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Encyclopedia > Parthian Empire
History of Iran
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Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE.
Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE.

The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and it limited Rome's expansion beyond Cappadocia (central Anatolia). The historyof Iran (Persia) covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilaztion in Iranian plateau, Mani civilization in Azarbaijan and Shar-e sookhteh in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft, followed by established kingdom of Elam to the modern Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Horned figure with Serpents, one of thousands of newly excavated artifacts from the area. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BC. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquests west of the Euphrat were only temporally Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The famous Samanid mausoleum of Ismail of Samanid in Bukhara. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān, in Turkish Selçuklu; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a mixed Turkic-Mongol and Persian (Turco-Persian) dynasty of Central Asia established by Timur (Tamerlane). ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Mullahs in the royal presence. ... The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57... // Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Gaulish migration to Macedonia, Thrace and Galatia 281 BCE Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... (Redirected from 190 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC - 190 BC... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... The Common Era (CE), also known as the Christian Era and sometimes the Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 until the present. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation) The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (spelled Kapadokya in Turkish) (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ...


The Parthian empire was the most enduring of the empires of the ancient Near East. After the Parni nomads had settled in Parthia and had built a small independent kingdom, they rose to power under king Mithradates the Great (171-138 BCE). The Parthian empire occupied all of Iran proper, as well as the modern countries of Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. The end of this loosely organized empire came in 224 CE, when the last king was defeated by one of the empire's vassals, the Persians of the Sassanid dynasty. The Central Asian steppe has been the home of Iranian nomadic tribes for centuries. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Image:Cerasdery. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 176 BC 175 BC 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC - 171 BC - 170 BC 169 BC 168... (Redirected from 138 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...

Contents


Origins

The Parthians were members of the Parni tribe, a nomadic people of Iranian origin, who spoke an Iranian language and entered the Iranian plateau from Central Asia. They were consummate horsemen, known for the 'Parthian shot': turning backwards at full gallop to loose an arrow directly to the rear. Later, at the height of their power, Parthian influence reached as far as Ubar in Arabia, the nexus of the frankincense trade route, where Parthian-inspired ceramics have been found. The power of the early Parthian empire seems to have been overestimated by some ancient historians, who could not clearly separate the powerful later empire from its more humble obscure origins. Seven Clans or more accurately Seven Parthian clans (Haft Khandan) were seven different Parthian clans whod constituted the Dahae Confederation. ... The Central Asian steppe has been the home of Iranian nomadic tribes for centuries. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... The Iranian plateau is major geologic formation in the Middle East and the southern Eurasian Plate. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Parthian shot (or Parthian shaft) was a tactic employed by ancient Persian horse archers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iram of the Pillars. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...


Little is known of the Parthians; their own literature, which included such luminaries as Apollodorus of Artemita and Isidore of Charax, did not survive and consequently their written history must be pieced together from the biased depictions of the Romans, Greeks, Jews and Chinese. Even their own name for themselves is debatable due to a lack of domestic records; the best guess is that they called their empire Iranshahr (Persian for 'Iranian city'). Their strength was based on a combination of the guerilla warfare of a mounted nomadic tribe and organisational skills sufficient to build and administer a vast empire, even though it never matched in power the Persian empires that preceded and followed it. Vassal kingdoms seem to have made up a large part of their territory (see Tigranes II of Armenia), and Hellenistic cities enjoyed a certain autonomy; their craftsmen received employment by some Parthians. Apollodorus of Artemita was a Greek writer of the 1st century BCE. Apollodorus is quoted by Strabo as a source for his descriptions of Asia. ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the first century B.C. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes Coin of Tigranes II Tigranes the Great (ruled 95-56 BC) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


The Parthian Empire

Bust of Parthian soldier, in Hellenistic style (Ashgabat Museum, Turkmenistan).
Bust of Parthian soldier, in Hellenistic style (Ashgabat Museum, Turkmenistan).

Initially, ca. 250 BCE, a king named Arsaces established his dynasty's independence from Seleucid rule in remote areas of northern Iran in what is today known as Turkmenistan, where his descendants of the same name ruled until Antiochus III the Great briefly made them submit to Seleucid authority again in 206 BCE. Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh abad Museum, Turkemenistan. ... Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh abad Museum, Turkemenistan. ... Ashgabat Ashgabat Ashgabat Ashgabat (Turkmenian language Aşgabat; also Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, in Persian عشق آباد [eshq-âbâd], in Russian Ашхаба́д [Ashkhabád]) is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... (Redirected from 250 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC... Coin of Arsaces I. The reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Marble head of Antiochus III, Louvre Museum, Paris. ... (Redirected from 206 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC - 206 BC...


It was not until the 2nd century BCE that the Parthians were able to profit from the continuing erosion of the Seleucid Empire, gradually capturing all its territories east of Syria. Once the Parthians had gained Herat, the movement of trade along the Silk Road to China was effectively choked off and the post-Alexandrian Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was doomed. (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... These exchanges were significant not only for the development and flowering of the great civilizations of Ancient Egypt, China, India and Rome but also helped to laid the foundations of our modern world. ... Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion...


The Seleucid monarchs attempted to "hold the line" against the Parthian expansion; Antiochus IV Epiphanes spent his last years on a campaign against the newly emerging Iranian states. After his death in 164 BCE, the Parthians took advantage of the ensuing dynastic squabbles to make even greater gains. Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... (Redirected from 164 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163...


In 139 BCE, the Parthian king Mithridates I captured the Seleucid monarch Demetrius II Nicator, holding him captive for ten years while his troops overwhelmed Mesopotamia and Media. (Redirected from 139 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC - 139 BC... Image:Cerasdery. ... Coin of Demetrius II Demetrius II (d. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ...


By 129 BCE the Parthians were in control of all the lands right to the Tigris, and established their winter encampment on its banks at Ctesiphon, downstream from modern Baghdad. Ctesiphon was then a small suburb directly across the river from Seleucia on the Tigris, the most Hellenistic city of western Asia. Because of their need of the wealth and trade provided by Seleucia, the Parthian armies limited their incursions to harassment, allowing the city to preserve its independence. In the heat of the Mesopotamian summer, the Parthian horde would withdraw to the ancient Persian capitals of Susa and Ecbatana (modern Hamadan). (Redirected from 129 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (Arabic: , Persian: بغداد prenounced in arabic as Barhdad) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Province. ... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Ecbatana (Hañgmatana in Old Persian, Agbatana in Aeschylus, written Agamtanu by Nabonidos, and Agamatanu at Behistun) was the capital of Astyages (Istuvegü), which was taken by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the sixth year of Nabonidos (549 BC). ... Ganj nameh, Darius the Great inscriptions (5th century BC) This page is about the city of Hamedan. ...


Government

After the conquest of Media, Assyria, Babylonia and Elam, the Parthians had to organize their empire. The former elites of these countries were Greek, and the new rulers had to adapt to their customs if they wanted their rule to last. As a result, the cities retained their ancient rights and civil administrations remained more or less undisturbed. An interesting detail is coinage: legends were written in the Greek alphabet, a practice that continued until the 2nd century CE, when local knowledge of the language was in decline and few people knew how to read or write the Greek alphabet. ImageMetadata File history File links Vologases_III_of_Parthia. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Vologases_III_of_Parthia. ... Coin of Vologases III. Reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow, surrounded by meaningless Greek-like letterforms. ... Events The Chinese refine papermaking. ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Drachma, pl. ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Ashur. ... Babylonia, named for the city of Babylon, was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ...


Another source of inspiration was the Achaemenid dynasty that had once ruled the Persian Empire. Courtiers spoke Persian and used the Pahlavi script; the royal court traveled from capital to capital, and the Arsacid kings styled themselves "king of kings". It was an apt title, as in addition to his own kingdom the Parthian monarch was the overlord of some eighteen vassal kings, such as the rulers of the city state Hatra, the kingdom of Characene and the ancient kingdom of Armenia. Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... Characene was a kingdom within the Parthian empire at the Persian Gulf. ...

The Parthian Prince, found in Khuzestan circa AD 100, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.
The Parthian Prince, found in Khuzestan circa AD 100, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.

The empire was, overall, not very centralized. There were several languages, many peoples, and a number of different economic systems. The loose ties between the separate parts of the empire were a key to its survival. In the 2nd century CE, the most important capital, Ctesiphon, was captured no less than three times by the Romans (in 116, 165 and 198 CE), but the empire survived because there were other centers of power. On the other hand, the fact that the empire was a mere conglomeratation of kingdoms, provinces and city-states did at times seriously weaken the Parthian state. This was a major factor in the halt of the Parthian expansion after the conquests of Mesopotamia and Persia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 693 KB) Summary Taken by --Aytakin 01:16, 8 December 2005 (UTC). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 693 KB) Summary Taken by --Aytakin 01:16, 8 December 2005 (UTC). ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi (In the Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly shortened to Anno Domini (In the Year of the Lord), abbreviated as AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the Christian Era, conventionally used with the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... -1... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran Tehran is a metropolis of 14 million situated at the foot of the towering Alborz range. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Events A pandemic breaks out in Rome after the Roman army returns from Parthia. ... Events Publius Septimius Geta receives the title of Caesar. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Local potentates played important roles, and the king had to respect their privileges. Several noble families had votes in the Royal council; the Sûrên clan had the right to crown the Parthian king, and every aristocrat was allowed and expected to retain an army of his own. When the throne was occupied by a weak ruler, divisions among the nobility became dangerous. See also: Sûrên Statue of Surena, 1st C. BCE Eran Spahbodh Rustaham Suren-Pahlav, son of Arakhsh (Arash, pers. ...


The constituent parts of the empire were surprisingly independent. For example, they were allowed to strike their own coins, a privilege which in antiquity was very rare. As long as the local elite paid tribute to the Parthian king, there was little interference. The system worked well: towns like Ctesiphon, Seleucia, Ecbatana, Rhagae, Hecatompylus, Nisâ, and Susa flourished. Ray, is an old city of Iran. ...


Tribute was one source of royal income; another was tolls. Parthia controlled the Silk Road, the trade route between the Mediterranean Sea and China. Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ...


Contact with China

The 138-126 BCE travels of Zhang Qian to the West, Mogao Caves, 618-712 CE mural.
The 138-126 BCE travels of Zhang Qian to the West, Mogao Caves, 618-712 CE mural.

The Chinese explorer Zhang Qian, who visited the neighbouring countries of Bactria and Sogdiana in 126 BCE, made the first known Chinese report on Parthia. In his accounts Parthia is named "Ānxī" (Chinese: 安息), a transliteration of "Arsacid", the name of the Parthian dynasty. Zhang Qian clearly identifies Parthia as an advanced urban civilization, which he equates to those of Dayuan (in Ferghana) and Daxia (in Bactria). The travel of Zhang Qian to the West. ... The travel of Zhang Qian to the West. ... (Redirected from 138 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC... (Redirected from 126 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC... Zhang Qian leaving emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BCE, Mogao Caves mural, 618-712 CE. Zhang Qian (Chinese:張騫; died 113 BCE) was a Chinese explorer and imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... The Mogao Caves (莫高窟) form a system of 492 temples near Dunhuang, in Gansu province, China. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... A mural by brightens the walls of this air-raid shelters in south London. ... Zhang Qian leaving emperor Han Wudi, for his expedition to Central Asia from 138 to 126 BCE, Mogao Caves mural, 618-712 CE. Zhang Qian (Chinese:張騫; died 113 BCE) was a Chinese explorer and imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now Afghanistan. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... (Redirected from 126 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC - 126 BC... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... Ideograms for Ta-Hia. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now Afghanistan. ...

"Anxi is situated several thousand li west of the region of the Great Yuezhi (in Transoxonia). The people are settled on the land, cultivating the fields and growing rice and wheat. They also make wine out of grapes. They have walled cities like the people of Dayuan (Ferghana), the region contains several hundred cities of various sizes. The coins of the country are made of silver and bear the face of the king. When the king dies, the currency is immediately changed and new coins issued with the face of his successor. The people keep records by writing on horizontal strips of leather. To the west lies Tiaozi (Mesopotamia) and to the north Yancai and Lixuan (Hyrcania)." (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Following Zhang Qian's embassy and report, commercial relations between China, Central Asia, and Parthia flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BCE: "The largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members... In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out." (Shiji, trans. Burton Watson). Li: A Chinese unit of distance, 里 (Lǐ), a li is equal to 500 metres, or about 1/3 mile. ... The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Events Roman Emperor Hadrians villa at Tivoli was built. ... (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st...


The Parthians were apparently very intent on maintaining good relations with China and also sent their own embassies, starting around 110 BC: "When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom... When the Han envoys set out again to return to China, the king of Anxi dispatched envoys of his own to accompany them... The emperor was delighted at this." (Shiji, 123, trans. Burton Watson). Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 115 BC 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC 111 BC - 110 BC - 109 BC 108 BC... Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ...


In 97 CE the Chinese general Ban Chao went as far west as the Caspian Sea with 70,000 men and established direct military contacts with the Parthian Empire. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Events Pope Evaristus succeeds Pope Clement I Tacitus advanced to consulship. ... Ban Chao (班超, 32-102 CE) was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ...


Parthians also played a role in the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism from Central Asia to China. An Shih Kao, a Parthian nobleman and Buddhist missionary, went to the Chinese capital Luoyang in 148 CE where he established temples and became the first man to translate Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... An Shih-kao (?-~170) (安世高; pinyin Ān Shígāo) was a prince of Parthia that renounced his throne in order to serve as a Buddhist missionary monk. ... The term Buddha is a word in ancient Indian languages including Pāli and Sanskrit which means one who has awakened. It is derived from the verbal root budh, meaning to awaken or to be enlightened, and to comprehend. It is written in Devanagari script as Hindi: and pronounced as... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Athendodorus to Patriarch Euzois An Shih Kao arrives in China. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Conflicts with Rome

Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajan's Column
Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajan's Column
Main article: Roman relations with the Parthians and Sassanians

In 53 BCE, the Roman general Crassus invaded Parthia, but was defeated at the Battle of Carrhae by a Parthian commander called Surena in the Greek and Latin sources, most likely a member of the Sûrên clan. This was the beginning of a series of wars that were to last for almost three centuries. From the 1900 Encyclopedie Larousse Illustree. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... From the 1900 Encyclopedie Larousse Illustree. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Trajans Column. ... Parthias greatest extent in 60 BCE The Parthian Empire had grown from the decline of the Seleucid Empire and during the first century BCE it came into contact with Rome when the general Crassus attempted to invade the kingdom. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ... The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in the year 53 BC near the town of Carrhae (now the present-day ruins of Harran, Turkey) between the Roman Republic under the Roman general Crassus and the Parthian Empire under the Parthian Eran Spahbod Surena. ... See also: Sûrên Statue of Surena, 1st C. BCE Eran Spahbodh Rustaham Suren-Pahlav, son of Arakhsh (Arash, pers. ...


The Parthian armies included two types of cavalry: the heavily-armed and armoured cataphracts and light brigades of mounted archers. For the Romans, who relied on heavy infantry, the Parthians were hard to defeat, as the cavalry was much faster and more mobile. On the other hand, the Parthians found it difficult to occupy conquered areas as they were unskilled in siege warfare. Because of these weaknesses, neither the Romans nor the Parthians were able to completely defeat each other. Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome. ... The cataphract was a type of heavy cavalryman used primarily in eastern and southeastern Europe, in Anatolia and Iran from late antiquity up through the High Middle Ages. ... Brigade is a term from military science which refers to a group of several battalions (typically two to four), and directly attached supporting units (normally including at least an artillery battery and additional logistic support). ... Archer may refer to: Someone taking part in archery. ... Infantry of the 36th Ulster Division, in the First World War Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot, mainly with small arms and operate within organized military units. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ...


In the years following the battle of Carrhae the Romans were divided in civil war between the adherents of Pompey and those of Julius Caesar and hence unable to campaign against Parthia. Although Caesar was eventually victorious against Pompey, his subsequent murder led to another civil war. The Roman general Quintus Labienus, who had supported Caesar's murderers and feared reciprocity from his heirs, Mark Antony and Octavian (later Augustus), sided with the Parthians and eventually became the best general of king Pacorus I. In 41 BCE Parthia, led by Labienus, invaded Syria, Cilicia, and Caria and attacked Phrygia in Asia Minor. A second army intervened in Judaea and captured its king Hyrcanus II. The spoils were immense, and put to good use: King Phraates IV invested them in building up Ctesiphon. A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... bust of Pompey the Great For the ancient Roman city, see Pompeii. ... A bust of Julius Caesar. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (ca. ... Augustus Caesar The title Caesar Augustus, given to every emperor of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire, originates from this person. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Coin of Pacorus I. Reverse shows a seated archer holding a bow. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In ancient geography, Cilicia (Ki-LIK-ya) formed a district on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Location of Caria Caria (Greek Καρία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a region of Asia Minor, situated south of Ionia, and west of Phrygia and Lycia. ... In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands, part of modern Turkey, from ca. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BC - 104 BC, died 104 BC) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name Hyrcanus was taken by him as a reignal name upon his accession to power. ... Coin of Phraates IV from the mint at Seleucia. ...


In 39 BCE, Mark Antony retaliated. Pacorus and Labienus were killed in action, and the Euphrates again became the border between the two nations. Hoping to avenge the death of Crassus, Antony invaded Mesopotamia in 36 BCE with the Legion VI Ferrata and other units. He had cavalry with him, but it turned out to be unreliable, and the Romans were happy simply to reach Armenia, having suffered great losses against the Parthians. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC - 39 BC - 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (ca. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic Al-Furat الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC...


Antony's campaign was followed by a break in the fighting between the two empires as Rome was again embroiled in civil war. When Octavian defeated Mark Antony, he ignored the Parthians, being more interested in the west. His son-in-law and future successor Tiberius negotiated a peace treaty with Phraates (20 BCE). A bust of younger Emperor Tiberius For the city in Israel, see Tiberias. ... (Redirected from 20 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17...


At the same time, around the year 1 CE, the Parthians became interested in the valley of the Indus, where they began conquering the petty kingdoms of Gandara. One of the Parthian leaders was Gondophares, king of Taxila; according to an old and widespread Christian tradition, he was baptized by the apostle Thomas. While it may sound far-fetched, the story is not altogether impossible: adherents of several religions lived together in Gandara and the Punjab, and there may have been an audience for a representative of a new Jewish sect. (Redirected from 1 CE) For other uses, see One (disambiguation), for the number, see Number 1. ... The Indus (Sindh nadi), known as the Sindhu in Sanskrit, Sinthos in Greek, and Sindus in Latin, is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first king of the Indo-Parthians. ... Taxila (Sanskrit: Takshashîlâ/तक्षशीला) is an archaeological site, located in the Punjab province of Pakistan, west of the Islamabad Capital Territory and Rawalpindi, on the border of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province and just off the Grand Trunk Road. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Incredulity of Saint Thomas by Caravaggio. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Over at least the last two thousand years, Judaism has not been monolithic in practice, and has not had any centralized authority or binding dogma. ...


War broke out again between Rome and Parthia in the 60s CE. Armenia had become a Roman vassal kingdom, but the Parthian king Vologases I appointed a new Armenian ruler. This was too much for the Romans, and their commander Cnaeus Domitius Corbulo invaded Armenia. The result was that the Armenian king received his crown again in Rome from the emperor Nero. A compromise was worked out between the two empires: in the future, the king of Armenia was to be a Parthian prince, but his appointment required approval from the Romans. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Note: Sometimes the 60s is used as shorthand for the 1960s, the 1860s, or other such decades in various centuries... Vologases I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (a forerunner of todays Iran) from about 51 to 78. ... Nero Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37–June 9, 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called (50–54) Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ...


Expansion to India

Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.
Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.

Main article:Indo-Parthian Kingdom
Coin from the COIN INDIA site. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first king of the Indo-Parthians. ... For other uses, see number 20. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...


Also during the 1st century BCE, the Parthians started to make inroads into eastern territories that had been occupied by the Indo-Scythians and the Yuezhi. The Parthians gained control of parts of Bactria and extensive territories in northern India, after defeating local rulers such as the Kushan Empire ruler Kujula Kadphises, in the Gandhara region. (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now Afghanistan. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient kingdom in eastern Afghanistan and north-west province of Pakistan. ...


Around 20 CE, Gondophares, one of the Parthian conquerors, declared his independence from the Parthian empire and established the Indo-Parthian Kingdom in the conquered territories. (Redirected from 20 CE) For other uses, see number 20. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first king of the Indo-Parthians. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...


Decline and fall

The Armenian compromise served its purpose, but nothing in it covered the deposition of an Armenian king. After 110 CE, the Parthian king Vologases III dethroned the Armenian ruler, and the Roman emperor Trajan decided to invade Parthia in retaliation. War broke out in 114 CE and the Parthians were severely beaten. The Romans conquered Armenia, and in the following year, Trajan marched to the south, where the Parthians were forced to evacuate their strongholds. In 116 CE, Trajan captured Ctesiphon, and established new provinces in Assyria and Babylonia. For other uses, see number 110. ... Coin of Vologases III. Reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow, surrounded by meaningless Greek-like letterforms. ... Emperor Trajan Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53 – August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98-117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the so-called Five Good Emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Events First year of Yuanchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty. ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the ancient city of Ashur. ... Babylonia, named for the city of Babylon, was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...

Coin of Mithridates I (ruled 171–138 BCE) from the mint at Seleucia on the Tigris. The reverse shows a naked Heracles holding a cup, lion's skin and club. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ (great king of the Arsacid dynasty, friend of the Greeks). The date ΓΟΡ is the year 173 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 140–139 BCE.
Coin of Mithridates I (ruled 171138 BCE) from the mint at Seleucia on the Tigris. The reverse shows a naked Heracles holding a cup, lion's skin and club. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ (great king of the Arsacid dynasty, friend of the Greeks). The date ΓΟΡ is the year 173 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 140139 BCE.

Rebellions soon broke out due to the continuing loyalty of the population to Parthia. At the same time, the diasporic Jews revolted and Trajan was forced to send an army to suppress them. Trajan overcame these troubles, but his successor Hadrian gave up the territories (117 CE). Nonetheless, it was clear that the Romans had learned how to defeat the Parthians. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image:Cerasdery. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 176 BC 175 BC 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC - 171 BC - 170 BC 169 BC 168... (Redirected from 138 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ... Statue of Heracles In Greek mythology, Heracles, or Heraklês (glory of Hera, Ηρακλης) was a divine hero, the demigod son of Zeus and Alcmene, and stepson of Alcmenes rightful husband and great-grandson of Perseus. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC... (Redirected from 139 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC - 139 BC... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut, exile) is the dispersion of the Jewish people throughout the world. ... A bust of Hadrian. ... Events Emperor Trajan dies, leaving the Roman Empire at its maximal territorial extent. ...


Perhaps it was not Roman strength, but Parthian weakness that caused the disaster. In the first century CE, the Parthian nobility had become more powerful due to concessions by the Parthian king granting them greater powers over the land and the peasantry. Their power now rivaled the king's, while at the same time internal divisions in the Arsacid family had rendered them vulnerable. (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ...


But the end was not near, yet. In 161 CE king Vologases IV declared war against the Romans and reconquered Armenia. The Roman counter-offensive was slow, but in 165 CE, Ctesiphon fell, and the Parthians were only saved by the outburst of a catastrophic epidemic (probably the measles) which temporarily crippled the two empires. The Roman emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius added northern Mesopotamia to their realm (partly as a vassal-kingdom), but as it was never secure enough for them to demilitarize the region between the Euphrates and Tigris it remained an expensive burden. Events March 7 - Roman emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. ... Coin of Vologases IV. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... Events A pandemic breaks out in Rome after the Roman army returns from Parthia. ... Lucius Verus Verus is a disambiguation page linking to articles about more than one person of that name. ... Marcus Aurelius depicted in The Thoughts of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, as translated by George Long Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121 – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ...


The deciding blow came thirty years later. King Vologases V had tried to reconquer Mesopotamia during another Roman civil war (193 CE), but was repulsed when general Septimius Severus counter-attacked. Again, Ctesiphon was captured (198 CE), and large spoils were brought to Rome. According to a modern estimate, the gold and silver were sufficient to postpone a European economic crisis for three or four decades, and the consequences of the looting for Parthia were dire. Coin of Vologases V. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... Events June 1 – Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated in his palace. ... Septimius Severus alabaster bust. ... Events Publius Septimius Geta receives the title of Caesar. ... A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. ...


Parthia, now impoverished and without any hope to recover the lost territories, was demoralized. The kings were forced to concede greater powers to the nobility, and the vassal kings began to waver in their allegiance. In 224 CE, the Persian vassal king Ardašir revolted. Two years later, he took Ctesiphon, and this time it meant the end of Parthia, replaced by the second Persian Empire, ruled by the Sassanid dynasty. Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... Ardashir was the name of three kings of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia: Ardashir I of Persia ruled from 224 to 241. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquests west of the Euphrat were only temporally Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of...


Parthian rulers

A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan, Iran in 1939.
A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan, Iran in 1939.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 169 KB)Photo taken by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 169 KB)Photo taken by Zereshk. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... Coin of Phraataces (obverse, with Nike on each side) and Musa (reverse). ... Coin of Phraates IV from the mint at Seleucia. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Coin of Arsaces I. The reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC - 247 BC - 246 BC 245 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC - 211 BC - 210 BC 209 BC... Tiridates, or Teridates is a Persian name, given by Arrian in his Parthica to the brother of Arsaces I, the founder of the Parthian kingdom, whom he is said to have succeeded in about 246 BC. But Arrian’s account seems to be quite unhistorical and modern historians believe that... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC - 211 BC - 210 BC 209 BC... Coin of Arsaces II of Parthia. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC - 211 BC - 210 BC 209 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... Phriapatius or Priapatius ruled the Parthian Empire from c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC - 176 BC - 175 BC 174 BC 173... King Phraates I of Parthia, son of Phriapatius, ruled the Parthian Empire c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC - 176 BC - 175 BC 174 BC 173... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 176 BC 175 BC 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC - 171 BC - 170 BC 169 BC 168... Image:Cerasdery. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 176 BC 175 BC 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC - 171 BC - 170 BC 169 BC 168... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC... Coin of Phraates II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC - 127 BC - 126 BC 125 BC... Coin of Artabanus I. Reverse shows a seated goddess (perhaps Demeter) holding Nike and a cornucopia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC - 127 BC - 126 BC 125 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC - 124 BC - 123 BC 122 BC... Coin of Mithridates II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... Coin of Gotarzes I. Reverse shows a seated archer holding a bow. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC - 90 BC - 89 BC 88 BC 87... King Orodes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC - 90 BC - 89 BC 88 BC 87... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Coin of Sanatruces of Parthia from the mint at Rhagae. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 82 BC 81 BC 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC - 77 BC - 76 BC 75 BC 74... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Coin of Phraates III from the mint at Ecbatana. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Coin of Mithridates III from the mint at Nisa. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Coin of Orodes II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC... Coin of Pacorus I. Reverse shows a seated archer holding a bow. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC - 39 BC - 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC... Coin of Phraates IV from the mint at Seleucia. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and... Tiridates II of Parthia was set up by the Parthians against Phraates IV in about 30 BC, but expelled when Phraates returned with the help of the Scythians. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21... Coin of Phraates V. Obverse shows Phraates wearing a diadem and being crowned by Nike with a wreath. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and...   This article is about the year 4. ... Coin of Phraataces (obverse, with Nike on each side) and Musa (reverse). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and...   This article is about the year 4. ... King Orodes III of Parthia was raised to the throne of the Parthian Empire by the magnates after the death of Phraates V, c. ...   This article is about the year 6. ... Coin of Vonones I from the mint at Ecbatana. ...   This article is about the year 8. ... For other uses, see number 12. ... Coin of Artabanus II from the mint at Ecbatana. ... Events Differentiation of localized Teutonic tribes of the Irminones. ... For alternate uses, see Number 38. ... Tiridates III of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 35–36. ... For alternate uses, see Number 35. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Vardanes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 40–47. ... For alternate uses, see Number 40. ... Events Romans build a fortification that will later grow out to be the city of Utrecht. ... Gotarzes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire intermittently between about 40 and 51. ... For alternate uses, see Number 40. ... Events Caratacus, British resistance leader, is captured and taken to Rome. ... Sanabares of Parthia was a rival King of Parthia from c. ... Events Londinium is founded by the Romans, taking over as capital of the local Roman province, from Colchester (approximate date) Roman Emperor Claudius appoints Agrippa II governor of Chalcis. ... For other uses, see number 65. ... Vonones II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 51. ... Events Caratacus, British resistance leader, is captured and taken to Rome. ... Vologases I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (a forerunner of todays Iran) from about 51 to 78. ... Events Caratacus, British resistance leader, is captured and taken to Rome. ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Vardanes II of Parthia was the son of Vologases I and briefly ruler of part of the Parthian Empire. ... For other uses, see number 55. ... For other uses, see number 58. ... Vologases II of Parthia was the son of Vologases I and ruled the Parthian Empire from about 77 to 80. ... For other uses, see number 77. ... For other uses, see number 80. ... Pacorus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 78 to 105. ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Events The Chinese refine papermaking. ... Artabanus III of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 80 to 90. ... For other uses, see number 80. ... For other uses, see number 90. ... Coin of Vologases III. Reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow, surrounded by meaningless Greek-like letterforms. ... Events The Chinese refine papermaking. ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... Coin of Osroes I. The date ΗΚΥ is year 428 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 116–117. ... Events Tacitus completes The Annales of Imperial Rome. ... Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Diogenes to Patriarch Eleutherius. ... Coin of Parthamaspates. ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Coin of Mithridates IV. Reverse shows a seated archer holding a bow, surrounded by meaningless Greek-like letterforms and a line of Aramaic at top. ... Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Diogenes to Patriarch Eleutherius. ... Events Pope Pius I succeeded Pope Hyginus. ... Events Pope Pius I succeeded Pope Hyginus. ... Coin of Vologases IV. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... Events Serapion of Antioch becomes Patriarch of Antioch. ... Osroes II of Parthia was a claimant of the throne of the Parthian Empire c. ... Events A part of Rome burns, and emperor Commodus orders the city to be rebuilt under the name Colonia Commodiana First year of Chuping era of Chinese Han Dynasty Births 190 is a number Deaths Athenagoras of Athens, Christian apologist Categories: 190 ... Coin of Vologases V. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... Events Serapion of Antioch becomes Patriarch of Antioch. ... hello my name is marco u ... Coin of Vologases VI. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... hello my name is marco u ... Events Shah Artashir I, four years after establishing the Sassanid Persian Empire, completes his conquest of Parthia. ... Artabanus IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (c. ... Events The Baths of Caracalla in Britain is divided into Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ...

Etymololgy of Parthia

The English noun Parthia derives from Latin Parthia, from Old Persian Parthava-, a dialectical variant of the stem Parsa-, from which Persia derives. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Persia can refer to: the Western name for Iran. ...


See also

  • An Shihkao

An Shihkao was a translator of Buddhist texts into Chinese, and a Parthian of royal lineage. ...

External links

See also

  • Parthia (Old Persian Parthava)

The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000-660 BC of the Persian/Median empire that later appeared. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Iran: Parthian Empire (1968 words)
The Parthian empire occupied all of modern Iran, Iraq and Armenia, parts of Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, and -for brief periods- territories in Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine.
After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, Parthia, northeastern Iran, was governed by the Seleucid kings: a Macedonian dynasty that ruled in the Asian territories of the former Persian Empire.
The Parthian monarch was the ruler of his own empire plus some eighteen vassal kings, such as the rulers of the city state Hatra, the port Characene and the ancient kingdom Armenia.
Parthian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2920 words)
The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE.
The Parthian empire occupied all of Iran proper, as well as the modern countries of Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates.
By 129 BCE the Parthians were in control of all the lands right to the Tigris, and established their winter encampment on its banks at Ctesiphon, downstream from modern Baghdad.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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