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Encyclopedia > Parthian language

The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. The Iranian language group is part of the generally agreed-upon superstock of the Indo-Iranian language subfamily and accounts for some of the oldest-recorded Indo-European languages, and as Gathic Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit, along with Greek and Hittite, are the first to be written languages. The Indo-Iranian languages probably originated in Central Asia; the Andronovo culture is the near-universally preferred candidate for the common Indo-Iranian culture ca. 2000 BC. The superstock made at least a three-way split, into the Iranian, Indo-Aryan (Indic), possibly the Dardic group, and probably the Nuristani languages as the speakers of Proto-Indo-Iranian moved south and south-east. The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest and South Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Indo-Iranian languages (also called Aryan languages) are the eastern-most group of the living Indo-European languages. ... Yasna 28. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, the earliest sacred texts of India. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... The Dardic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages. ... Nuristani languages form a language sub-family of the Indo-Iranian languages localized between the Iranian languages and the Indo-Aryan languages Ashkun language Kamviri language Kati language (Bashgali) Prasuni language (Wasi-Weri) Tregami language Waigali language (Kalasha-Ala) Categories: Language stubs | Indo-Iranian languages ...

Contents


Early history

With the invention of the chariot about 2000 BC, the Indo-Iranians greatly expand. See Indo-Iranians. Iranian languages grow to dominate the entire steppe, with occasional deep intrusions into central and western Europe. The Scythians are particularly well known, as are the Sarmatians, and classical era descriptions of them survive. Chariot was the name of a WW2 naval weapon, the British manned torpedo. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Sarmatian Cataphract from Tanais: compare Pausanias description of armor (text below) Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ...


The Persians

The imperial period of the Iranian languages is that of the Persian Empire, particularly the Achaemenid dynasty. In later times, the Parthians and their successors, the Sassanids, created their own later empires. The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


Iranian Languages after the Arab Conquest of Persia

Ibn al-Nadim, in his book Al-fehrest (Arabic: الفهرست), mentions that all the Median and Persian lands of antiquity (including what is today known as Azerbaijan) spoke one language. In the book, which is the most accredited account of spoken languages of Iran during the early Islamic era, he quotes the great scholar Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa: Ibn al-Nadim (Abu al-Faraj Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq),(died September 17, 995 or 998) was the author of the Kitab al-Fihrist, was a a Arab Shiite scholar and bibliographer. ... Arabic (العربية al-arabiyyah, or less formally arabi) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Abdullah Ibn Dhadawayh, also known as Ibn al-Muqaffa (d. ...

The Iranian languages are Fahlavi (Pahlavi), Dari, Khuzi, Farsi (Persian), and Seryani. But Fahlavi comes from the word Fahleh. And Fahleh is a name that refers to five regions: Isfahan, Ray, Hamedan, Mah-Nahavand, and Azerbaijan.

He then adds that Dari is the official language of the royal courts and the language of Khorasan and Balkh and eastern Iran; Parsi is the language of the Moobeds of Fars; Khuzi is the unofficial language of the royalty and comes from Khuzestan; and Seryani originates in Mesopotamia. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The term Dari derives from Fârsi-e Darbâri which means Persian of the (royal) courts. It developed at the royal courts of the Samanids (980 AD) in Central Asia and became the major language of Persia. ... Persian (فارسی / پارسی), (local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan: ‘Fârsi’), ‘Pârsi’ (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, western Pakistan, Bahrain, and elsewhere. ... External links Official website Isfahan Cultural Heritage Organization Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... This page is about city of Hamedan. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... Balkh is now a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 46 miles (74 km) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Mesopotamia (Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan the Land between the Rivers; Aramaic name being Beth-Nahrain House of Two Rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ...


This has also been verified and reported by such respected medieval historians as Tabari, Ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, Moqaddasi, Yaghubi, Masudi, and Mostowfi Qazvini. Al-Khwarizmi mentions it in chapter 6, vol. 6, of his book Mafatih al-‘Ulum (مفاتيح العلوم). Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (AD 838-AD 923), Iranian Sunni historian and theologian, was born in Amol, Tabaristan (south of the Caspian), and studied in Ray (Rages), Baghdad, and in Syria and Egypt. ... A map by Istakhri from the text Al-aqalim. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shamsuddin Al-Muqaddasi (or Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. ... Tomb of Hamdollah Mostowfi, Qazvin, Iran. ... Soviet postage stamp commemorating the 1200th anniversary of Muhammad al‑Khwarizmi in 1983. ...


Iranian languages and the question of Azeri

Etymological studies verify that current dialects spoken from Baku to Khalkhal to Semnan all originated from a common source. In other words, the people of Azerbaijan spoke the same language spoken by the Medes. (See UCLA's distinguished professor Ehsan Yarshater's report in: Majaleh-ye Dâneshkadeh-ye Adabiyât, “مجله دانشكده ادبيات”, year 5, No. 1-2, p 35–37.) Baku (Azeri: Bakı, Russian: Баку) is the capital of Azerbaijan. ... Semnan may refer to: Semnan province Semnan (city) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Indo-Iranian origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... The University of California, Los Angeles, popularly known as UCLA, is a public, coeducational university situated in the neighborhood of Westwood within the city of Los Angeles. ... Ehsan Yarshater, of Columbia University, is one of the worlds leading Iranologists. ...


Researcher Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi also mentions that the medieval historian Yaqut al-Hamawi used the phrase Al-Ajam ol-Azariyah ("The Azeri Iranian") in his books Mo'ajjem ol-Odabaa and Mo'jem ol Baladaan. In other sources such as Surat al-Ard (صورة الأرض) by Ibn Hawqal, Ahsan al-Taqasim by Moqaddasi, and Al-Masalik wa al-Mamalik by Istakhri, the people of Azerbaijan are recorded to be speaking Iranian languages. Obviously, this was of before the Turkic cultural arrival. And Tabari in 235 A.H. also mentions that poets in Maragheh recited Pahlavi poetry. Some Azerbaijani poets however, such as Qatran Tabrizi (d465 A.H.), used the word "Persian" and "Pahlavi" interchangeably to describe their native language. Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Yaqut (Yaqut ibn-Abdullah al-Hamawi) (1179 - 1229) was an Arab biographer and geographer. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shamsuddin Al-Muqaddasi (or Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... A map by Istakhri from the text Al-aqalim. ... Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari (AD 838-AD 923), Iranian Sunni historian and theologian, was born in Amol, Tabaristan (south of the Caspian), and studied in Ray (Rages), Baghdad, and in Syria and Egypt. ... Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the province of Azerbaijan in Iran, on the Safi River. ...


The historian Hamdollah Mostowfi even goes as far as describing variants of "Pahlavi" spoken in different areas of Azerbaijan (then part of Greater Persia). In his book Tarikh Gozideh, he describes eight poets from Azerbaijan, calling them "Ahl-ol She'r Men-al-Ajam" (Iranian poets), all Persian by tongue. By now, of course, Dari and Pahlavi had merged into one, as successive dynasties moved from east to west. Tomb of Hamdollah Mostowfi, Qazvin, Iran. ...


Suffice it to say that the number of records and documents from Azerbaijan in the Pahlavi language are so numerous that it has left no doubt that this was indeed the native tongue of Azerbaijan before the arrival of the Turks. Many words in the current Azeri vocabulary in fact are of Pahlavi origin. (See studies in Nashriyeh Adabiyaat of Tabriz University, by Dr. Mahyar Navabi, year 5 and 6. Also see Farhang e Kamaleddin Teflisi, Ajayeb ol-Makhluqat by Najibeddin Hamadani, and also the books: Majmal-ol-Tavarikh, Al-qasas, Iskandar-Nameh e Qadeem, and others for lists of words.) External links Official website of University of Tabriz List of chancellors of University of tabriz Categories: University stubs | Iranian universities ...


It is agreed that the current Turkic form of the Azeri language supplanted and replaced Pahlavi in Azerbaijan before the Safavid dynasty, perhaps starting with the arrival of Seljukian Turks, and during a gradual course. But some historians report Pahlavi being spoken in Tabriz as late as the 17th century. (See Rowdhat ul-Jinan by Hafez Hosein Tabrizi [d997 A.H.], and Risaleh ye Anarjani written in 985 AH). Even the Ottoman Turkish explorer Evliya Çelebi (1611–1682) mentions this in his Seyahatname. He also reports that the elite and learned people of Nakhichevan and Maragheh spoke Pahlavi, during his tours of the region. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1895, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Evliya Celebi (also known as Dervis Mehmed Zilli) was one of the most famous Ottoman travelers, who traveled throughout the territories of the Ottoman Empire and the neighbouring lands over a period of 40 years. ... National motto: none Official language Azerbaijani Capital Nakhichevan (city) President Heydar Aliyev Prime Minister Artur Rasizade Area  - Total  - % water 5,500 km² negligible Population  - Total 310,000 Establishment  - Declared  - Recognition 1991 recognized internationally only as part of Azerbaijan Currency Azerbaijani Manat Time zone  - in summer EET (UTC+4) EEST (UTC... Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the province of Azerbaijan in Iran, on the Safi River. ...


Classification of the Iranian Languages

I. Eastern Iranian

A. Northeastern

  1. Avestan*
  2. Chorasmian* (Khwarezmian)
  3. Bactrian*
  4. Sogdian* (dialects: Christian, Buddhist, Manichaean), Yaghnobi
  5. Scythian*, Sarmatian*, Alanian*, Ossetian (dialects: Iron, Digor), Jassic*
B. Southeastern
  1. Munji, Sanglechi, Ishkashimi, Zebaki, Sarikoli, Shughni, Rushani, Yazgulyam, Wakhi, Yidgha
  2. Saka* (dialects: Khotanese and Tumshuqese), Pashto, Waneci, Waziri

II. Western Iranian Yasna 28. ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Yaghnobi language - one of two living Northeastern Iranian languages, spoken in high valley of the Yaghnob river in Zarafshan area of Tajikistan, considered to be direct descendant of Sogdian by many linguists. ... Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. The two branches are divided mainly chronologically, rather than geographically: Archaic Scythian; mainly during classic antiquity Sarmatian Sometimes, the Scythian... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Alans or Alani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... Ossetic or Ossetian (In Ossetic: Иронау, Ironau) is an Iranian language spoken on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... Jassic is a dialect of the Ossetian language and the name of a nomadic tribe settled in Hungary in the 13th century. ... Munji is a Pamir Language spoken in Badakshan in Afghanistan. ... The Wakhi Tajiki language is an Iranian language in the subbranch of Southeastern Iranian languages (see Pamir languages). ... Yidgha is a Pamir Language spoken in the Upper Lutkuh Valley of Chitral, west of Garam Chishma in Pakistan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Pashto (پښتو; also known as Afghan, Pushto, Pashto, Pashtoe, Pashtu, and Pukhto) is the language spoken by the ethnic Afghan otherwise known as the Pashtun people who inhabit Afghanistan and the Western provinces of Pakistan. ... The Waziri language is an east-iranian language spoken on the Waziristan Province of Pakistan and some of the neighboring provinces in Pakistan and Afghanstan. ...

A. Northwestern

  1. Ormuri, Parachi
  2. Dari (spoken by Zoroastrians in Yazd), Kermani (spoken by Zoroastrians), Qohrudi, Abuzeidabadi, Abyanei, Tari, Ardestani, Anaraki, Varzenei, Badrudi, Gazi, Vafsi, Khunsari, Natanzi, Nayini, Sivandi, Soi, Ashtiani, Farizandi, Yarani, Mahallati, Khuri, Kohrudi, Judeo-Golpaygani, Judeo-Yazdi, Judeo-Kermani, Judeo-Shirazi, Judeo-Esfahani, Judeo-Hamedani, Judeo-Kashani, Judeo-Borujerdi, Judeo-Nehevandi, Judeo-Khunsari
  3. Kurdish (Dialects: Kurdi, Kurmanji, Kermanshahi)
  4. Zaza-Gorani (dialects: Gorani, Bajelan, Kirmanjki (Northern Zaza), Dimli (Southern Zaza)
  5. Parthian*, Semnani, Sangisari
  6. Median*
  7. Gilaki, Mazanderani, Shahmirzadi
  8. Balochi
  9. Talysh, Harzani
  10. Tat, Judeo-Tat
B. Southwestern (Persid languages)
  1. Old Persian*, Middle Persian*, also called Pahlavi (dialects: Manichaean Pahlavi), Persian (dialects: Dari, Tajik, Hazaragi, Dzhidi (Judeo-Persian), Judeo-Bukharic
  2. Judeo-Tat, Muslim Tat
  3. Fars, Lari (Larestani), Bashkardi
  4. Luri, Bakhtiari, Feyli, Kumzari

III. Unclassified The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Vafsi is an Iranian language spoken in the Vafs village and surrounding area in the Markazi province of Iran. ... Judeo-Shirazi is a dialect form of the Persian language. ... Judæo-Hamedani is the Indo-Iranian Jewish language of the Jewish community living in Hamadan, in western Iran. ... // Geographic distribution The Kurdish languages or Kurdish dialects are spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran (Persia), Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Kurmanji (Kurdish: kurmancî or kirmancî) is the major Kurdish dialect spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, the ex-Soviet states and by Kurds living in Central Asia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Zaza may refer to: The Zaza people, an ethnic group in Eastern Anatolia (Southeastern Turkey). ... Zazaki (Zazakî, Zazaish) or Dimli is a language closely related to the Persian languages, spoken by the Zaza in eastern Anatolia (Turkey), an ethnic minority related to the Iranians. ... Zaza may refer to: The Zaza people, an ethnic group in Eastern Anatolia (Southeastern Turkey). ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... Gilaki or Guilaki (گیلکی) is one of the North-western Iranian languages spoken in Irans Gilan province. ... Mazanderani (also spelled Mazandarani; in Persian: مازندرانی) is one of the Iranian languages spoken in north-western province of Iran, Mazandaran. ... Balochi, a north-western Iranian language, is the principal language of Balochistan. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Harzani (correct form: harzandi) is a modern Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the north of the Iranian province of East Azarbaijan, around the village of Harzand. ... The Tat language is an Indo-Iranian language spoken by the Tat ethnic group. ... Mountain Jews, or Juhurim, are Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Persian (فارسی / پارسی), (local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan: ‘Fârsi’), ‘Pârsi’ (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, western Pakistan, Bahrain, and elsewhere. ... The term Dari derives from Fârsi-e Darbâri which means Persian of the (royal) courts. It developed at the royal courts of the Samanids (980 AD) in Central Asia and became the major language of Persia. ... Tajik or Tadjik (natively Тоҷикӣ, Tojikí, تاجیکی in Arabo-Persian script) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Hazaragi is a dialect of the Persian language, with a significant deviation from it to be on the borderline of being a separate language. ... Judeo-Persian was a language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. ... Judeo-Persian was a language spoken by the Jews living in Persia. ... Mountain Jews, or Juhurim, are Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. ... A Persid language (one of the Southwestern Iranian languages) very close to Persian, which is spoken by natives of the eastern Caucasus. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Larestani is the dialect spoken in Larestan province in the south of Iran and part of Hormozgan province on the Persian Gulfs coast. ... Bashkardi or Bashagerdi is a Persid i. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a people in southern Iran. ... Feyli (aslo Fayli or Faili) is one of the Persid languages, very close to Persian and Luri. ... Kumzari is an Iranian language spoken by the members of the Shihuh tribe in the Kumzar coast of Musandam Peninsula, northern Oman. ...

  1. Tangshewi

(* indicates extinct languages) Tangshewi is a language possibly of the Iranian family of languages. ...


See also

The Iranian languages include some 84 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Indo-Iranian language family. ...

External link

  • English words borrowed from Persian
  • Iranian languages
  • Iranian Language Family
  • Kasravi's research on Azari language (in Persian)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parthia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2967 words)
The Parthians were a member of the Parni tribe (a name whose relation to the word Parthian is much debated, or according to Armenian sources, of White Hun origins), a nomadic people who are thought to have spoken an Iranian language, and who arrived at the Iranian plateau from Central Asia.
By 129 BCE the Parthians were in control of all the lands right to the Tigris River, and established their winter encampment at Ctesiphon on the banks of the Tigris downstream from modern Baghdad.
The Parthians were apparently very intent on maintaining good relations with China and also sent their own embassies, starting around 110 BC: "When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom...
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