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Encyclopedia > Pars orbitalis
Pars orbitalis
Frontal bone. Outer surface. (The Pars orbitalis is the bottom third.)
Frontal bone. Inner surface. (The Pars orbitalis is the bottom third.)
Latin '
Gray's subject #33 137
Precursor {{{Precursor}}}
MeSH [1]
Dorlands/Elsevier {{{DorlandsPre}}}/{{{DorlandsSuf}}}

The orbital or horizontal part of the frontal bone (pars orbitalis) consists of two thin triangular plates, the orbital plates, which form the vaults of the orbits, and are separated from one another by a median gap, the ethmoidal notch. It has been suggested that History of the Latin language be merged into this article or section. ... Embryology is the branch of developmental biology that studies embryos and their development. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... The frontal bone (os frontale, TA: A02. ...


  • The inferior surface of each orbital plate is smooth and concave, and presents, laterally, under cover of the zygomatic process, a shallow depression, the lacrimal fossa, for the lacrimal gland; near the nasal part is a depression, the fovea trochlearis, or occasionally a small trochlear spine, for the attachment of the cartilaginous pulley of the Obliquus oculi superior.
  • The superior surface is convex, and marked by depressions for the convolutions of the frontal lobes of the brain, and faint grooves for the meningeal branches of the ethmoidal vessels.
    • The ethmoidal notch separates the two orbital plates; it is quadrilateral, and filled, in the articulated skull, by the cribriform plate of the ethmoid.
      • The margins of the notch present several half-cells which, when united with corresponding half-cells on the upper surface of the ethmoid, complete the ethmoidal air cells.
    • Two grooves cross these edges transversely; they are converted into the anterior and posterior ethmoidal canals by the ethmoid, and open on the medial wall of the orbit.
  • In front of the ethmoidal notch, on either side of the frontal spine, are the openings of the frontal air sinuses.
    • These are two irregular cavities, which extend backward, upward, and lateralward for a variable distance between the two tables of the skull; they are separated from one another by a thin bony septum, which often deviates to one or other side, with the result that the sinuses are rarely symmetrical.
    • Absent at birth, they are usually fairly well-developed between the seventh and eighth years, but only reach their full size after puberty.
    • They vary in size in different persons, and are larger in men than in women.
    • They are lined by mucous membrane, and each communicates with the corresponding nasal cavity by means of a passage called the frontonasal duct.

The lacrimal bone (Os Lacrimale), the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit. ... Lacrimal apparatus of the right eye. ... The superior oblique muscle is a muscle in the orbit. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brains of vertebrates. ... Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... The ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale) is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. ... The ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale) is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. ... In physics, an orbit is the path that an object makes, around another object, whilst under the influence of a source of centripetal force, such as gravity. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... Grays Nerves of the orbit, and the ciliary ganglion. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ...

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This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. SUNY Downstate Medical Center is Brooklyns only academic medical center. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Cranial bones - edit

occipital bone: Foramen magnum | Squama occipitalis (Inion | Nuchal lines | Planum occipitale | Planum nuchale | Internal occipital protuberance | Sagittal sulcus | Internal occipital crest) | Lateral parts (Hypoglossal canal | Condyloid fossa | Condyloid canal | Jugular process | Jugular tubercle) | Basilar part (Pharyngeal tubercle) A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... The occipital bone [Fig. ... In anatomy, the foramen magum is the large hole through the occipital bone in the base of the skull, through which the medulla oblongata (an extension of the spinal cord) exits the skull vault. ... The inion is the most prominent projection of the occipital bone at the lower rear part of the skull. ... The hypoglossal canal is a bony canal in the occipital bone of the skull that transmits the hypoglossal nerve from its point of entry near the medulla oblongata to its exit from the base of the skull near the jugular foramen. ...

parietal bone: Parietal eminence | Temporal line | Parietal foramen The parietal bones (os parietale) are bones in the human skull and form, by their union, the sides and roof of the cranium. ...

frontal bone: Squama frontalis (Frontal suture | Frontal eminence | Superciliary arches | Glabella | Supraorbital foramen | Zygomatic process | Sagittal sulcus | Frontal crest | Foramen cecum) | Pars orbitalis (Frontal sinus | Frontonasal duct) The frontal bone (os frontale, TA: A02. ... The frontal suture (sutura frontalis) is a dense connective tissue structure that divides the two halves of the frontal bone of the skull in infants and children. ... The glabella is the space between the eyebrows and above the nose. ... ...

temporal bone: Squama temporalis (Articular tubercle | Suprameatal triangle | Mandibular fossa | Petrotympanic fissure) | Mastoid portion (Mastoid foramen | Mastoid process | Mastoid notch | Occipital groove | Sigmoid sulcus | Mastoid antrum) | Petrous portion (Hiatus of the facial canal | Internal auditory meatus | Subarcuate fossa | Carotid canal | Aqueduct of cochlea | Jugular fossa | Inferior tympanic canaliculus | Mastoid canaliculus | Styloid process | Stylomastoid foramen | Jugular foramen | Petrosquamous suture) | Tympanic part (Suprameatal spine) The temporal bones (os temporales) are situated at the sides and base of the skull. ... The mastoid process (or mastoid bone) is a conical bump of the posterior portion of the temporal bone that is situated behind the ear in humans and many other vertebrates and serves as a site of neck muscle attachment (the Sternocleidomastoid, Splenius capitis, and Longissimus capitis). ... Between the styloid and mastoid processes is the stylomastoid foramen; it is the termination of the facial canal, and transmits the facial nerve and stylomastoid artery. ... Behind the carotid canal is the jugular foramen, a large aperture, formed in front by the petrous portion of the temporal, and behind by the occipital; it is generally larger on the right than on the left side, and may be subdivided into three compartments. ...

sphenoid bone: Sphenoidal sinuses | Ethmoidal spine | Optic foramen | Sella turcica | Fossa hypophyseos | Dorsum sellae | Posterior clinoid processes | Carotid groove | Lingula sphenoidalis | Sphenoidal conchæ | Great wings (Spina angularis | Foramen rotundum | Foramen ovale | Foramen Vesalii | Foramen spinosum | Infratemporal crest | Sulcus tubae auditivae | Small wings | Superior orbital fissure | Anterior clinoid process | Optic foramen) | Pterygoid processes (Pterygoid fossa | Scaphoid fossa | Lateral pterygoid plate | Medial pterygoid plate | Pterygoid hamulus | Sphenoidal conchæ | Sphenoidal sinuses) Figure 1 : Sphenoid bone, upper surface. ... The Sella turcica (literally Turkish saddle) is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull. ... At th anterior and medial part of the Sphenoid is a circular aperture, the foramen rotundum, for the transmission of the maxillary nerve. ... At the base of the skull the foramen ovale is a hole that transmits the mandibular nerve, the otic ganglion, the accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins (from the cavernous sinus to the pterygoid plexus) and the lesser superficial petrosal nerve. ... The foramen spinosum is the foramen in the skull that permits the passage of the middle meningeal artery. ... The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone. ... The Pterygoid fossa, or the sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. ... The medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid is narrower and longer than the lateral pterygoid plate; it curves lateralward at its lower extremity into a hook-like process, the pterygoid hamulus, around which the tendon of the Tensor veli palatini glides. ...

ethmoid bone: Cribriform plate | Crista galli | Perpendicular plate | Labyrinth | Ethmoid sinus | Uncinate process | Middle nasal concha | Superior meatus | Superior nasal concha | Middle meatus Your skull is in your back (this is obviously not true, I was just testing the website to see if it really works) The ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale) is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. ... The ethmoid bone (os ethmoidale) is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. ... The crista galli (Latin: crest of the cock) is a median ridge of bone that projects from the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. ... ethmoidal sinuses can be divided into 3: a) anterior b) middle c) posterior except the posterior ethmoidal sinus, all the ethmoidal sinuses will drain into middle meateus. ... An uncinate process is a hook shaped process on the lateral borders of the superior surface of the bodies of C3-C6 (T1). ...

Facial bones

maxilla: Incisive fossa | Maxillary sinus | Incisive fossa | Canine fossa | Infraorbital foramen | Anterior nasal spine | Alveolar canals | Orbitofrontal cortex | Infraorbital canal | Pterygopalatine canal | Zygomatic process | Agger nasi | Anterior lacrimal crest | Alveolar process | Incisive foramen | Incisive canals | Foramina of Scarpa | Premaxilla | Anterior nasal spine A hippopotamus skull A skull, or cranium, is a bony structure of Craniates which serves as the general framework for a head. ... The maxillae are the largest bones of the face, except for the mandible, and form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw. ... The maxillary sinus is the largest paranasal sinus. ... The orbitofrontal cortex is a region of association cortex the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... The alveolar process (processus alveolaris), also referred to as the alveolar bone, is the bone found in the jaws of a mouth containing the socket of teeth. ... The premaxilla is a pair of small bones at the very tip of the jaws of many animals, usually bearing teeth, but not always. ...

lacrimal bone: Posterior lacrimal crest The lacrimal bone (Os Lacrimale), the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit . ...

zygomatic bone: Zygomaticofacial foramen | Zygomaticotemporal foramen | Zygomaticoörbital foramina The zygomatic bone (also known as the zygoma; Os Zygomaticum; Malar Bone) is a paired bone of the human skull. ...

palatine bone: Pterygopalatine fossa | Pterygoid fossa | Horizontal plate | Posterior nasal spine | Perpendicular plate | Pterygopalatine canal | Sphenopalatine foramen | Pyramidal process | Orbital process | Sphenoidal process The palatine bone is a bone situated at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxilla and the pterygoid process of the sphenoid. ... In the skull, the pterygopalatine fossa is the space between the lateral pterygoid plate (which is part of the sphenoid bone), and the palate. ... The Pterygoid fossa, or the sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. ...

mandible: Symphysis menti | Mental foramen | Mylohyoid line | Ramus mandibulae | Mandibular foramen | Mandibular canal The mandible (inferior maxillary bone) (together with the maxilla) is the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The external surface of the mandible is marked in the median line by a faint ridge, indicating the Symphysis menti or line of junction of the two pieces of which the bone is composed at an early period of life. ... The mental foramen is a foramen in the mandible. ... The Mandibular Foramen is an opening on the internal surface of the ramus for the mandibular vessels and nerve to pass. ...

others: nasal bone | inferior nasal conchae | vomer bone The Nasal Bones (Ossa Faciei & Ossa Nasalia) are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, the bridge of the nose. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nasal concha. ... The vomer bone is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull. ...

composite structures

Cranial sutures: Coronal | Lambdoidal | Occipitomastoid | Parietomastoid | Sphenofrontal | Sphenoparietal |Sphenosquamosal | Sphenozygomatic |Squamosal | Zygomaticotemporal | Zygomaticofrontal | Frontal/Metopic | Sagittal | Frontoethmoidal | Petrosquamous | Sphenoethmoidal | Sphenopetrosal The coronal suture (sutura coronalis) is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint that separates the frontal and parietal bones of the skull. ... The squamosal suture arches backward from the pterion and connects the temporal squama with the lower border of the parietal: this suture is continuous behind with the short, nearly horizontal parietomastoid suture, which unites the mastoid process of the temporal with the region of the mastoid angle of the parietal. ... The frontal suture (sutura frontalis) is a dense connective tissue structure that divides the two halves of the frontal bone of the skull in infants and children. ... The sagittal suture (sutura sagittalis) is a dense, fibrous connective tissue joint between the two parietal bones of the skull. ...

Asterion | Nasion | Pterion | Dacryon | Inferior orbital fissure The nasion is the intersection of the frontal and two nasal bones of the human skull. ... The point corresponding with the posterior end of the sphenoparietal suture is named the pterion; it is situated about 3 cm. ...

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PET imaging and analysis regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were estimated from normalized tissue activity (with measured attenuation correction).
Two sectors of the ventral frontal lobe accounted for most of these foci, a large area that encompassed the posterior-most portions of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) (pars orbitalis and triangularis) and the underlying frontal operculum.
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