FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Parsifal" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Parsifal
Operas by Richard Wagner

Die Hochzeit (1832)
Die Feen (1833)
Das Liebesverbot (1836)
Rienzi (1840)
Der fliegende Holländer (1843)
Tannhäuser (1845)
Lohengrin (1848)
Der Ring des Nibelungen: Das Rheingold (1854)
Der Ring des Nibelungen: Die Walküre (1856)
Tristan und Isolde (1859)
Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1867)
Der Ring des Nibelungen: Siegfried (1871)
Der Ring des Nibelungen: Götterdämmerung (1874)
Parsifal (1882) Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Die Hochzeit (The Wedding) is an unfinished opera by Richard Wagner. ... // History Die Feen (The Fairies) is one of Richard Wagners earlier operas. ... Das Liebesverbot (The Ban on Love) is an early opera by Richard Wagner. ... Rienzi, der Letzte der Tribunen (Rienzi, the Last of the Tribunes) is an early opera by Richard Wagner in five acts, with the libretto written by the composer after Bulwer-Lyttons novel of the same name. ... Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman) is an opera, with music and libretto by Richard Wagner. ... Tannhäuser or Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf die Wartburg (Tannhäuser and the Singers Contest on the Wartburg) is an opera in three acts, music and text by Richard Wagner, based on the two Germanic legends of Tannhäuser and the song contest at Wartburg. ... Lohengrin is a romantic opera (or music drama) in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... Die Walküre (The Valkyrie) is the second of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... Siegfried is the third of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ...   (Twilight of the Gods – see Notes) is the last of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ...

v  d  e

Parsifal is an opera, or music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. It is loosely based on Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival, the medieval (13th century) epic poem of the Arthurian knight Parzival (Percival) and his quest for the Holy Grail. For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Music drama is the term ascribed to the revolutionary medium of artistic expression created by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ... Parzival is one of the two great epic poems in Middle High German. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Britain. ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ...


During the first Act, Parsifal, an apparently witless fool, sees the suffering of the wounded Amfortas, King of an order of knights who guard the Grail. In the second Act Parsifal wanders into the domain of Klingsor, a magician who is trying to corrupt the Knights of the Grail and who has stolen from them the spear used to pierce Jesus Christ during his crucifixion. There Parsifal meets Kundry, the slave of Klingsor, who attempts to seduce him. In resisting her, he destroys Klingsor, and recovers the Spear. In the third Act, Parsifal returns to the Grail Kingdom to heal Amfortas. In theater, an act (noun) is a short performance that is part of a longer program. ... A fool can refer to: Look up fool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... The Enchanted Garden of Messer Ansaldo by Marie Spartali Stillman: a magician makes his garden bear fruit and flowers in winter. ... According to legend, the Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the lance that pierced Jesus while he was on the cross. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... It has been suggested that womanizer be merged into this article or section. ...


Wagner first conceived the work in April 1857 but it was not finished until twenty-five years later. It was to be Wagner's last completed opera and in composing it he took advantage of the particular sonority of his Bayreuth Festspielhaus. Parsifal was first produced at the second Bayreuth Festival in 1882. The Bayreuth Festival maintained an exclusive monopoly on Parsifal productions until 1903, when the opera was performed at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... This article is about the state. ...


Wagner preferred to describe Parsifal not as an opera, but as "ein Bühnenweihfestspiel" - "A Festival Play for the Consecration of the Stage". At Bayreuth a tradition has arisen that there is no applause after the first act of the opera.

Contents

Composition

Wagner first read Wolfram von Eschenbach's poem Parzival while taking the waters at Marienbad in 1845.[1] After encountering Arthur Schopenhauer's work in 1854, Wagner became interested in oriental philosophies, especially Buddhism. He was particularly inspired by reading Eugène Burnouf's "Introduction à l'histoire du buddhisme indien" in 1855/56. Out of this interest came "Die Sieger" ("The Victors", 1856) a sketch Wagner wrote for an opera based on a story from the life of Buddha.[2] The themes which were later explored in Parsifal of self-renouncing, reincarnation, compassion and even exclusive social groups (castes in Die Sieger, the Knights of the Grail in Parsifal) were first introduced in "Die Sieger".[3] Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ... Taking the waters at Bath became a fashionable means of leisure Lucy, A spa town is a town frequented many Lucys, mainly for health reasons, to take the waters. The often historical term derives from the Belgian town Spa. ... , Country  Czech Republic Region District Commune Elevation 578 m (1,896 ft) Coordinates , Area 51. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Eugène Burnouf (April 8, 1801 - May 28, 1852) was a French orientalist. ... The Victors is the fight song of the University of Michigan (UM). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ...


According to his own account, recorded in his autobiography Mein Leben, Wagner conceived Parsifal on Good Friday morning, April 1857, in the Asyl (German: "Asylum"), the small cottage on Otto von Wesendonck’s estate in the Zürich suburb of Enge, which Wesendonck - a wealthy silk merchant and generous patron of the arts - had placed at Wagner’s disposal.[4] The composer and his wife Minna had moved into the cottage on 28 April: Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"... on Good Friday I awoke to find the sun shining brightly for the first time in this house: the little garden was radiant with green, the birds sang, and at last I could sit on the roof and enjoy the long-yearned-for peace with its message of promise. Full of this sentiment, I suddenly remembered that the day was Good Friday, and I called to mind the significance this omen had already once assumed for me when I was reading Wolfram's Parzival. Since the sojourn in Marienbad [in the summer of 1845], where I had conceived Die Meistersinger and Lohengrin, I had never occupied myself again with that poem; now its noble possibilities struck me with overwhelming force, and out of my thoughts about Good Friday I rapidly conceived a whole drama, of which I made a rough sketch with a few dashes of the pen, dividing the whole into three acts." [5] Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ... Parzival is one of the two great epic poems in Middle High German. ... Mariánské Lázně (German: Marienbad) is a spa town in the Carlsbad Region of the Czech Republic. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... Lohengrin is a romantic opera (or music drama) in three acts by Richard Wagner. ...

However, as he later admitted to his second wife Cosima Wagner, this account had been coloured by a certain amount of poetic licence: Bust of Cosima Wagner in Bayreuth Festspielpark Cosima Wagner in London (1877) Cosima Francesca Gaetana Wagner (December 24, 1837 - April 1, 1930) was the daughter of the virtuoso pianist and composer Franz Liszt. ...

22 April 1879: "R[ichard] today recalled the impression which inspired his “Good Friday Music”; he laughs, saying he had thought to himself, “In fact it is all as far-fetched as my love affairs, for it was not a Good Friday at all - just a pleasant mood in Nature which made me think, ‘This is how a Good Friday ought to be’”. [6] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

The work may indeed have been conceived at Wesendonck's cottage in the last week of April 1857, but Good Friday that year fell on 10 April, when the Wagners were still living at Zeltweg 13 in Zürich.[7] If the prose sketch which Wagner mentions in Mein Leben was accurately dated (and most of Wagner’s surviving papers are dated), it could settle the issue once and for all, but unfortunately it has not survived. 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ...


Wagner did not resume work on Parsifal for eight years, during which time he completed Tristan und Isolde and began Die Meistersinger. Then, between 27 and 30 August 1865, he took up Parsifal again and made a prose draft of the work; this contains a fairly brief outline of the plot and a considerable amount of detailed commentary on the characters and themes of the drama. [8] But once again the work was dropped and set aside for another eleven and a half years. During this time most of Wagner’s creative energy was devoted to the Ring cycle, which was finally completed in 1874 and given its first full performance at Bayreuth in August 1876. Only when this gargantuan task had been accomplished did Wagner find the time to concentrate on Parsifal. By 23 February 1877 he had completed a second and more extensive prose draft of the work, and by 19 April of the same year he had transformed this into a verse libretto (or “poem”, as Wagner liked to call his libretti).[9] Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ...


In September 1877 he began the music by making two complete drafts of the score from beginning to end. The first of these (known in German as the Gesamtentwurf and in English as either the Preliminary Draft or the First Complete Draft) was made in pencil on three staves, one for the voices and two for the instruments. The second complete draft (Orchesterskizze, Orchestral Draft, Short Score or Particell) was made in ink and on at least three, but sometimes as many as five, staves. This draft was much more detailed than the first and contained a considerable degree of instrumental elaboration.[10] 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... In musical notation, the staff or stave is a set of five horizontal lines on which note symbols are placed to indicate pitch and rhythm. ...


The second draft was begun on 25 September 1877, just a few days after the first: at this point in his career Wagner liked to work on both drafts simultaneously, switching back and forth between the two so as not to allow too much time to elapse between his initial setting of the text and the final elaboration of the music. The Gesamtentwurf of Act III was completed on 16 April 1879 and the Orchesterskizze on the 26th of the same month.[11] is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The full score (Partiturerstschrift) was the final stage in the compositional process. It was made in ink and consisted of a fair copy of the entire opera, with all the voices and instruments properly notated according to standard practice.


Wagner composed Parsifal one act at a time, completing the Gesamtentwurf and Orchesterskizze of each act before beginning the Gesamtentwurf of the next act; but because the Orchesterskizze already embodied all the compositional details of the full score, the actual drafting of the Partiturerstschrift was regarded by Wagner as little more than a routine task which could be done whenever he found the time. The Prelude of Act I was scored in August 1878. The rest of the opera was scored between August 1879 and 13 January 1882.[12] 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Parsifal in performance

Amalie Materna
Emil Scaria and Hermann Winkelmann in the 1882 premiere production of Parsifal
Poster for the premier production of Parsifal - 1882
Poster for the premier production of Parsifal - 1882

Image File history File links Parsifal. ... Image File history File links Parsifal. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 360 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (638 × 1062 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parsifal affisch 1882 Zman 20:32, 24 March 2006 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 360 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (638 × 1062 pixel, file size: 177 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parsifal affisch 1882 Zman 20:32, 24 March 2006 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert...

The Premiere

On 12 November 1880 Wagner conducted a private performance of the Prelude for his patron Ludwig II of Bavaria at the Court Theatre in Munich.[13] The premiere of the entire work was given in the Festspielhaus at Bayreuth on 26 July 1882 under the baton of the German-born Jewish conductor Hermann Levi. Stage designs were by Max Brückner and Paul von Joukowsky who took their lead from Wagner himself. The Grail hall was based on the interior of Siena Cathedral which Wagner had visited in 1880, while Klingsor's magic garden was modelled on those at the Palazzo Rufolo in Ravello. [14] In July and August of 1882 sixteen performances of the work were given in Bayreuth conducted by Levi and Franz Fischer. The production boasted an orchestra of 107, a chorus of 135 and 23 soloists (with the main parts being double cast).[15] At the last of these performances, Wagner took the baton from Levi and conducted the final scene of Act 3 from the orchestral interlude to the end.[16] is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Bavaria (August 25, 1845 – June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hermann Levi (born November 7, 1839 in Giessen; died May 13, 1900 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen) was a German orchestral conductor. ... Duomo di Siena is the medieval cathedral of Siena, Italy. ... Ravellos church in the main square. ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ...


At the first performances of Parsifal problems with the moving scenery during the transition from Scene one to Scene two in Act 1 meant that Wagner's existing orchestral interlude finished before Parsifal and Gurnemanz arrived at the Hall of the Grail. Engelbert Humperdinck, who was assisting the production, provided a few extra bars of music to cover this gap. [17] In subsequent years this problem was solved and Humperdinck's additions were not used. Engelbert Humperdinck (September 1, 1854 – September 27, 1921) was a German composer, best known for his opera, Hänsel und Gretel (1893). ...


The ban on Parsifal outside Bayreuth

For the first twenty years of its existence, the only staged performances of Parsifal (apart from eight private performances for Ludwig II at Munich in 1884 and 1885) took place in the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, the venue for which Wagner conceived the work. Wagner had two reasons for wanting to keep 'Parsifal' exclusively for the Bayreuth stage. Firstly, he wanted to prevent 'Parsifal' from degenerating into 'mere amusement' for an opera-going public. Only at Bayreuth could his last work be presented in the way envisaged by him - a tradition maintained by his wife, Cosima, long after his death. Secondly he thought that 'Parsifal' would provide an income for his family after his death if Bayreuth had the monopoly on its performance. Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Bavaria (August 25, 1845 – June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ...


The Bayreuth authorities allowed unstaged performances to take place in various countries after Wagner's death (e.g. London in 1884, New York in 1886, and Amsterdam in 1894) but they maintained an embargo on stage performances outside Bayreuth. On 24 December 1903, after receiving a court ruling that performances in the USA could not be prevented by Bayreuth, the New York Metropolitan Opera staged the complete opera, using many Bayreuth-trained singers, much to the chagrin of Wagner's family. Unauthorized stage performances were also undertaken in Amsterdam in 1905, 1906 and 1908. In 1913, Wagner's centenary year, Bayreuth's monopoly on the work was finally broken and since then the work has been freely staged throughout the world. [18]The first authorized performance was mounted in Barcelona: it began one hour before midnight on December 31 1912, taking advantage of the one hour time difference which existed at that time between Barcelona and Bayreuth. Such was the demand for Parsifal that it was presented in more than 50 European opera houses between January 1st and August 1st 1914.[19] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The façade of the Liceu, as viewed from the Ramblas The Gran Teatre del Liceu (or simply Liceu; in Spanish: Liceo) is an opera house on Las Ramblas in Barcelona. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ...


Applause during Parsifal

At Bayreuth performances audiences do not applaud at the end of the first act. This tradition is the result of a misunderstanding arising from Wagner's desire at the premiere to maintain the serious mood of the opera. After much applause following the first and second acts, Wagner spoke to the audience and said that the cast would take no curtain calls until the end of the performance. This confused the audience, who remained silent at the end of the opera until Wagner addressed them again, saying that he did not mean that they could not applaud. After the performance Wagner complained "Now I don't know. Did the audience like it or not?" [20] At following performances some believed that Wagner had wanted no applause until the very end, and there was silence after the first two acts. Eventually it became a Bayreuth tradition that no applause would be heard after the first act, however this was certainly not Wagner's idea. In fact during the first Bayreuth performances Wagner himself cried "Bravo!" as the Flower-maidens made their exit in the Second Act, only to be hissed by other members of the audience. [21] At theatres other than Bayreuth, applause and curtain-calls is normal practice after every act. Premiere, from French language première meaning first, generally means a first performance. Premieres for theatrical, musical, and other productions are often extravagant affairs, attracting large numbers of socialites and much media attention. ... Curtain Call: The Hits will be Eminems fifth major label release. ...


Post-War Performances

Parsifal is one of the Wagner operas regularly presented at the Bayreuth Festival to this day. Among the more significant post-war productions was that directed in 1951 by Wieland Wagner, the composer's grandson. At the first Bayreuth Festival after World War 2 he presented a radical move away from literal representation of the Hall of the Grail or the Flower-Maiden's bower. Instead, lighting effects and the bare minimum of scenery were used to complement Wagner's music. This production was heavily influenced by the ideas of the Swiss stage designer, Adolphe Appia. The reaction to this production was extreme: Ernest Newman, Wagner's biographer described it as "not only the best Parsifal I have ever seen and heard, but one of the three or four most moving spiritual experiences of my life".[22] Others were appalled that Wagner's stage directions were being flouted. The conductor of the 1951 production, Hans Knappertsbusch, on being asked how he could conduct such a disgraceful travesty, declared that right up until the dress rehearsal he imagined that the stage decorations were still to come.[23] Knappertsbusch was particularly upset by the omission of the dove which appears over Parsifal's head at the end of the opera, which he claimed inspired him to give better performances. To placate his conductor Wieland arranged to reinstate the dove, which descended on a string. What Knappertsbusch did not realise was that Wieland had made the length of the string sufficient so that the conductor could see the dove, but the audience could not. [24] Wieland continued to modify and refine his Bayreuth production of Parsifal until his death in 1966. Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ... Wieland Wagner, (born 1917, died 1966). ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... Adolphe Appia (* September 1, 1862 in Geneva; † February 29, 1928 in Nyon), son of Red Cross co-founder Louis Appia, was a Swiss architect and theorist of stage lighting and décor. ... Ernest Newman (November 30, 1868 – July 7, 1959) was an English music critic. ... Hans Knappertsbusch (March 12, 1888 - October 25, 1965) German conductor born in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal), best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss. ... Dress Rehearsal may refer to: Dress Rehearsal (UK TV), a BBC television special starring Eric Sykes Dress Rehearsal, a series of Canadian television specials which were a preview of the series Drop-In Dress Rehearsal, the 2004 album by singer/songwriter Carolyn Dawn Johnson Dress rehearsal, a practice of an... Peace sign ------redirects here. ...


Roles

Role Voice type Premiere Cast
July 26, 1882
(Conductor: Hermann Levi)
The Met Premiere Cast
December 24, 1903
(Conductor: Alfred Hertz)
Parsifal tenor Hermann Winkelmann Alois Burgstaller
Kundry mezzo-soprano
or soprano
Amalia Materna Milka Ternina
Gurnemanz, a veteran Knight of the Grail bass Emil Scaria Robert Blass
Amfortas, ruler of the Grail kingdom baritone Theodor Reichmann Anton van Rooy
Klingsor, a magician bass Karl Hill Otto Goritz
Titurel, Amfortas' father bass August Kindermann Marcel Journet
Two Grail Knights tenor,
bass
Anton Fuchs
Eugen Stumpf
Bayer
Muhlmann
Four Esquires sopranos,
tenors
Hermine Galfy
Mathilde Keil
Max Mikorey
Adolf von Hübbenet
Moran
Braendle
Harden
Bayer
Six Flowermaidens 3 sopranos,
3 contraltos
or 6 sopranos
Pauline Horson
Johanna Meta
Carrie Pringle
Johanna André
Hermine Galfy
Luise Belce
Voice from Above, Eine Stimme contralto Sophie Dompierre Louise Homer
Knights of the Grail, boys, flowermaidens

Hermann Levi (born November 7, 1839 in Giessen; died May 13, 1900 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen) was a German orchestral conductor. ... Alfred Hertz was featured on the cover of Time magazine, October 31 1927 Alfred Hertz (born July 15, 1872 in Frankfurt, died April 17, 1942 in San Francisco, was a German-American conductor. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... Alois Burgstaller, (1871-1945), a trained watchmaker, loved to sing. ... A mezzo-soprano (meaning medium soprano in Italian) is a female singer with a range usually extending from the A below middle C to the F an eleventh above middle C. Mezzo-sopranos generally have a darker (or lower) vocal tone than sopranos, and their vocal range is between that... This article is about the voice-type. ... Milka Ternina (December 19, 1863-May 18, 1941) was a Croatian dramatic soprano. ... A bass (or basso in Italian) is a male singer who sings in the deepest vocal range of the human voice. ... Emil Scaria (September 18, 1838)-July 23-1886) was an Austrian bass-baritone. ... For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... Anton van Rooy (January 1, 1870-November 28, 1932) was a Dutch baritone. ... Marcel Journet (1867 – 1933) was a French tenor. ... In music, an alto is a singer with a vocal range somewhere between a tenor and a soprano. ...

Synopsis

Place: Spain, the castle of Monsalvat and Klingsor's magic palace. Montserrat mountain is the site of a Benedictine abbey. ...


Act I

Scene One

Ethereal music –– in a major chord –– is heard, reaching an octave note to finish. The sequence is reprised in a minor chord that fails to hit the high note at its end. Finally, the Grail leitmotif is followed by a brassy 'Faith' leitmotif. The prelude closes with the Fool's wanderings, reaching final resolution as he finds the Holy Forest. A leitmotif (IPA pronunciation: ) (also leitmotiv; lit. ...


In a forest near the castle of Monsalvat, home of the Grail and its Knights, Gurnemanz, eldest Knight of the Grail, wakes his young squires and leads them in prayer. He sees Amfortas and his retinue approach, and asks its lead Knight for news of the King’s health. The knight says that the King has suffered during the night and is going early for his bath in the holy lake. The squires ask Gurnemanz to explain how the King’s injury can be healed, but he evades their question and a wild woman––Kundry––bursts in. She gives Gurnemanz a vial of balsam, brought from Arabia, to ease the King’s pain and then collapses, exhausted. For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Grail may refer to: Holy Grail Grail (web browser) The grail community of Pinner, England is a group of Catholic women, who have translated the Psalms in a renowned version. ... For other uses, see Squire (disambiguation). ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...

Parsifal by Hermann Hendrich
Parsifal by Hermann Hendrich

Amfortas, King of the Grail Knights, is carried in on a stretcher. He calls for Gawain, whose own attempt at relieving the King's pain had failed. The King is told that this Knight has already left, seeking a better remedy. Angrily, the king says that leaving without permission is the sort of impetuousity which led Amfortas himself into Klingsor’s realm, and to his downfall. He accepts Kundry’s potion and tries to thank her, but she answers hastily that thanks will not help and urges him to his bath. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Parsifal by Hermann Hendrich Hermann Hendrich (born 31 October 1854 in Heringen in Thuringia, Germany; died 18 July 1931 in Schreiberhau in Niederschlesien, Germany) was a German painter. ... ambulancers using a stretcher (profile) ambulancers using a stretcher (front) Soldiers using a simple stretcher A stretcher is a device used in medical professions to carry casualties or an incapacitated person from one place to another. ...


The King's procession continues on. Once it has gone, the squires eye Kundry mistrustfully and question her. After one short retort, she falls silent. Gurnemanz tells them that Kundry has often helped the Grail Knights but that she appears and disappears at her whim. When he himself asks her why she does not stay to help, she replies that she never helps. The squires think she is a witch and sneer that if she is so helpful, why does she not find the Holy Spear for them? Gurnemanz solemnly tells that this deed is destined for someone else. He mentions that Amfortas had been the guardian of the Spear, but lost hold of it as he was seduced by an irresistibly attractive woman in Klingsor’s domain. Klingsor then grabbed the Spear and stabbed Amfortas: this wound in Amfortas’ side causes his suffering and, as told by Gurnemanz, will never heal on its own. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... According to legend, the Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the lance that pierced Jesus while he was on the cross. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ...


Two squires, returning from the King’s bath, tell Gurnemanz that Kundry’s balsam has eased the King’s sufferings for the moment. His squires ask Gurnemanz if he knew Klingsor. He tells them how both the Holy Spear, which pierced the side of the Redeemer on the Cross, and the Holy Grail, which caught the outflowing blood, had come to Monsalvat to be guarded by the Knights of the Grail under the rule of Titurel –– Amfortas’ father. Klingsor had yearned to join the Knights but unable to drive impure thoughts from his mind, resorted to self-castration, causing his expulsion from the Knights' order. Made bitter, Klingsor set himself up in opposition to the Kingdom of the Grail, learning dark arts and claiming a domain full of beautiful flower-maidens who seduce and enthrall Knights of the Grail. It was here that Amfortas lost the Holy Spear, which Klingsor now held while greedily eyeing the Grail, wanting it as well. Gurnemanz tells how Amfortas later had a holy vision which told him to wait for a “pure fool, enlightened by compassion” (“Durch Mitleid wissend, der reine Tor”) who would finally heal the wound. Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Castration, gelding, neutering, orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes. ... A fool can refer to: Look up fool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Enlightenment broadly means the acquisition of new wisdom or understanding enabling clarity of perception. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ...


Just at this moment, cries are heard from the Knights: a flying swan has been shot, and a young man is brought forth, a bow in his hand and carrying a quiver of matching arrows. Gurnemanz speaks sternly to the lad and tells him that this is a holy domain. He then asks the lad if he did this deed and the lad boasts that if it flies, he can hit it ("Im Fluge treff' ich was fliegt!") The elderly Knight asks what harm the swan had done, getting the lad to notice the swan's blood-flecked remains, limp wings and lifeless eyes. Now remorseful, the young man breaks his bow and casts it aside. Gurnemanz now asks why the lad is here, who is his father, how the lad found this place and, lastly, his name. To each question the lad replies, "I don't know." The elder Knight sends his squires away to help the King, then asks the young man to tell what he does know. The Fool says he has a mother, named Herzeleide, and that he himself made his bow. Kundry has been listening and now she tells them that this boy’s father was Gamuret, a knight killed in battle, and also how the lad’s mother had forbidden her son to use a sword, fearing that he would meet the same fate as his father. Parsifal exclaims that upon seeing Knights pass through his forest, he immediately left his mother to follow them. Kundry laughs and tells the young man that his mother has died of grief, at which the lad attempts to grab Kundry, but then collapses in grief. Kundry herself now seems overcome with sleep, but cries out that she must not sleep and wishes that she would never waken. She crawls into the undergrowth to rest. For other uses, see Swan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... For other uses, see Battle (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ...


Gurnemanz knows that the Grail leads only the pious to Monsalvat and thus takes the lad to observe the Grail ritual. Parsifal does not know what the Grail is but remarks, as they walk, that while he seems scarcely to move, he has travelled far. Gurnemanz says that in this realm, time becomes space. An orchestral interlude leads into Scene Two. For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ...


Scene Two

They arrive at the Hall of the Grail, where the Knights are assembling to receive Holy Communion. The voice of Titurel is heard, telling his son, Amfortas, to uncover the Grail. Amfortas is racked with shame and suffering (" Wehvolles Erbe, dem ich verfallen"). He is the Guardian of the Grail, and yet he has succumbed to temptation and lost the Holy Spear: he declares himself unworthy of his office. He cries out for forgiveness (“Erbarmen!”) but hears only the promise of future redemption by the pure fool. On hearing Amfortas' cry, the boy appears to suffer with him, clutching at his heart. The Knights and Titurel urge Amfortas to reveal the Grail, which he finally does. The Hall is bathed in the light of the Grail as the Knights commune. Gurnemanz motions to the boy to participate, but he, entranced, does not notice. Amfortas does not commune, and as the ceremony ends, he collapses in pain and is taken out. Slowly the Hall empties leaving only the boy and Gurnemanz, who asks him if he has understood what he has seen. The boy cannot answer and is roughly ejected by Gurnemanz with a warning not to shoot swans. A voice from heaven repeats the promise, “The pure fool, enlightened by compassion." The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... For other uses, see Forgiveness (disambiguation). ... This article is about philosophical term. ... For other uses of the word, see Redemption Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation. ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... For other uses, see Hall (disambiguation). ... The word voice can be used to refer to: Sound: The human voice. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...


Act II

Scene One

The second act opens in Klingsor’s magic castle, where he calls up his servant to enslave a foolish boy who has found his way into this magician's domain ("Die Zeit ist da."). He names her: Herodias, Gundryggia and, lastly, Kundry. She is transformed into an incredibly alluring woman, as when she seduced Amfortas. Waking from a deep sleep, she resists Klingsor. As he claims power over her, she mocks his enforced chastity, which casts him into self-reproach. Then she herself succumbs to an ancient curse. Klingsor now calls upon the Knights in his domain to attack the lad, but can only watch as the newcomer wounds them and beats them back. He sees this young man stray into his Flower-maiden garden and calls to Kundry to seek the boy out – but she has already gone. For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Herodias (c. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ...

Parsifal postcard around 1900 - unknown artist
Parsifal postcard around 1900 - unknown artist

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Scene Two

The triumphant lad now finds himself in a Garden, surrounded by beautiful and seductive Flower-maidens. They call to him, and entwine themselves about him while chiding him for wounding their lovers,... and for resisting their charms ("Komm, komm, holder Knabe!"). They soon fight amongst themselves to win his singular devotion but are stilled as a voice calls out, "Parsifal!" The boy now remembers that this name is what his mother used when appearing in his dreams. The Flower-maidens recoil from him and call him a fool as they leave Parsifal and Kundry alone. He wonders if this has all been a dream and asks how she knows his name. Kundry tells him that she knows his name from his mother ("Ich sah das Kind an seiner Mutter Brust."), who had loved him and tried to shield him from his father’s fate, the mother he had abandoned and who had finally died of grief. Parsifal is overcome with remorse and blames himself for his mother’s death. He thinks he must be very stupid to have forgotten his own mother. Kundry says that this realization is his first sign of understanding, and that she can help him understand his mother’s love by kissing him. A lengthy kiss ensues, but Parsifal recoils in pain and cries out for Amfortas: Parsifal feels Amfortas' wound burning in his own side, and now understands Amfortas’ passion during the Grail Ceremony ("Amfortas! Die Wunde! Die Wunde!") Filled with this compassion for Amfortas, Parsifal rejects Kundry. For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... For the American rock band, see Kiss (band). ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ...


Furious, Kundry tells Parsifal that if he can feel compassion for Amfortas, then he must feel compassion for her as well. She has been cursed for centuries, unable to rest, because she saw the Savior on the cross and laughed. Now she can never weep, only laugh, and though she seems to be the slave of the Spear-carrier, due to her curse, she lives only to seduce. He rejects her again and asks her to lead him to Amfortas. She begs him to stay with her for just one hour, and then she will lead him to Amfortas. When he still refuses, she curses him to wander without ever finding the Kingdom of the Grail, and finally she calls on Klingsor to help her. The Wandering Jew by Gustave Doré. For other uses, see Wandering Jew (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Look up Schadenfreude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock...


Klingsor appears and throws the Spear at Parsifal, which halts in midair, above his head. Parsifal seizes it and makes the sign of the Cross, and the castle crumbles. As he leaves, he tells Kundry that she knows where she can find him again. A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope...


Act III

Scene One

"Parsifal revealing the Holy Grail" by Franz Stassen (1869-1949) from Parsifal: A Drama by Wagner Retold by Oliver Huckel (Crowell, New York, 1903)
"Parsifal revealing the Holy Grail" by Franz Stassen (1869-1949) from Parsifal: A Drama by Wagner Retold by Oliver Huckel (Crowell, New York, 1903)

The Third act opens again at the Kingdom of the Grail, many years later. Gurnemanz, now aged and bent, hears a crying outside his hut and discovers Kundry unconscious. He revives her, using water from the Holy Spring, but she will only speak the word “serve” (“Dienen”). Gurnemanz wonders if there is any significance in the fact that she has reappeared on this special day. He then notices a figure dressed in full armour approaching. He cannot see who it is because the stranger wears a helmet, and does not speak. Finally the apparition removes its helmet and Gurnemanz recognises the boy who shot the swan, and then realises that the spear carried by him is the Holy Spear. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ...


Parsifal tells of his desire to return to Amfortas (" Zu ihm, des tiefe Klagen.") He relates his journey, wandering for years unable to find the path back to the Grail: he has often been forced to fight, but has never wielded the Spear in battle. Gurnemanz tells him that the curse preventing Parsifal from finding his right path has now been lifted, but that in his absence Amfortas has refused to reveal the Grail, and that Titurel has died. Parsifal is overcome with remorse, blaming himself for this state of affairs. Gurnemanz tells him that today is the day of Titurel’s funeral rites, and that Parsifal has a great duty to perform. Kundry washes Parsifal’s feet and Gurnemanz anoints him with water from the Holy Spring, recognising him as the pure fool, now enlightened by compassion, and as the new King of the Knights of the Grail. People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... To anoint is to apply perfumed oil. ...


Parsifal comments on the beauty of the meadow and Gurnemanz explains that today is Good Friday, when all the world is renewed. Parsifal baptizes the weeping Kundry. A short orchestral interlude leads into Scene Two. Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ...


Scene Two

Once more they travel to the Hall of the Grail. Amfortas is brought before the Grail and before Titurel’s coffin. He cries out to his dead father to offer him rest from his sufferings, and wishes to join him in death (" Mein vater!Hochgesegneter der Helden!") The Knights of Grail urge Amfortas angrily to reveal the Grail to them again, but Amfortas in a frenzy says he will never reveal the Grail and commands his Knights to kill him. At this moment, Parsifal arrives and says that only one weapon can perform this task (" Nur eine Waffe taugt"): with the Spear he heals Amfortas’ wound and forgives him. He commands the revealing of the Grail. All kneel while Kundry, released from her curse, sinks lifeless to the ground while a white dove descends to hover over the head of Parsifal. For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Peace sign ------redirects here. ...


Criticism and Influence

As Wagner's last opera, Parsifal has been both influential and controversial. The use of Christian symbols in Parsifal (the Grail, the Spear, references to the Redeemer) have sometimes led to it being regarded almost as a religious rite. It should be noted, however, that Wagner never actually refers to Jesus Christ by name in the opera, preferring instead to refer to "The Redeemer". In his essay "Religion and Art" Wagner himself described the use of Christian imagery thus: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

"When religion becomes artificial, art has a duty to rescue it. Art can show that the symbols which religions would have us believe literally true are actually figurative. Art can idealize those symbols, and so reveal the profound truths they contain."[25]

Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche, who was originally one of Wagner's champions, chose to use Parsifal as the grounds for his breach with Wagner. In "Nietzsche contra Wagner" he wrote: Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Nietzsche contra Wagner (1889) is a critical work by Friedrich Nietzsche, written late in Nietzsches life. ...

"Parsifal is a work of perfidy, of vindictiveness, of a secret attempt to poison the presuppositions of life - a bad work. The preaching of chastity remains an incitement to anti-nature: I despise everyone who does not experience Parsifal as an attempted assassination of basic ethics."[26]

Despite this attack on the subject matter, he also admitted that the music was sublime: "Has Wagner ever written anything better?" (Letter to Peter Gast, 1887). Claude Debussy, who was in later years very critical of Wagner and his influence, called it "one of the loveliest monuments of sound ever raised to the serene glory of music". Gustav Mahler, who attended the premiere, stated afterwards: "When I came out of the Festspielhaus, unable to speak a word, I knew that I had experienced supreme greatness and supreme suffering, and that this experience, hallowed and unsullied, would stay with me for the rest of my life". Parsifal was a major source of inspiration for T. S. Eliot's poem "The Waste Land", and also adapted for the screen (in a highly controversial fashion) by director Hans-Jürgen Syberberg. Heinrich Köselitz (10 January 1854 - 15 August 1918) was a German author and composer. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ... Hans-Jürgen Syberberg (December 8, 1935 - ) is one of the most controversial directors of New German Cinema. ...

Perceived racism of the libretto

Some writers see in the opera the promotion of racism and anti-semitism [27][28] suggesting that Parsifal was written in support of the ideas of Arthur de Gobineau who advocated Aryanism. Parsifal is proposed as the "pure-blooded" (ie Aryan) hero who overcomes Klingsor, who is perceived as a Jewish stereotype, particularly since he opposes the quasi-Christian Knights of the Grail. Such claims remain heavily debated,[29][30][31] since there is nothing explicit in the libretto to support them, and Cosima Wagner's diaries, which relate in great detail Wagner's thoughts over the last 14 years of his life (including the period covering the composition and first performance of Parsifal) never mention any such intention. Wagner first met Gobineau very briefly in 1876, but he only read Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races[32] in 1880. However, Wagner had completed the libretto for Parsifal by 1877, and the original drafts of the story date back to 1857. Despite this lack of chronology, Gobineau is frequently cited as a major inspiration for Parsifal.[33] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Arthur de Gobineau. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Aryan race is a notion mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions and other Persian sources from c. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races by Joseph Arthur Comte de Gobineau is an early and significant work defining the concept of Scientific racism and White supremacy. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


There is no evidence that Parsifal was perceived as racist by its contemporaries; otherwise it would be difficult to understand why the Bayreuth première was directed by the German-Jewish conductor Hermann Levi.


If indeed Parsifal so clearly expressed the concept of Aryan supremacy then it would doubtless have been popular with the Nazi party in 20th Century Germany. In fact, the Nazis placed a de facto ban on performances of Parsifal because of its "pacifist undertones".[34] The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Schopenhauer

Other writers (particularly Bryan Magee) [35] see Parsifal as Wagner's last great espousal of Schopenhaurian philosophy. Parsifal can heal Amfortas and redeem Kundry because he shows compassion, which Schopenhauer saw as the highest form of human morality. Moreover, he displays compassion in the face of enormous sexual temptation (Act 2 scene 3). Once again, Schopenhaurian philosophy suggests that the only escape from the ever-present temptations of human life is through negation of the Will, and overcoming sexual temptation is in particular a strong form of negation of the Will. When viewed in this light, Parsifal, with its emphasis on "Mitleid" (compassion) is a natural follow-on to Tristan und Isolde, where Schopenhauer's influence is perhaps more obvious, with its focus on "Sehnen" (yearning). Indeed, Wagner originally considered including Parsifal as a character in Act 3 of Tristan, but later rejected the idea.[36] Bryan Magee (born April 12, 1930) is a noted British broadcasting personality, politician, and author, best known as a popularizer of philosophy. ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ...


Many music theorists have used Parsifal to explore difficulties in analyzing the chromaticism of late 19th century music. Theorists such as David Lewin and Richard Cohn have explored the importance of certain pitches and harmonic progressions both in structuring and symbolizing the work.[37][38] The unusual harmonic progressions in the leitmotifs which structure the piece, as well as the heavy chromaticism of Act II, make it a difficult work to parse not only philosophically, but musically. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Musical analysis can be defined as a process attempting to answer the question how does this music work?. The method employed to answer this question, and indeed exactly what is meant by the question, differs from analyst to analyst. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... David Lewin (July 2, 1933-May 5, 2003) was an American music theorist and composer. ... A leitmotif (also spelled leitmotiv) is a recurring musical theme, associated within a particular piece of music with a particular person, place or idea. ...


Listening to Parsifal

This section serves as an introduction to appreciating the music of Parsifal.


Leitmotifs

A leitmotif is a recurring musical theme associated within a particular piece of music with a particular person, place or idea. Wagner is the composer most often associated with leitmotifs, and Parsifal makes liberal use of them. The opening prelude introduces two important leitmotifs, the Communion theme and the Grail. These two, and Parsifal's own motive, are repeatedly referenced during the course of the opera. Other characters, especially Klingsor, Amfortas, and "The Voice," which sings the Tormotif (Fool's motive), have their own particular leitmotifs. Wagner uses the Dresden amen to represent the Grail, this motif being a sequence of notes he would have known since his childhood in Dresden. A leitmotif (IPA pronunciation: ) (also leitmotiv; lit. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ...


Notable Arias and orchestral excerpts

As is common in mature Wagner operas, Parsifal was composed with each act being a continuous block of music ("durchcomponiert"), hence there are no free-standing arias in the work. However a number of orchestral excerpts from the opera were arranged by Wagner himself and remain in the concert repertory. The overture to Act 1 is frequently performed either alone or in conjunction with an arrangement of the "Good Friday" music which accompanies the second half of Act 3 scene 1. Kundry's long solo in Act 2 ("Ich sah das Kind") is occasionally performed in concert, as is Amfortas' lament from Act 1 ("Wehvolles Erbe"). Through-composed describes music which is relatively continuous, non-sectional, and/or non-repetitive. ... This article is about aria, a type of music. ...


Media

  • Parsifal (Act III) 6:29 (1523 kB) - Libretto

Wiener Staatsoper, Orchester der Wiener Staatsoper, Donald Runnicles, Vienna, 11 April 2004 is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Parsifal: Finale To Act III 4:00

Max Von Schillings / State Opera Orchestra, Berlin


Recordings of Parsifal

Parsifal was expressly composed for the stage at Bayreuth and many of the most famous recordings of the opera come from live performances on that stage. In the pre-LP era, Karl Muck conducted excerpts from the opera at Bayreuth which are still considered some of the best performances of the opera on disc (they also contain the only sound evidence of the bells constructed for the work's premiere, which were later melted down by the Nazis during World War II). Hans Knappertsbusch was the conductor most closely associated with Parsifal at Bayreuth in the post-war years, and the performances under his baton in 1951 marked the re-opening of the Bayreuth Festival after the Second World War. These historic performances were recorded and are available on the Teldec label in mono sound. Knappertsbusch recorded the opera again for Philips in 1962 in stereo, and this release is often considered to be the classic Parsifal recording.[39] There are also many "unofficial" live recordings from Bayreuth, capturing virtually every Parsifal cast ever conducted by Knappertsbusch. The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Hans Knappertsbusch (March 12, 1888 - October 25, 1965) German conductor born in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal), best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss. ... Bayreuth Festspielhaus, as seen in 1882 The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany is devoted principally (but not exclusively) to performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Amongst the studio recordings, those by Georg Solti, Herbert von Karajan and Daniel Barenboim (the latter two both conducting the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra) have been widely praised.[40] The von Karajan recording was voted "Record of the Year" in the 1981 Gramophone Awards. Also highly regarded is a recording of Parsifal under the baton of Rafael Kubelík originally made for Deutsche Grammophon, now reissued on Arts Archives. Sir Georg Solti, KBE (IPA: ) (German:[]) (21 October 1912 – 5 September 1997) was a 31-time Grammy Award winning, world-renowned Hungarian-British orchestral and operatic conductor. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ... The Gramophone Awards are one of the most significant honours bestowed on the classical record industry, often referred to as the Oscars for classical music. ... Rafael Jeroným Kubelík (Býchory, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, today Czech Republic, June 29, 1914 – August 11, 1996 in Kastanienbaum, Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland) was a Czech conductor and composer. ...


There are many recordings of Parsifal, some of the most popular being listed below.

Year Cast
(Parsifal, Kundry,
Gurnemanz, Amfortas, Klingsor)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label
Stereo/Mono
1951 Wolfgang Windgassen, Martha Mödl,
Ludwig Weber, George London,
Hermann Uhde
Hans Knappertsbusch
Bayreuth Festspielhaus orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Teldec
Cat:9031760472
Mono
1962 Jess Thomas, Irene Dalis,
Hans Hotter, George London,
Gustav Neidlinger
Hans Knappertsbusch
Bayreuth Festspielhaus orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Philips
Cat:4757785
Stereo
1970 James King, Dame Gwyneth Jones,
Franz Crass, Thomas Stewart,
Sir Donald McIntyre
Pierre Boulez
Bayreuth Festspielhaus orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat:4357182
Stereo
1972 René Kollo, Christa Ludwig,
Gottlob Frick, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau,
Zoltán Kelemen
George Solti
Vienna State Opera Orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Decca Records
Cat:4708052
Stereo
1980 James King, Yvonne Minton,
Kurt Moll, Bernd Weikl,
Franz Mazura
Rafael Kubelík
Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra
Audio CD: Arts Archives
Cat:430272
Stereo
Peter Hofmann, Dunja Vejzovic,
Kurt Moll, José van Dam,
Siegmund Nimsgern
Herbert von Karajan
Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat:4133472
Stereo
1981 Reiner Goldberg, Yvonne Minton,
Robert Lloyd, Wolfgang Schoene,
Aage Haugland
Armin Jordan
Monte Carlo Radio Orchestra
Audio CD: Erato
Cat: 2292-45662-2
Stereo
1987 Peter Hofmann, Waltraud Meier,
Simon Estes, Matti Salminen,
Franz Mazura, Hans Sotin
James Levine
Bayreuth Festspielhaus orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Philips
Cat: 434 616-2
Stereo
1991 Siegfried Jerusalem, Waltraud Meier,
Jose van Dam, Matthias Holle,
Gunter von Kannen
Daniel Barenboim
Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Teldec
Cat:9031744482
Stereo
1993 Placido Domingo, Jessye Norman,
Kurt Moll, James Morris,
Ekkehard Wlaschiha
James Levine
Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat:4375012
Stereo
2005 Placido Domingo, Waltraud Meier,
Franz-Josef Selig, Falk Struckmann,
Wolfgang Bankl
Christian Thielemann
Vienna State Opera Orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat:4776006
Stereo

Note: "Cat:" is short for catalogue number by the label company. Wolfgang Windgassen (June 26, 1914 – September 8, 1974) was a tenor internationally known for his performances in Wagner operas. ... Martha Mödl (born March 22, 1912, in Nuremberg - died December 17, 2001, in Stuttgart) was a German soprano, and later a mezzo-soprano. ... Ludwig Weber (July 29, 1899–December 9, 1979) was an Austrian bass. ... Hermann Uhde (July 20, 1914–October 10, 1965 was a German Wagnerian baritone. ... Hans Knappertsbusch (March 12, 1888 - October 25, 1965) German conductor born in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal), best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss. ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Jess Thomas (August 4, 1927, Hot Springs, South Dakota- October 11, 1993, San Francisco, California) was a lyric and Wagnerian tenor. ... Hans Hotter (January 19, 1909 – December 8, 2003) was a German operatic bass-baritone, admired internationally after World War II for the power, beauty and intelligence of his singing, especially in Wagners masterpieces. ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... James King may refer to: James King (soldier) (1589-1652), a Scottish commander in the Battle of Wittstock James King, 17th cent. ... Franz Crass (b. ... Thomas Stewart was an illegitimate son of King Robert II of Scotland. ... Sir Donald McIntyre (born in Auckland, on October 22, 1934) is a celebrated English operatic bass-baritone. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlÉ›z/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical record label. ... René Kollo (born November 20, 1937) is a German tenor. ... Christa Ludwig (born March 16, 1928) is a distinguished German mezzo-soprano, known both for her opera performances and her singing of Lieder. ... Gottlob Frick (1906 -1994) was a German bass who sang opera. ... The German baritone Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (born May 28, 1925) is regarded by many as the finest Lieder singer of his generation. ... Sir Georg Solti (October 21, 1912 - September 5, 1997) was a well-known orchestral and operatic conductor, who was still actively engaged in performing right up until his death. ... Vienna State Opera (German: Wiener Staatsoper), located in Vienna, Austria, is one of the most important opera companies in Europe. ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... James King may refer to: James King (soldier) (1589-1652), a Scottish commander in the Battle of Wittstock James King, 17th cent. ... Yvonne Minton (born December 4, 1938) is an Australian opera singer. ... Kurt Moll (born April 11, 1938) is a German operatic bass. ... Bernd Weikl (born Vienna, 29 July 1942) is an Austrian operatic baritone, best-known for his performances in the operas of Richard Wagner. ... Rafael Jeroným Kubelík (Býchory, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, today Czech Republic, June 29, 1914 – August 11, 1996 in Kastanienbaum, Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland) was a Czech conductor and composer. ... The Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in Munich was founded in 1949 by Eugen Jochum, he was also principal conductor until 1960. ... Peter Hofmann (born Marienbad, 12 August 1944) is a German operatic tenor. ... Dunja Vejzovic (born in Zagreb, Croatia, on October 20, 1943) is an acclaimed operatic soprano who began her career (as a mezzo-soprano) with the Zagreb National Theatre. ... Baron José van Dam (August 25, 1940) is one of the most prominent and sought-after interpreters of the baritone-bass repertoire. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... The Berlin Philharmonic rehearsing in the Berliner Philharmonie. ... Robert Andrew Lloyd (born 2 March 1940 in Southend-on-Sea, Essex) is an English bass singer. ... Aage Haugland (February 1, 1944 - December 23, 2000) was a Danish operatic bass. ... Armin Jordan (9 April 1932 – 20 September 2006), was a Swiss conductor. ... Erato Records was founded in 1953 to promoto French classical music. ... Peter Hofmann (born Marienbad, 12 August 1944) is a German operatic tenor. ... Waltraud Meier (born January 9, 1956) is a Grammy-award winning German mezzo-soprano. ... Simon Estes (2 February 1938-) is an America bass-baritone singer. ... Matti Salminen (Born July 7, 1945, in Turku) is a Finnish bass singer. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... The Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Bayreuth Festival Theatre) is an opera house built to the north of the town of Bayreuth in Germany, dedicated to the performance of Richard Wagners operas. ... Siegfried Jerusalem (born Oberhausen, 17 April 1940) was a German operatic tenor. ... Waltraud Meier (born January 9, 1956) is a Grammy-award winning German mezzo-soprano. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Plácido Domingo (born January 21, 1941) is a world-renowned opera singer, conductor, and general manager. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... James Morris is an American opera singer, best known for his role as Wotan (Odin) in performances of Richard Wagners opera, Der_Ring_des_Nibelungen. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Plácido Domingo (born January 21, 1941) is a world-renowned opera singer, conductor, and general manager. ... Waltraud Meier (born January 9, 1956) is a Grammy-award winning German mezzo-soprano. ... Christian Thielemann (born 1959 in Berlin) is a German conductor. ... Vienna State Opera (German: Wiener Staatsoper), located in Vienna, Austria, is one of the most important opera companies in Europe. ...


Instrumentation

Strings Woodwind Brass Percussion Offstage Instruments
Violins Piccolo 4 Horns Timpani 6 Trumpets
Violas 3 Flutes 3 Trumpets 2 Harps 6 Trombones
Cellos 3 Oboes 3 Trombones Tenor drum
Double Basses Alto Oboe Contrabass tuba Bells
3 Clarinets Thunder machine
Bass clarinet
3 Bassoons
Contrabassoon
a cor anglais is usually used today in place of the obsolete alto oboe

For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... For other uses, see Horn. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... The viola (French, alto; German Bratsche) is a bowed string instrument. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... A tenor drum is a cylindrical drum, much higher pitched than a bass drum. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Cor anglais The cor anglais or English horn is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... The contrabassoon, also contrafagotto or double bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon sounding an octave lower. ... The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family. ...

The bells

For the entrance to the castle of Monsalvat in acts one and three, Wagner scored a repeating four-note theme, C G A E, to be played on bells. The theme is very low, ranging from the C in the bass clef to the E below it, and consequently it is impractical to use tubular bells or church bells. Wagner experimented with several options to get his desired effect, including gongs, metal drums, and a specially-built instrument called the Parsifal bell which was similar to a piano. He settled on the metal drums, which were in use at Bayreuth until 1940, when they were melted down by the Nazis for ammunition. A clef (French for key) is a symbol used in musical notation that assigns notes to lines and spaces on the musical staff. ... Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... Church bell from Saleby, Västergötland, Sweden containing an inscription from 1228 in the Runic alphabet A church bell is a bell which is rung in a (especially Christian) church either to signify the hour or the time for worshippers to go to church, perhaps to attend a wedding... A gong is one of a wide variety of metal percussion instruments. ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Parsifal bell (German Parsifal Kiavier Instrument), a stringed instrument ingeniously constructed by Schweisgut, of Carlsruhe, from Dr Mottls design, as a substitute for the church bells in Richard Wagners Parsifal. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Modern performances of Parsifal usually use synthesized bells.


References

  • Beckett, Lucy (1981) Richard Wagner: Parsifal, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29662-5
  • Burbidge, Peter & Sutton, Richard (Eds.) (1979). The Wagner Companion. Faber and Faber Ltd., London. ISBN 0-571-11450-4. 
  • Gregor-Dellin, Martin (1983) Richard Wagner: his life, his work, his Century. William Collins, ISBN 0-00-216669-0
  • Magee, Bryan (2002). The Tristan Chord. Owl Books, NY. ISBN 0-8050-7189-X.  (UK Title: Wagner and Philosophy, Publisher Penguin Books Ltd, ISBN 0-14-029519-4)
  • Melitz, Leo (2001). The Opera Goer's Complete Guide. Best Books Ltd., London. ISBN 0-7222-6262-0. 
  • Millington, Barry (Ed.) (1992). The Wagner Compendium: A Guide to Wagner's Life and Music. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-02-871359-1. 

Notes

  1. ^ Gregor-Dellin, Martin (1983) "Richard Wagner: his life, his work, his Century." William Collins, ISBN 0-00-216669-0 p141
  2. ^ Hollinrake, Roger (1992) in "The Wagner Compendium: A Guide to Wagner's Life and Music". Ed. Millington. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-02-871359-1 page 147
  3. ^ "Die Sieger" at Derrick Everett's Parsifal site "Monsalvat". Retrieved on October 8, 2007.
  4. ^ Gregor-Dellin, Martin (1983) ibid p270
  5. ^ Wagner, Richard "Mein Leben" vol II at Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on October 8, 2007.
  6. ^ Wagner, Cosima (1980) "Cosima Wagner's Diaries" tr. Skelton, Geoffrey. Collins. ISBN:0-00-216189-3
  7. ^ Millington, Barry (Ed.) (1992). The Wagner Compendium: A Guide to Wagner's Life and Music. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-02-871359-1 pages 135-136.
  8. ^ Beckett, Lucy (1981) "Richard Wagner: Parsifal", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29662-5, page 13.
  9. ^ Beckett, Lucy (1981) ibid page 22.
  10. ^ Millington, Barry (Ed.) (1992)ibid pages 247-148.
  11. ^ Gregor-Dellin, Martin (1983)ibid pages 477-479
  12. ^ Millington, Barry (Ed.) (1992)ibid page 307.
  13. ^ Gregor-Dellin, Martin (1983)ibid page 485.
  14. ^ Beckett, Lucy (1981)ibid pages 90 - 91.
  15. ^ Carnegy, Patrick (2006) "Wagner and the Art of the Theatre". Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-10695-5. Pages 107 - 118.
  16. ^ Spencer, Stewart (2000) Wagner Remembered. Faber and Faber, London. ISBN 0-571-19653-5. Page 270.
  17. ^ Spencer, Stewart (2000) ibid Pages 268 - 270.
  18. ^ Beckett, Lucy (1981)ibid pages 93 - 95.
  19. ^ Beckett, Lucy (1981)ibid page 94.
  20. ^ Gregor-Dellin, Martin (1983)ibid p506
  21. ^ Gregor-Dellin, Martin (1983)ibid p506
  22. ^ Spotts, Frederic (1994). "Bayreuth: A History of the Wagner Festival." New Haven and London: Yale University Press ISBN :0-300-05777-6. page 212.
  23. ^ Carnegy, Patrick (2006) ibid pages 288-290.
  24. ^ {{{author}}} (1992). "Parsifal 1951." Program notes to Wagner: Parsifal: Teldec. 9031-76047-2
  25. ^ Wagner, Richard (1880) "Religion and Art." English translation. Retrieved on October 8, 2007.
  26. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich (1888) "Nietzsche contra Wagner." English translation. Retrieved on October 8, 2007.
  27. ^ Gutman, Robert (1968, revised 1990). "Richard Wagner : The Man, His Mind and His Music". Harcourt Brace Jovanovich ISBN 0-14-021168-3 pbk (1971), 015677615 4 pbk (1990)
  28. ^ See Wagner Controversies for more detail on Aryanism and Parsifal
  29. ^ Borchmeyer, Dieter (2003). "Drama and the World of Richard Wagner", Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11497-8
  30. ^ Gregor-Dellin, Martin (1983)Ibid p 477 ff.
  31. ^ Parsifal and racism considered at Derrick Everett's Parsifal site "Monsalvat". Retrieved on October 8, 2007.
  32. ^ Gutman (1990), ibid, page 406
  33. ^ Adorno, Theodor (2005). "In Search of Wagner". Verso ISBN 1-84-467500-9 pbk
  34. ^ The Ban on Parsifal at Derrick Everett's Parsifal site "Monsalvat". Retrieved on October 8, 2007.
  35. ^ Magee, Bryan (2002). The Tristan Chord. Owl Books, NY. ISBN 0-8050-7189-X. (UK Title: Wagner and Philosophy, Publisher Penguin Books Ltd, ISBN 0-14-029519-4)
  36. ^ Dokumente zur Entstehung und ersten Auffuhrung des Buhnenweihfestspiels Parsifal by Richard Wagner, Martin Geck, Egon Voss. Reviewed by Richard Evidon in Notes, 2nd Ser., Vol. 28, No. 4 (Jun., 1972), pp. 685-687.
  37. ^ David Lewin, "Amfortas' Prayer to Titurel and the Role of D in Parsifal: The Tonal Spaces of the Drama and the Enharmonic Cb/B," in Studies in Music with Text (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 183-200.
  38. ^ Richard Cohn, "Maximally Smooth Cycles, Hexatonic Systems, and the Analysis of Late-Romantic Triadic Progressions," Music Analysis 15:1 (1996), 9-40.
  39. ^ Holloway, Robin (1982) in "Opera on Record", Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-090910-2
  40. ^ Blyth, Alan (1992), "Opera on CD" Kyle Cathie Ltd, ISBN 1-85626-056-9

is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The German composer Richard Wagner was a controversial figure during his lifetime, and has continued to be so after his death. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ... Parzival is one of the two great epic poems in Middle High German. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parsifal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4090 words)
Parsifal is overcome with remorse, blaming himself for this state of affairs.
Parsifal was expressly composed for the stage at Bayreuth and many of the most famous recordings of the opera come from live performances on that stage.
Hans Knappertsbusch was the conductor most closely associated with Parsifal at Bayreuth in the post-war years, and the performances under his baton in 1951 marked the re-opening of the Bayreuth Festival after the Second World War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m