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Encyclopedia > Parthia
Parthian Empire

247 BC – 220 AD
Location of Parthia
Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (12388 BC)
Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana
Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]]
History
 - Established 247 BC
 - Disestablished 220 AD
Parthian votive relief. The style displays frontally, shallow relief and attention to ornamental detail. Typical decorated costume and dagger tucked in belt. Iran, Khuzestan(?), 2nd century CE.
Parthian votive relief. The style displays frontally, shallow relief and attention to ornamental detail. Typical decorated costume and dagger tucked in belt. Iran, Khuzestan(?), 2nd century CE.[1]

Parthia[2] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran, but at the height of its power, the Parthian dynasty covered all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf, the coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and the UAE[3]. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Image File history File links Empty. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC - 247 BC - 246 BC 245 BC... Events By Place Roman Empire The Goths invade Asia Minor and the Balkans. ... Image File history File links Empty. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The name Mithridates (more accurately, Mithradates) is the Hellenized form of the Indo-Aryan Mithra-Datt, which means One given by Mithra. Mithra is the Indo-Aryan sun-god and Datt (given by) derives from the Proto-Indo-European root da (to give). That name was born by a large... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... UAE redirects here. ...


The Parthian empire was led by the Arsacid dynasty, which reunited and ruled over the Iranian plateau, after defeating and disposing the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between 150 BC and 224 AD. It was the third native dynasty of ancient Iran (after the Median and the Achaemenid dynasties). Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east. The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Alexander Balas becomes ruler of the Seleucid Empire. ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... Mede nobility. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


After the Scythian-Parni nomads (Assyrians called them Ashkuz)[4] had settled in Parthia and built a small independent kingdom, they rose to power under king Mithridates the Great (171-138 BC).[5] Later, at the height of their power, Parthian influence reached as far as Ubar in Arabia, the nexus of the frankincense trade route, where Parthian-inspired ceramics have been found. The power of the early Parthian empire seems to have been overestimated by some ancient historians, who could not clearly separate the powerful later empire from its more humble obscure origins. The end of this long-lived empire came in 224 AD, when the empire was loosely organized and the last king was defeated by one of the empire's vassals, the Persians of the Sassanid dynasty. Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... The Central Asian steppe has been the home of Iranian nomadic tribes for centuries. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... Image:Cerasdery. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iram of the Pillars. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


Although the Roman-employed zionist historian Josephus connects Parthia to Israelites formerly deported by the Assyrian Empire,[6] relatively little is known of the Parthian (Arsacid) dynasty compared to the Achaemenids and Sassanids dynasties, given that little of their own literature has survived. Consequently Parthian history is largely derived from foreign histories, controlled by the evidence of coins and inscriptions; even their own name for themselves is debatable due to a lack of domestic records. Several Greek authors, of whom we have fragments, including Apollodorus of Artemita and Isidore of Charax, wrote under Parthian rule. Their power was based on a combination of the guerrilla warfare of a mounted nomadic tribe, with organizational skills to build and administer a vast empire — even though it never matched in power and extent the Persian empires that preceded and followed it. Vassal kingdoms seem to have made up a large part of their territory (see Tigranes II of Armenia), and Hellenistic cities enjoyed a certain autonomy; their craftsmen received employment by some Parthians. A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Numismatics is the scientific study of currency and its history in all its varied forms. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... Apollodorus of Artemita was a Greek writer of the 1st century BCE. Apollodorus is quoted by Strabo as a source for his descriptions of Asia. ... Isidore of Charax (fl. ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the first century B.C. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes Coin of Tigranes II Tigranes the Great (ruled 95-56 BC) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ...

Contents

Parthia as a satrapy

See main article: Parthia (satrapy)
Coin of Andragoras, the last Seleucid satrap of Parthia. He proclaimed independence around 250 BC.
Coin of Andragoras, the last Seleucid satrap of Parthia. He proclaimed independence around 250 BC.

Parthia was originally designated as a territory southeast of the Caspian sea encompasing the Kopet Dag mountain range in the north and Dasht-e-Kavir desert in the south. It was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire from 550 BC when it was subdued by Cyrus the Great until the conquest of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great in 330 BC [7]. Following Alexander's death, the government of Parthia was given to Nicanor, at the Partition of Babylon in 323 BC. At the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC, Parthia was then given to Philip. Philip in turn was then succeeded by Peithon. From 311 BC, Parthia then became a part of the Seleucid empire, being ruled by various satraps under Seleucid kingdom. Parthia (Old Persian Parthava), before it became the Parthian Empire, was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Nicanor (Latin; Greek: Nikanōr) or Nikanor was a Macedonian officer of distinction who served as satrap of Media under Antigonus. ... The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories by Alexander the Great between his generals, soon after his death in 323 BCE. The partition was a result of a compromise, essentially brokered by Eumenes, following a conflict of opinion between the party of Meleager, who wished to give... The Partition of Triparadasus was a power-sharing agreement passed at Triparadisus in 320 BCE between the generals (diadochi) of Alexander the Great, in which they named a new regent and established the repartition of their satrapies. ... Philip (in Greek ΦιλιππoÏ‚; died 318 BC) was satrap of Sogdiana, to which government he was first appointed by Alexander the Great himself in 327 BC. He retained his post, as did most of the satraps of the more remote provinces, in the arrangements which followed the death of the... Peithon (about 355 BC - about 314 BC) was the son of Crateuas, a nobleman from Eordia in western Macedonia. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Andragoras (d. 238 BC) was the last Seleucid satrap of the province of Partahia, under the Seleucid rulers Antiochus I Soter and Antiochus II Theos (Justin, xli. 4). Andragoras tried to wrestle independence from the Seleucid Empire, at a time when the Seleucid were embroiled in conflict with Ptolemaic Egypt. In defiance, he issued coins in which he wears the royal diadem as well as his name (Will: I, 1966). Andragoras was a neighbour, a contemporary, and probably an ally of Diodotus I in Bactria, who also fought the Seleucids for independence around the same time, giving rise to the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.[8] Coin of Andragoras. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Silver coin of Antiochus I. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus). ... Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... Gold coin of Diodotus c. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established...


The Parthian Empire

See also: Seven Parthian clans
Coin of Arsaces I. The reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow. A Greek inscription on the right reads ΑΡΣΑΚ[ΟΥ] (from the outside). The inscription below the bow is in Aramaic.
Coin of Arsaces I. The reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow. A Greek inscription on the right reads ΑΡΣΑΚ[ΟΥ] (from the outside). The inscription below the bow is in Aramaic.

The tribe of the Parni, a nomadic people of Persian origin, who originally spoke an Eastern Iranian language and later known as the Parthians, entered the Iranian plateau from Central Asia. They were consummate horsemen, known for the "Parthian shot": turning backwards at full gallop to loose an arrow directly to the rear. Initially, about 238 BC, their king named Arsaces (Ashk) toppled Andragoras and established his dynasty's independence from Seleucid rule in remote areas of northern Iran in what is today known as Turkmenistan. Seven Clans or more accurately Seven Parthian clans (Persian, Haft Khandan) were seven different Parthian clans who constituted the Dahae Confederation. ... Coin of Arsaces I of Parthia. ... Coin of Arsaces I of Parthia. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The Central Asian steppe has been the home of Iranian nomadic tribes for centuries. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Northeastern Iranian languages Southeastern Iranian languages See also: List of Iranian languages, Western Iranian languages. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Parthian shot (or Parthian shaft) was a tactic employed by ancient Persian horse archers. ... Coin of Arsaces I. The reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow. ... Coin of Andragoras. ... Iran Under the Arsacid Dynasty. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ...

"He (Arsaces) was used to a life of pillage and theft, when he heard about the defeat of Seleucus against the Gauls. Relieved from his fear of the king, he attacked the Parthians with a band of thieves, vanquished their prefect Andragoras, and, after having killed him took the power over the nation" Justin, xli. 4.

The descendants of Arsaces ruled until Antiochus III the Great invaded Parthia in 209 BC, occupied the capital Hecatompylus and pushed forward into Hyrcania. The Parthian king Arsaces II apparently successfully sued for peace, and Parthia recognized Seleucid authority. Antiochus III had so well secured Parthia that he moved further east into Bactria, where he fought the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus I for three years, and then went into India. Coin of Seleucus II. Reverse shows Apollo leaning on a tripod. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Hecatompylos was in the ancient region of Traxiane, in modern Khurasan in Iran. ... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... Coin of Arsaces II of Parthia. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ...

Coin of Mithridates I (ruled 171–138 BC) from the mint at Seleucia on the Tigris. The reverse shows a naked Heracles holding a cup, lion's skin and club. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ (great king Arsaces, friend of the Greeks). The date ΓΟΡ is the year 173 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 140–139 BC.
Coin of Mithridates I (ruled 171–138 BC) from the mint at Seleucia on the Tigris. The reverse shows a naked Heracles holding a cup, lion's skin and club. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ (great king Arsaces, friend of the Greeks). The date ΓΟΡ is the year 173 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 140–139 BC.

It was not until the 2nd century BC that the Parthians were able to profit from the continuing erosion of the Seleucid Empire, gradually capturing all its territories east of Syria. Once the Parthians had gained Herat, the movement of trade along the Silk Road to China was effectively choked off and the post-Alexandrian Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was doomed. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image:Cerasdery. ... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ... Alcides redirects here. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established...


The Seleucid monarchs, however, attempted to hold the line against the Parthian expansion; Antiochus IV Epiphanes spent his last years on a campaign against the newly emerging Iranian states. After his death in 164 BC, the Parthians took advantage of the ensuing dynastic squabbles to make even greater gains. Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


In 139 BC, the Parthian king Mithridates I captured the Seleucid monarch Demetrius II Nicator, holding him captive for ten years while his troops overwhelmed Mesopotamia and Media. Image:Cerasdery. ... Coin of Demetrius II Demetrius II (d. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ...


By 129 BC, the Parthians were in control of all the lands right to the Tigris, and established their winter encampment on its banks at Ctesiphon, downstream from modern Baghdad. Ctesiphon was then a small suburb directly across the river from Seleucia on the Tigris, the most Hellenistic city of western Asia. Because of their need of the wealth and trade provided by Seleucia, the Parthian armies limited their incursions to harassment, allowing the city to preserve its independence. In the heat of the Mesopotamian summer, the Parthian army would withdraw to the ancient Persian capitals of Susa and Ecbatana (modern Hamadan). The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ...


From around 130 BC, the Parthians suffered numerous incursions by Scythian nomads (also called the Tocharians from Bactria, possibly the Yuezhi), in which kings Phraates II and Artabanus I were successively killed. Scythians again invaded Parthia around 90 BC, putting king Sanatruces on the Parthian throne. Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... Coin of Phraates II from the mint at Seleucia on the Tigris. ... Coin of Artabanus I. Reverse shows a seated goddess (perhaps Demeter) holding Nike and a cornucopia. ... Coin of Sanatruces of Parthia from the mint at Rhagae. ...


Government

Different kinds of Parthian formal headdress used both between people and royal meetings. Their style is a mix of Persian and Greek clothing style. An Armenian tiara is depicted on the lower right corner.

After the conquests of Media, Assyria, Babylonia and Elam, the Parthians had to organize their empire. The former elites of these countries were Greek, and the new rulers had to adapt to their customs if they wanted their rule to last. As a result, the cities retained their ancient rights and civil administrations remained more or less undisturbed. An interesting detail is coinage: legends were written in the Greek alphabet, a practice that continued until the 2nd century AD, when local knowledge of the language was in decline and few people knew how to read or write the Greek alphabet. Image File history File links PhartianFormalHeaddress. ... Image File history File links PhartianFormalHeaddress. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel...

The Parthian Prince, thought to be Surena the victor of the Battle of Carrhae, found in Khuzestan ca. 100 AD, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.
The Parthian Prince, thought to be Surena the victor of the Battle of Carrhae, found in Khuzestan ca. 100 AD, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.

Another source of inspiration was the Achaemenid dynasty that had once ruled the Persian Empire. Courtiers spoke Persian and used the Pahlavi script; the royal court traveled from capital to capital, and the Arsacid kings styled themselves "king of kings". It was an apt title, as in addition to his own kingdom the Parthian monarch was the overlord of some eighteen vassal kings, such as the rulers of the city state Hatra, the kingdom of Characene and the ancient kingdom of Armenia. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (838x1032, 755 KB) Statues thought to represent Surena. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (838x1032, 755 KB) Statues thought to represent Surena. ... Parthian-era bronze statue believed to represent General Surena. ... Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionaries, 4,000 cavalry, 4,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry Casualties 20,000 dead, 10,000 captured, 4,000 wounded Reportedly very light The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in 53... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... Characene was a kingdom within the Parthian empire at the Persian Gulf. ...


The empire was, overall, not very centralized. There were several languages, many people, and a number of different economic systems. The loose ties between the separate parts of the empire were a key to its survival. In the 2nd century AD, the most important capital, Ctesiphon, was captured no less than three times by the Romans (in 116, 165 and 198), but the empire survived because there were other centers of power. On the other hand, the fact that the empire was a mere conglomeration of kingdoms, provinces and city-states did at times seriously weaken the Parthian state. This was a major factor in the halt of the Parthian expansion after the conquests of Mesopotamia and Persia. Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Persia redirects here. ...


Local potentates played important roles, and the king had to respect their privileges. Several noble families had votes in the Royal council; the House of Suren had the right to crown the Parthian king, and every aristocrat was allowed and expected to retain an army of his own. When the throne was occupied by a weak ruler, divisions among the nobility became dangerous. Parthian-era bronze statue believed to represent General Surena. ...


The constituent parts of the empire were surprisingly independent. For example, they were allowed to strike their own coins, a privilege which in antiquity was very rare. As long as the local elite paid tribute to the Parthian king, there was little interference. The system worked well: towns such as Ctesiphon, Seleucia, Ecbatana, Rhagae, Hecatompylos, Nisâ, and Susa flourished. Ray, is an old city of Iran. ... Hecatompylos was a city in west Khurasan, Iran, and was the capital of the Arsacid dynasty by 200 BCE. The site is now called Å ahr-e Qumis, but the Greek name Hecatompylos means one hundred gates. ... Nisa (also Parthaunisa) was an ancient city, located near modern-day Bagir village, 18 km southwest of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. ...


Tribute was one source of royal income; another was tolls. Parthia controlled the Silk Road, the trade route between the Mediterranean Sea and China. Mediterranean redirects here. ...


Parthian language

Main article: Parthian language

Arsacid Pahlavi or more popularly known as Parthian is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language that originated in Parthia (a region in the north-eastern part of modern Iran, including and not limited to Khorosan, Mazandaran and southern parts of what is today known as Turkmenistan). The language was the official state language of the Arsacid Dynasty (248 BC – 224 AD) and may have served as a secondary language for the Sassanid dynasty of Iran in its early years. The language was written using the Pahlavi script. The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Iran Under the Arsacid Dynasty. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of...


Contact with China

The 138–126 BC travels of Zhang Qian to the West, Mogao Caves, 618–712 AD mural.
The 138–126 BC travels of Zhang Qian to the West, Mogao Caves, 618–712 AD mural.
Parthia in 001 AD, showing Parthia, its subkingdoms, and neighbors.

The Chinese explorer Zhang Qian, who visited the neighbouring countries of Bactria and Sogdiana in 126 BC, made the first known Chinese report on Parthia. In his accounts Parthia is named "Ānxī" (Chinese: 安息), a transliteration of "Arsacid", the name of the Parthian dynasty. Zhang Qian clearly identifies Parthia as an advanced urban civilization that farmed grain and grapes, made silver coins and leather goods;[9] Zhang Qian equates the level of advancement of Parthia to the cultures of Dayuan (in Ferghana) and Daxia (in Bactria). The travel of Zhang Qian to the West. ... The travel of Zhang Qian to the West. ... Zhang Qian (張騫) was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) form a system of 492 temples 25km (15. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... Zhang Qian (張騫) was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... Ideograms for Ta-Hia. ...

"Anxi is situated several thousand li west of the region of the Great Yuezhi (in Transoxonia). The people are settled on the land, cultivating the fields and growing rice and wheat. They also make wine out of grapes. They have walled cities like the people of Dayuan (Ferghana), the region contains several hundred cities of various sizes. The coins of the country are made of silver and bear the face of the king. When the king dies, the currency is immediately changed and new coins issued with the face of his successor. The people keep records by writing on horizontal strips of leather. To the west lies Tiaozhi (Mesopotamia) and to the north Yancai and Lixuan (Hyrcania)." (Shiji, 123, Zhang Qian quote, trans. Burton Watson).

Following Zhang Qian's embassy and report, commercial relations between China, Central Asia, and Parthia flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BC: Li: A Chinese unit of distance, 里 (Lǐ), a li is equal to 500 metres, or about 1/3 mile. ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ...

"The largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members... In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out." (Shiji, trans. Burton Watson).

The Parthians were apparently very intent on maintaining good relations with China and also sent their own embassies, starting around 110 BC: "When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom... When the Han envoys set out again to return to China, the king of Anxi dispatched envoys of his own to accompany them... The emperor was delighted at this." (Shiji, 123, trans. Burton Watson). Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...


In 97 BC, the Han Chinese general Ban Chao formed direct military contacts with the Parthian Empire and establish military bases as far west as the Caspian Sea with his cavalry of 70,000 men during expeditions against the Xiongnu, while protecting the trade routes now known as the Silk Road. Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Ban Chao (Chinese: 班超; Wade-Giles: Pan Chao, 32-102 CE), born in Xianyang, Shaanxi, was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ...


Parthians also played a role in the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism from Central Asia to China. An Shih Kao, a Parthian nobleman and Buddhist missionary, went to the Chinese capital Luoyang in 148 where he established temples and became the first man to translate Buddhist scriptures into Chinese. Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ... An Shih-kao (?-~168) (安世高; pinyin Ān Shígāo) was a prince of Parthia, nicknamed the Parthian Marquis, who renounced his prospect as a contender for the royal throne of Parthia in order to serve as a Buddhist missionary monk. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Athendodorus to Patriarch Euzois An Shih Kao arrives in China. ...


Conflicts with Rome

Main article: Roman-Persian Wars
Reproduction of a Parthian archer as depicted on Trajan's Column.
Parthian horseman. Palazzo Madama, Turin, Italy.
Parthian horseman. Palazzo Madama, Turin, Italy.
Parthian calvaryman (escorting a camel caravan, detail). He wears large chaps over decorated trousers, as well as a polylobed dagger (Akinakes) on the right side. Palmyra relief.
Parthian calvaryman (escorting a camel caravan, detail). He wears large chaps over decorated trousers, as well as a polylobed dagger (Akinakes) on the right side. Palmyra relief.

During the earlier part of the first century BC, Parthia pursued a peaceful policy of non-entanglement with the west.[10] Parthian relations with Imperial Rome largely consisted in intermittent warfare separated by periods of stalemate truce and exchange of gifts and hostages, with Trajan's Parthian campaign as a watershed, until the recognition of Parthia as co-equal in the fourth century, followed the final stages of fierce fighting under Macrinus, and the tribute sent by Philip the Arab and the humiliation of Valerian. No official documents in the form of official inscriptions of treaties survive; the sources are largely Roman and literary. Protocol[11] developed during the fourth century provided the basis on which the Eastern Empire would address the Sassanians Combatants Roman Republic, succeeded by Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire later Persian Empire projected through Parthian and Sassanid dynasties Commanders Lucullus, Pompey, Crassus, Mark Antony, Trajan, Valerian I, Julian, Belisarius, Heraclius Surena, Shapur I, Shapur II, Kavadh I, Khosrau I, Khosrau II, Shahin, Shahrbaraz, Rhahzadh The Roman-Persian Wars... From the 1900 Encyclopedie Larousse Illustree. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... From the 1900 Encyclopedie Larousse Illustree. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Trajans Column is a monument in Rome raised by Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Senate. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Façade of Palazzo Madama, Turin. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (803 × 662 pixel, file size: 395 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (803 × 662 pixel, file size: 395 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Chaps are sturdy leather coverings for the legs. ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... The acinaces, also spelled akinakes (Greek ἀκινάκης) or akinaka (unattested Old Persian *akīnakah) is a type of sword or dagger used by the Ancient Persians. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... Marcus Julius Philippus (c. ... Valerian may mean: Valerian, two genera of garden plants Emperor Valerian I, Roman emperor 253-260 Valerian II, son of Gallienus (d. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


In 53 BC, the Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus invaded Parthia in search of desperately needed gold to fund Roman military campaigns. The Parthian armies included two types of cavalry, heavily-armed and armored cataphracts and lightly armed but highly-mobile mounted archers. For the Romans, who relied on heavy infantry, the Parthians were difficult to defeat, as both types of cavalry were much faster and more mobile than foot soldiers. Furthermore, the Parthians used strategies during warfare unfamiliar to the Romans, such as the famous "Parthian shot", firing arrows backwards at the gallop. Crassus having never encountered such an army or strategic warfare before was defeated decisively at the Battle of Carrhae by a Parthian commander called Surena in the Greek and Latin sources. This was the beginning of a series of wars that were to last for almost three centuries. After the defeat Crassus was fed molten gold, a symbolic gesture for his greed. On the other hand, the Parthians found it difficult to conquer Roman eastern provinces completely. Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionaries, 4,000 cavalry, 4,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry Casualties 20,000 dead, 10,000 captured, 4,000 wounded Reportedly very light The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in 53... Parthian-era bronze statue believed to represent General Surena. ...


In the years following the battle of Carrhae, the Romans were divided in civil war between the adherents of Pompey and those of Julius Caesar and hence unable to campaign against Parthia. Although Caesar was eventually victorious against Pompey and was planning a campaign against Parthia, his subsequent murder led to another Roman civil war. The Roman general Quintus Labienus, who had supported Caesar's murderers and feared reprisals from his heirs, Mark Antony and Octavian (later Augustus), sided with the Parthians under Pacorus I. In 41 BC Parthia, led by Labienus, invaded Syria, Cilicia, and Caria and attacked Phrygia in Asia Minor. A second army intervened in Judaea and captured its king Hyrcanus II. The spoils were immense, and put to good use: King Phraates IV invested them in building up Ctesiphon. This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Quintus Labienus (d. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Coin of Pacorus I. Reverse shows a seated archer holding a bow. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BC - 104 BC, died 104 BC) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name Hyrcanus was taken by him as a reignal name upon his accession to power. ... Coin of Phraates IV from the mint at Seleucia. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years...


In 39 BC, Antony retaliated, sending out general Publius Ventidius Bassus and several legions to secure the conquered territories. The Parthian King Pacorus was killed along with Labienus, and the Euphrates again became the border between the two nations. Hoping to further avenge the death of Crassus, Antony invaded Mesopotamia in 36 BC with the Legion VI Ferrata and other units. Having cavalry in support, Antony reached Armenia but failed to make much impact and withdrew with heavy losses. Publius Ventidius Bassus was a Roman general and one of Julius Caesars protégées. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


Antony's campaign was followed by a break in the fighting between the two empires as Rome was again embroiled in civil war. When Octavian defeated Mark Antony, he ignored the Parthians, being more interested in the west. His son-in-law and future successor Tiberius negotiated a peace treaty with Phraates (20 BC). For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...

Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. British Museum.
Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. British Museum.

At the same time, around the year 1, the Parthians became interested in the valley of the Indus, where they began conquering the kingdoms of Gandhara. One of the Parthian leaders was Gondophares, king of Taxila; according to an old and widespread Christian tradition, he was baptized by the apostle Thomas. While it may sound far-fetched, the story is not altogether impossible: adherents of several religions lived together in Gandara and the Punjab, and there may have been an audience for a representative of a new Jewish sect. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 741 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1162 × 940 pixel, file size: 334 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 741 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1162 × 940 pixel, file size: 334 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... The Indus River {Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindhu; Punjabi (Shahmukhi: سندھ, Gurmukhi: ਸਿੰਧੂ) ; Hindi and Sanskrit: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδός Indos} is the longest and most important river in Pakistan. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Gondophares (Parthian: Vindapharna, lit. ... Taxila (Urdu: , Sanskrit: , Pali:Takkasilā) is an important archaeological site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 6th century BCE[3] to the 5th century CE.[4] [5... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jude Thomas. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


War broke out again between Rome and Parthia in the 60s AD. Armenia had become a Roman vassal kingdom, but the Parthian king Vologases I invaded and installed his own brother as king of Armenia. This was too much for the Romans, and their commander Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo invaded Armenia. The result was that the Armenian king received his crown again in Rome from the emperor Nero. A compromise was worked out between the two empires: in the future, the king of Armenia was to be a Parthian prince, but his appointment required approval from the Romans. Vologases I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (a forerunner of todays Iran) from about 51 to 78. ... Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo (around AD 7 - AD 67) was a Roman general. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ...


Expansion to India

Main article: Indo-Parthian Kingdom
Coin of Gondophares (20–50), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.

Also during the 1st century BC, the Parthians started to make inroads into eastern territories that had been occupied by the Indo-Scythians and the Yuezhi. The Parthians gained control of parts of Bactria and extensive South Asian territories in modern day Pakistan, after defeating local rulers such as the Kushan Empire ruler Kujula Kadphises, in the Gandhara region. Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site. ... Gondophares (Parthian: Vindapharna, lit. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...


The ruins of the ancient port city of Siraf are in the process of excavation, and its historical importance to ancient trade is only now being realized. Discovered there in archaeological excavations are ivory objects from east Africa, pieces of stone from India, and lapis from Afghanistan. Sirif dates back to the Parthian era.[12] Map of the Persian Gulf Siraf, a legendary ancient port, was located on the north shore of the Iranian coast on the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Lapis lazuli, also known as just lapis, is one of the stones with the longest tradition of being considered a gem, with a history stretching back to 5000 BC. Deep blue in color and opaque, this gemstone was highly prized by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt, as can be seen...


Around 20 AD, Gondophares, one of the Parthian conquerors, declared his independence from the Parthian empire and established the Indo-Parthian Kingdom in the conquered territories. Events Roman Empire Tiberias is built on the Sea of Galilee by Herod Antipas, in honour of Tiberius. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ...


Decline and fall

Vologases III of Parthia (ruled c. 105–147 AD on a silver drachm.
Vologases III of Parthia (ruled c. 105–147 AD on a silver drachm.
Young man with Parthian costume. Palmyra, Syria, 1st half of the 3rd century AD. Decoration of a funerary stela. Musée du Louvre.
Young man with Parthian costume. Palmyra, Syria, 1st half of the 3rd century AD. Decoration of a funerary stela. Musée du Louvre.

The Armenian compromise served its purpose, but nothing in it covered the deposition of an Armenian king. After 110 AD, the Parthian king Vologases III dethroned the Armenian ruler, and the Roman emperor Trajan decided to invade Parthia in retaliation. War broke out in 114 AD and the Parthians were severely beaten. The Romans conquered Armenia, and in the following year, Trajan marched to the south, where the Parthians were forced to evacuate their strongholds. In 116, Trajan captured Ctesiphon, and established new provinces in Assyria and Babylonia. Later that year, he took the Parthian capital, Susa, deposed the Parthian King Osroes I and put Parthamaspates as a puppet ruler on the throne. ImageMetadata File history File links Vologases_III_of_Parthia. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Vologases_III_of_Parthia. ... Coin of Vologases III. Reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow, surrounded by meaningless Greek-like letterforms. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Drachma, pl. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 283 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (548 × 1159 pixel, file size: 639 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Young man with Parthian costume. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 283 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (548 × 1159 pixel, file size: 639 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Young man with Parthian costume. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... Coin of Vologases III. Reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow, surrounded by meaningless Greek-like letterforms. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... Coin of Osroes I. The date ΗΚΥ is year 428 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 116–117. ... Parthamaspates, the son of Osroes I, spent much of his life in Roman exile. ...


Rebellions soon broke out due to the continuing loyalty of the population to Parthia. At the same time, the diasporic Jews revolted and Trajan was forced to send an army to suppress them. Trajan overcame these troubles, but his successor Hadrian gave up the territories (117). The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ...


Parthian weaknesses also contributed to the disaster. In the first century AD, the Parthian nobility had become more powerful due to concessions by the Parthian king granting them greater powers over the land and the peasantry. Their power now rivaled the king's, while at the same time internal divisions in the Arsacid family had rendered them vulnerable. The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ...

Parthian prisoner in chains, led forward by a Roman, circa 200 AD. Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome.
Parthian prisoner in chains, led forward by a Roman, circa 200 AD. Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome.

But the end was not near, yet. In 161, king Vologases IV declared war against the Romans and reconquered Armenia. The Roman counter-offensive was slow, but in 165, Ctesiphon fell, and the Parthians were only saved by the outburst of a catastrophic epidemic (probably the measles or smallpox) which temporarily crippled the two empires. The Roman emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius added northern Mesopotamia to their realm (partly as a vassal-kingdom), but as it was never secure enough for them to demilitarize the region between the Euphrates and Tigris, it remained an expensive burden. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 440 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (971 × 1324 pixel, file size: 849 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parthian prisoner on chains, circa 200 CE. Arc of Septimus Severus, Rome. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 440 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (971 × 1324 pixel, file size: 849 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parthian prisoner on chains, circa 200 CE. Arc of Septimus Severus, Rome. ... The Arch of Septimius Severus before the excavation of the Roman Forum, painted by Canaletto in 1742 (Royal Collection, UK) Lateral arched opening between the main arch and a side archway The Arch of Septimius Severus in 2005 The white marble Arch of Septimius Severus at the northeast end of... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Coin of Vologases IV. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ...


The deciding blow came thirty years later. King Vologases V had tried to reconquer Mesopotamia during another Roman civil war (193), but was repulsed when general Septimius Severus counter-attacked. Again, Ctesiphon was captured (198), and large spoils were brought to Rome. According to a modern estimate, the gold and silver were sufficient to postpone a European economic crisis for three or four decades, and the consequences of the looting for Parthia were dire. Coin of Vologases V. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Parthia, now impoverished and without any hope to recover the lost territories, was demoralized. The kings were forced to concede greater powers to the nobility, and the vassal kings began to waver in their allegiance. In 224, the Persian vassal king Ardašir revolted. Two years later, he took Ctesiphon, and this time it meant the end of Parthia, replaced by a third Persian Empire, ruled by the Sassanid dynasty.
Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of...


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Image File history File linksMetadata Farvahar_background. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Persia redirects here. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... BCE redirects here. ... 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After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... The Kartid Dynasty (Karts, also known as Kurts) was a dynasty that ruled over a large part of Khurasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. ... 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Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) was founded by Mirwais Khan Hotak, an Afghan of ethnic Tatar[1] [2]and chief of the Ghilzai clan of Kandahar province in modern-day Afghanistan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... 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After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... This is a timeline of the history of Afghanistan. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Anthem بحريننا Bahrainona Our Bahrain Capital (and largest city) Manama Official languages Arabic Government Constitutional Monarchy  -  King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah  -  Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah Independence from UK   -  Date 15 August 1971  Area  -  Total 665 km² (189th) 253 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0 Population  -  2007 estimate 708,573... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... edit The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: - or دودمان قاجار) was a ruling Persian dynasty[1] of Turkic descent[2], that ruled Iran (Persia) from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage for Iran alone. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Flag Capital Bukhara Language(s) Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori Religion Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism Government Socialist republic President Faizullah Khojaev Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy overthrown 1920-09-02  - Established October 8, 1920  - Joined the Uzbek SSR February 17, 1925 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... Coin of Arsaces I. The reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC - 247 BC - 246 BC 245 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC - 211 BC - 210 BC 209 BC... Tiridates, or Teridates is a Persian name, given by Arrian in his Parthica to the brother of Arsaces I, the founder of the Parthian kingdom, whom he is said to have succeeded in about 246 BC. But Arrian’s account seems to be quite unhistorical and modern historians believe that... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC - 246 BC - 245 BC 244 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC - 211 BC - 210 BC 209 BC... Coin of Arsaces II of Parthia. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC - 211 BC - 210 BC 209 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... Phriapatius or Priapatius ruled the Parthian Empire from c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC - 176 BC - 175 BC 174 BC 173... King Phraates I of Parthia, son of Phriapatius, ruled the Parthian Empire c. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC - 176 BC - 175 BC 174 BC 173... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 176 BC 175 BC 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC - 171 BC - 170 BC 169 BC 168... Image:Cerasdery. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 176 BC 175 BC 174 BC 173 BC 172 BC - 171 BC - 170 BC 169 BC 168... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC... Coin of Phraates II from the mint at Seleucia on the Tigris. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC 140 BC 139 BC - 138 BC - 137 BC 136 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC - 127 BC - 126 BC 125 BC... Coin of Artabanus I. Reverse shows a seated goddess (perhaps Demeter) holding Nike and a cornucopia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC 128 BC - 127 BC - 126 BC 125 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 129 BC 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC - 124 BC - 123 BC 122 BC... Coin of Mithridates II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... Coin of Gotarzes I. Reverse shows a seated archer holding a bow. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC - 95 BC - 94 BC 93 BC 92... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC - 90 BC - 89 BC 88 BC 87... King Orodes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC - 90 BC - 89 BC 88 BC 87... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 82 BC 81 BC 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC - 77 BC - 76 BC 75 BC 74... Coin of Sanatruces of Parthia from the mint at Rhagae. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 82 BC 81 BC 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC - 77 BC - 76 BC 75 BC 74... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Coin of Phraates III from the mint at Ecbatana. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Coin of Mithridates III from the mint at Nisa. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Coin of Orodes II from the mint at Seleucia. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC... Coin of Pacorus I. Reverse shows a seated archer holding a bow. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC - 39 BC - 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC... Coin of Phraates IV from the mint at Seleucia. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and... Tiridates II of Parthia was set up by the Parthians against Phraates IV in about 30 BC, but expelled when Phraates returned with the help of the Scythians. ... Octavian becomes Roman Consul for the fourth time. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21... Coin of Phraates V. Obverse shows Phraates wearing a diadem and being crowned by Nike with a wreath. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and... For other uses, see 4 (disambiguation). ... Coin of Phraataces (obverse, with Nike on each side) and Musa (reverse). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and...   This article is about the year 4. ... King Orodes III of Parthia was raised to the throne of the Parthian Empire by the magnates after the death of Phraates V, c. ...   This article is about the year 6. ... Coin of Vonones I from the mint at Ecbatana. ... For other uses, see 8 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 12. ... Coin of Artabanus II from the mint at Ecbatana. ... For other uses, see 10 (disambiguation). ... For alternate uses, see Number 38. ... Tiridates III of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 35–36. ... For alternate uses, see Number 35. ... For alternate uses, see Number 36. ... Vardanes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 40–47. ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... This article is about the year 47. ... Gotarzes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire intermittently between about 40 and 51. ... Events Roman Empire Caligula embarks on a campaign to conquer Britain, and fails miserably. ... This article is about the year 51. ... Sanabares of Parthia was a rival King of Parthia from c. ... This article is about the year 50. ... Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ... Vonones II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 51. ... This article is about the year 51. ... Vologases I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (a forerunner of todays Iran) from about 51 to 78. ... This article is about the year 51. ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Vardanes II of Parthia was the son of Vologases I and briefly ruler of part of the Parthian Empire. ... This article is about the year 55. ... Events The Ficus Ruminales begins to die (see Rumina) Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Vologases II of Parthia was the son of Vologases I and ruled the Parthian Empire from about 77 to 80. ... For other uses, see number 77. ... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... Pacorus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 78 to 105. ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Artabanus III of Parthia was a rival for the crown of the Parthian Empire during the reign of Pacorus II, against whom he revolted; his own reign extended from about 80 to 90. ... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... This article is about the year 90. ... Coin of Vologases III. Reverse shows a seated archer carrying a bow, surrounded by meaningless Greek-like letterforms. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... Coin of Osroes I. The date ΗΚΥ is year 428 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 116–117. ... Events Tacitus completes The Annales of Imperial Rome. ... Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Diogenes to Patriarch Eleutherius. ... Coin of Parthamaspates. ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Coin of Mithridates IV. Reverse shows a seated archer holding a bow, surrounded by meaningless Greek-like letterforms and a line of Aramaic at top. ... Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Diogenes to Patriarch Eleutherius. ... Events Pope Pius I succeeded Pope Hyginus. ... Events Pope Pius I succeeded Pope Hyginus. ... Coin of Vologases IV. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... Events Serapion of Antioch becomes Patriarch of Antioch. ... Osroes II of Parthia was a claimant of the throne of the Parthian Empire c. ... Events A part of Rome burns, and emperor Commodus orders the city to be rebuilt under the name Colonia Commodiana First year of Chuping era of Chinese Han Dynasty Births 190 is a number Deaths Athenagoras of Athens, Christian apologist Categories: 190 ... Coin of Vologases V. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... Events Serapion of Antioch becomes Patriarch of Antioch. ... hello my name is marco u ... Coin of Vologases VI. The reverse shows the throned king receiving a diadem from Tyche. ... hello my name is marco u ... The Praetorian guard kill Ulpian, Praetorian prefect, who had wanted to reduce their privileges. ... Artabanus IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire (c. ... Events The Baths of Caracalla in Britain is divided into Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ...

References

  1. ^ Notice of Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibit
  2. ^ Parthia derives from Latin Parthia, from Old Persian Parthava-, a dialectical variant of the stem Parsa-, from which Persia derives its name. Ashkanian appears to have come from the Sassanian chronicles, from which they entered in Ferdowsi's epic poem Shahnama.
  3. ^ http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html
  4. ^ http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html
  5. ^ George Rawlinson, The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, 2002, Gorgias Press LLC ISBN 1931956480
  6. ^ Antiquities of the Jews, 11.5.2, from The Works of Josephus, translated by Whiston, W., Hendrickson Publishers. 1987. 13th Printing. p. 294.
  7. ^ http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia01.html
  8. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History, chapters 28 and 29
  9. ^ Silk Road, North China, C. Michael Hogan, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham (2007)
  10. ^ Arthur Keaveney examined Parthian foreign relations in two articles: "Roman treaties with Parthia, circa 95—circa 64 B.C." (American Journal of Philology 102 (1981:195-212) and "The King and the War-Lords: Romano-Parthian Relations Circa 64-53 B.C." (AJP 103 (1982:412-428).
  11. ^ The protocol when representatives met is investigated in J. Gagé, "L'Empereur Romain et les rois: politique et protocol," Revue Historique 1959.
  12. ^ Foreign Experts Talk of Siraf History. Cultural Heritage News Agency. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.

For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus Hakīm Abol-Qāsem Ferdowsī Tūsī (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Shahnameh Shahnameh Scenes from the Shahnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.[1]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 AD. Draft annotated English translation.[2]

Further reading

  • Debevoise, N.C. 1938. A Political History of Parthia

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Parthian Empire

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... The Parthian shot (or Parthian shaft) was a tactic employed by ancient Persian horse archers. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... An Shihkao was a translator of Buddhist texts into Chinese, and a Parthian of royal lineage. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Elymais were a people who were subject to Parthian control from 200bce to 200ce. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Parthia - LoveToKnow 1911 (1192 words)
It was inhabited by an Iranian tribe, the Parthava of the inscriptions of Darius; the correct Greek form is HapOvaioc.
Parthia became a province of the Achaemenian and then of the Macedonian Empire.
But Seleucus was soon recalled by a rebellion in Syria, and Arsaces returned victorious to Parthia; " the day of this victory is celebrated by the Parthians as the beginning of their independence " (Justin xli.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Parthia (1477 words)
Parthia was led by the Arsacid dynasty (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân), which reunited and ruled over the Iranian plateau, after defeating the Seleucids, beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between about 150 BCE and 224 CE.
Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east.
Parthia (mostly due to their invention of heavy cavalry) was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east; and it limited Rome's expansion beyond Cappadocia (central Anatolia).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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