with the Bismarck. ... For other uses, see Montevideo (disambiguation). ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


It should also be noted that Uruguayan pilots, along with volunteers from other countries, joined the French Free Forces.


Vatican

Maintained a policy of war-time neutrality. The position of the Pope on the issue of Holocaust though, remains debatable.


Venezuela

After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Venezuela severed diplomatic relations with Italy, Germany and Japan, and after implementing (with help from the United States) defenses on the oil wells (there was information that Germany had plans to invade the American continent from Venezuela and seize its oil production) produced vast oil resources for the Allies. It maintained a relative neutrality until the last years of war, when it finally declared war on Germany and the rest of the Axis countries.


Yemen

The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen, which occupied the northern portion of modern Yemen, followed an isolationist foreign policy under King Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din. It formed an alliance with Italy in 1936, and yet it remained neutral for the duration of the war. The southern portion of modern Yemen, known as the Aden Protectorate, was under British control. The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (Arabic: المملكة ‏المتوكلية اليمنية [al-Mamlakah al-Mutawakkilīyah al-Yamanīyah]), sometimes spelled Mutawakelite Kingdom of Yemen, also known as the Kingdom of Yemen or (retroactively) as North Yemen, was a country from 1918 to 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen. ... Yahya Muhammad Hamidaddin (or Imam Yahya) (1869–1948) became imam of the Zaydis in 1904 and king of Yemen in 1926. ... Aden Protectorate (Arabic: عدن حماية []) (ca. ...


Yugoslavia

See also Yugoslavia during the Second World War

The Axis Powers occupied Yugoslavia in 1941 and created several puppet states. The Independent State of Croatia was a German and Italian puppet state. The Nedić's Serbia was a German client state. The Independent State of Montenegro was an Italian puppet state from 1941 to 1943 and a German puppet state from 1943 to 1944. Other parts of Yugoslavia were occupied directly by Germany, Italy, Bulgaria, and Hungary. Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate...


Yugoslavs opposing the Nazis organized resistance movement People's Liberating Army of Yugoslavia (NOVJ), led by Josip Broz Tito and Communist Party of Yugoslavia. Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... Tito redirects here. ... SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Cyrillic script SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was...


Communist Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia was convened in Jajce in 1943 and established the basis for post-war organization of the country as a federative republic. After heavy bloodshed in the war which was in the same time liberation, ethnic and civil war, Yugoslavia was reestablished in 1945, expanding territories on areas previously ruled by Kingdom of Italy (Istria and parts of Dalmatia). AVNOJ (Antifašističko V(ij)eće Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije), standing for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, was the political umbrella organization for the peoples liberation committees that was established on November 26, 1942 to administer terrorities under their control. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Near the end of the war, Western governments attempted to reconcile the partisans and the government-in-exile loyal to the king, which led to the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in June 1944 but, effectively, Communist Party gained the exclusive power in post-war state. After the war, gen. Mihailović and other royalists were rounded-up and executed for collaboration with the Nazis. Mihailović was posthumously awarded the Legion of Merit by President Harry S. Truman. The Tito-Å ubaÅ¡ić Agreement was an attempt by the Westerners to merge pre-war royal government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia with the communist-lead partisans who were defending the country in Second World War and were de facto rulers on the liberated territories. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  2. ^ Air Aces: List of Argentine Participants
  3. ^ Clarin: Los argentinos que pelearon en la Segunda Guerra
  4. ^ 83,700 according to Krivosheev
  5. ^ 79,500 according to Krivosheev
  6. ^ The Cross of Saint Patrick - The Catholic Unionist Tradition in Ireland, The Kensal Press: Kensal House, Abbotsbrook, Bourne End, Bucks, p. 360, written by Biggs-Davison, John & Chowdharay-Best, George
  7. ^ See The War Room website for a listing of bombing attacks on Free State soil, available here. The bombing attacks are claimed to have been either deliberate attacks, accidental, errors in navigation, or the result of British counter measures against the Luftwaffe. See Why the Nazis bombed Dublin Independent, The (London), January 24, 1999 by Robert Fisk available here and counter arguments available here.
  8. ^ German Intelligence had been in furtive contact with the IRA during the period leading to fears that a popular armed insurrection might occur. These contacts reached their zenith with the IRA plan for an invasion of Northern Ireland known as Plan Kathleen. What most people don't know is that Germans in Leenane, a small village on the border between County Mayo and County Galway, were re-supplying U-Boats that came into the Killary Harbour, Ireland's only Fjord. The nature and extent of these contacts continues to be a source of public recrimination to this day.
  9. ^ Northern Ireland at War
  10. ^ "Latvia". Encyclopædia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica Online). (2006). 
  11. ^ While presenting the ultimatum and accusations of violation by Latvia of the terms of mutual assistance treaty of 1939, Soviet foreign minister Molotov issued an overt threat to "take action" to secure compliance with the terms of ultimatum – see report of Latvian Chargé d'affaires, Fricis Kociņš, regarding the talks with soviet Foreign Commissar Molotov; text in Latvian: I.Grava-Kreituse, I.Feldmanis, J.Goldmanis, A.Stranga. (1995). Latvijas okupācija un aneksija 1939-1940: Dokumenti un materiāli. (The Occupation and Annexation of Latvia: 1939-1940. Documents and Materials.). Preses nams, 348-350. 
  12. ^ see text of ultimatum; text in Latvian: I.Grava-Kreituse, I.Feldmanis, J.Goldmanis, A.Stranga. (1995). Latvijas okupācija un aneksija 1939-1940: Dokumenti un materiāli. (The Occupation and Annexation of Latvia: 1939-1940. Documents and Materials.). Preses nams, 340-342. 
  13. ^ the exact figures are not known since Russia will not make the relevant documents public
  14. ^ Report of General Inspectorate of the Latvian Legion on Latvian nationals in German armed forces. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.
  15. ^ "Analysis: Estonian War Veterans Provoke Russian Reaction", RFE/RL, 2004-07-22. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. 
  16. ^ Andrew Ezergailis estimates the number of criminally guilty working for the German side, to be between 500 and 600, with 1,000 being the high estimate. Ezergailis, Andrew. Introduction to "The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941-1944: The Missing Center". Retrieved on 2006-12-12.


Sir John Alec Biggs-Davison (born 7 June 1918, died 17 September 1988) was a Conservative Member of Parliament for Chigwell from 1955 and then, after boundary changes in 1974, Epping Forest until his death. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Plan Kathleen, sometimes referred to as Artus Plan (Artus Plan in German), was a plan for the invasion of Northern Ireland sanctioned by Stephen Hayes Acting Irish Republican Army (IRA) Chief of Staff in 1940. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Nazi Germany and Neutral Europe During the Second World War by Christian Leitz
  • Neither Friend Nor Foe: The European Neutrals in World War II by Jerrold M. Packard

  Results from FactBites:
 
Allies of World War II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1584 words)
The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II consisted of those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War.
World Map with the participants in World War II.
Although Portugal remained officially neutral, the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance was invoked in World War II leading to the establishment of an Allied base in the Azores.
Participants in World War II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (10399 words)
China was already engaged in war with Japan, as well as enduring a civil conflict between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China when the war began, the Chinese Nationalist Government's full attention was within her borders in resisting the Japanese during the war.
The Dutch East Indies was occupied by the Japanese for the remainder of the war.
During World War II Newfoundland was a Crown Colony of the United Kingdom and not a part of Canada (it became Canada's tenth province in 1949).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m