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Encyclopedia > Parrot
Parrots
A pair of Senegal Parrots in AfricaPoicephalus senegalus
A pair of Senegal Parrots in Africa
Poicephalus senegalus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Wagler, 1830
Systematics

(but see below) Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Subspecies A pair of Senegal Parrots in the wild at Hann Park, Dakar, Senegal. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Johann Georg Wagler (1800 - 1832) was a German herpetologist. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Biological systematics is the study of the diversity of life on the planet earth, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. ...


Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos)
Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of about 20 species of bird belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ...

  • Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo)
  • Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos)
  • Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos)

Family Psittacidae (true parrots)
For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ...

(paraphyletic) Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lories and lorikeets are small to medium-sized arboreal parrots which comprise the subfamily Loriinae. ... Tribes Psittrichadini Cyclopsittacini Polytelini Psittaculini Psittacini The Psittacinae is a subfamily in the parrot family Psittacidae. ... Genera c. ... Genera Cyclopsitta Psittaculirostris Bolbopsittacus Cyclopsitticini are a tribe of parrots of the Psittacidae family. ... Species Micropsitta pusio Micropsitta keiensis Micropsitta geelvinkiana Micropsitta meeki Micropsitta finschii Micropsitta bruijnii The pygmy parrots are the smallest members of the parrot family. ... Species Nestor is a genus of New Zealand parrots, apparently the single genus of the Nestorinae subfamily. ... A broad-tailed parrot is any of about 35 species belonging to the subfamily Platycercinae. ... Binomial name Psittrichas fulgidus Lesson, 1831 The Pesquets Parrot also known as Vulturine Parrot, Psittrichas fulgidus is a black and scarlet plumaged parrot, up to 46cm in body length, that inhabits and endemic to New Guinea. ... Genera Coracopsis Psittacus Poicephalus Tribus Psittacini consists of Afrotropical parrots; there are 13 species in 3 genera. ... Families Cacatuidae Psittacidae Parrots or Psittacines (order Psittaciformes) includes about 353 species of bird which are generally grouped into two families: the Cacatuidae or cockatoos, and the Psittacidae or true parrots. ... Binomial name Strigops habroptilus Gray,GR, 1845 The Kakapo (Maori for night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (owl-faced soft feathers), is a species of nocturnal parrot endemic to New Zealand. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Scarlet Macaws. One is eating using a foot to hold a walnut, while the shell is broken with its beak.
Scarlet Macaws. One is eating using a foot to hold a walnut, while the shell is broken with its beak.

Parrots are birds of the roughly 350 species in 85 genera comprising the order Psittaciformes, found in most warm and tropical regions. Also known as psittacines (pronounced /ˈsɪtəsaɪnz/),[1][2] they are usually grouped into two families: the Psittacidae (true parrots) and the Cacatuidae (cockatoos). Characteristic features of parrots include a strong curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Most parrots are predominantly green, with other bright colors, and some species are multi-colored. Cockatoo species range from mostly white to mostly black, and have a mobile crest of feathers on the top of their heads. Most parrots are monomorphic or minimally sexually dimorphic. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 3. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... See genus (mathematics) for the use of the term in mathematics. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parrot. ... This article is about the family of birds. ... // In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of a tetrapod animal. ... The cockatiel - an example of a crested bird species Several bird species exhibit prominent feathered crests upon their heads. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ...


Parrots, along with crows, jays and magpies, are some of the most intelligent birds, and their ability to imitate human voices enhances their popularity as pets. Trapping of wild parrots for the pet trade, as well as other hunting, habitat loss and competition from invasive species, have diminished wild populations, and more parrots are threatened with extinction than any other group of birds.[3] Genera many, see article text Corvidae is a family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies and nutcrackers (Clayton and Emery 2005, [1]). Collectively its members are called corvids and there are over 120 species. ... Talking birds are birds who can imitate human speech. ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds and other plant material, and a few species also eat insects and small animals, and the lories and lorikeets are specialised to feed on nectar from flowers, and soft fruits. Almost all parrots nest in tree holes (or nestboxes in captivity), and lay white eggs from which emerge altricial (helpless) young. In bird and mammal biology, altricial species are those whose newly hatched or born young are relatively immobile, have closed eyes, lack hair or down, and must be cared for by the adults. ...


Extant species range in size from the Buff-faced Pygmy-parrot, under 10 g (0.35 oz.) and 8 cm (3.2 inches), to the Hyacinth Macaw, at 1 meter (3.3 feet) in length, and the Kakapo, at 4 kg (8.8 lbs). Some atypical parrots include the dimorphic Eclectus (the male is green and the female is red), the flightless lek breeding Kakapo. The Kaka, Kea and the Long-billed Corella have especially curved upper mandibles. Extant is a term commonly used to refer to taxa, species, genera or families that are still in existence (living). ... Binomial name (Sclater, 1866) The Buff-faced Pygmy-parrot (Micropsitta pusio) is a species of parrot in the Psittacidae family. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) Native to the forests of central South America, the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is the largest macaw and the largest flying parrot species in the world, though the flightless Kakapo of New Zealand can outweigh it at up to 3. ... Binomial name Eclectus roratus (Müller, 1776) The Eclectus Parrot, Eclectus roratus is a parrot native to the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, northeastern Australia and the Maluku Islands (Moluccas). ... A lek is a gathering of males, of certain animal species, for the purposes of competitive mating display. ... Binomial name Gray, 1845 The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), also called owl parrot, is a species of nocturnal parrot with finely blotched yellow-green plumage endemic to... Kaka, see Kaka (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Nestor notabilis Gould, 1856 The Kea (Nestor notabilis) is a highly unusual species of parrot found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Kuhl, 1820 Long-billed Corella range (in red) The Long-billed Corella, Cacatua tenuirostris, is a cockatoo native to Australia. ...

Contents

Evolution and systematics

Origins and evolution

The diversity of Psittaciformes in South America and Australasia suggests that the order has a Gondwanan origin. The parrot family's fossil record, however, is sparse and their origin remains a matter of informed speculation rather than fact. For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ...


A single 15 mm fragment from a lower bill (UCMP 143274), found in Lance Creek Formation deposits of Niobrara County, Wyoming, has been suggested as the first parrot fossil.[4] Of Late Cretaceous age, it is about 70 million years old. But subsequent reviews [5] [6] have established that this fossil is almost certainly not from a bird, but from a caenagnathid theropod — a non-avian dinosaur with a birdlike beak. The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) is a paleontology museum located on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. The museum is in the Valley Life Sciences Building at Berkeley and the collections are primarily intended for research. ... The Lance Formation is a division of Late Cretaceous rocks in the western United States. ... Niobrara County is a county located in the state of Wyoming. ... Geography of the US in the Late Cretaceous Period Late Cretaceous (100mya - 65mya) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous Period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ... Genera Caenagnathasia Chirostenotes Elmisaurus Hagryphus Nomingia Caenagnathidae (recent jaws) is a family of bird-like theropod dinosaurs within the clade Oviraptorosauria. ... Families See text Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal, primarily carnivorous dinosaurs, belonging to the saurischian (lizard-hip) family. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ...


It is now generally assumed that the Psittaciformes or their common ancestors with a number of related bird orders were present somewhere in the world around the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, some 65 mya (million years ago). If so, they probably had not evolved their morphological autapomorphies yet, but were generalized arboreal birds, roughly similar (though not necessarily closely related) to today's potoos or frogmouths (see also Palaeopsittacus below). Artists reconstruction of a major impact event. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... This article is about biological evolution. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... An autapomorphy in cladistics is a derived trait that is unique to a given taxon. ... Species See text. ... The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. ...


Europe is the origin of the first generally accepted parrot fossils. They date from the Eocene, starting around 50 mya (million years ago). Several fairly complete skeletons of parrot-like birds have been found in England and Germany.[7] Some uncertainty remains, but on the whole it seems more likely that these are not true ancestors of the modern parrots, but related lineages which evolved in the Northern Hemisphere but have since died out. These are probably not "missing links" between ancestral and modern parrots, but rather psittaciform lineages that evolved parallel to true parrots and cockatoos and had their own peculiar autapomorphies: For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Look up missing link in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Psittacopes (Early/Middle Eocene of Geiseltal, Germany) — basal?
  • Serudaptus - pseudasturid or psittacid?
  • Pseudasturidae (Halcyornithidae may be correct name)
    • Pseudasturides - formerly Pseudastur
  • Quercypsittidae

The earliest records of modern parrots date to about 23–20 mya and are also from Europe. Subsequently, the fossil record — again, mainly from Europe — consists of bones clearly recognizable as belonging to modern-type parrots. The Southern Hemisphere does not have nearly as rich a fossil record for the period of interest as the Northern, and contains no known parrot-like remains earlier than the early to middle Miocene, around 20 mya. At this point, however, is found the first unambiguous parrot fossil (as opposed to a parrot-like one), an upper jaw which is indistinguishable from that of modern cockatoos. A few modern genera are tentatively dated to a Miocene origin, but their unequivocal record stretches back only some 5 million years (see genus articles for more). Species Quercypsitta sudrei type Quercypsitta ivani Quercypsitta[1] is a genus of prehistoric bird from the Late Eocene (c. ... Species Quercypsitta sudrei type Quercypsitta ivani Quercypsitta[1] is a genus of prehistoric bird from the Late Eocene (c. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... This article is about the family of birds. ...


The named fossil genera of parrots are probably all in the Psittacidae or close to its ancestry:

  • Archaeopsittacus (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene)
  • Xenopsitta (Early Miocene of Czechia)
  • Psittacidae gen. et spp. indet. (Bathans Early/Middle Miocene of Otago, New Zealand) - several species
  • Bavaripsitta (Middle Miocene of Steinberg, Germany)
  • Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of France) - erroneously placed in Pararallus dispar, includes "Psittacus" lartetianus

Some Paleogene fossils are not unequivocally accepted to be of psittaciforms: Binomial name Archaeopsittacus verreauxi (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) Synonyms Psittacus verreauxii (lapsus) A. Milne-Edwards, 1870 Archaeopsittacus is a genus of prehistoric parrot. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ...

  • Palaeopsittacus (Early - Middle Eocene of NW Europe) - caprimulgiform (podargid?) or quercypsittid?
  • "Precursor" (Early Eocene) - part of this apparent chimera seems to be of a pseudasturid or psittacid
  • Pulchrapollia (Early Eocene) — includes "Primobucco" olsoni - psittaciform (pseudasturid or psittacid)?

Look up chimera, Chimaera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Phylogeny

Close-up of the feathers of a Yellow-headed Parrot. The blue component of the green coloration is due to light scattering while the yellow is due to pigment.

The phylogeny of the parrots is still under investigation. The classifications as presented reflects the current status, which is disputed and therefore subject to change when new studies resolve some of the open questions. For that reason, this classification should be treated as preliminary. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (648x648, 156 KB) Summary Photo taken by me in August, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (648x648, 156 KB) Summary Photo taken by me in August, 2006. ... Binomial name Amazona oratrix (Ridgway, 1887) The Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix), also known as the Double Yellow-headed Amazon, etc. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ...


The Psittaciformes are generally considered to consist of two major living lineages of family rank: the true parrots (Psittacidae) and the cockatoos (Cacatuidae). The term "true parrot" is not used by the majority of bird keepers, biologists and lay people and is a source of confusion[citation needed]. The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parrot. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of about 20 species of bird belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ...


The Cacatuidae are quite distinct, having a movable head crest, a different arrangement of the carotid arteries, a gall bladder, differences in the skull bones, and lack the Dyck texture feathers which, in the Psittacidae, scatters light in such a way as to produce the vibrant colours of so many parrots. However, the actual situation may be more complex (see below). The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that supplies blood to the head and neck. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Two feathers A single white feather Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ...


While understanding of the relationships between subgroups of true parrots — for example, the one containing the Grey Parrot versus the relatives of the Budgerigar — are rather well resolved and knowledge of relationships between species has much improved in the last years, it is still a matter of dispute whether the distinct lineages of true parrots should be considered subfamilies or tribes. Due to parrot fossils and molecular divergence date estimates providing insufficient data to properly resolve when exactly the major diversification and divergence periods in parrot evolution took place, it is difficult to determine how distinct the various lineages are really from each other, and how fast and radically they were changed by evolution. Binomial name Psittacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies The African Grey Parrot is a medium-sized parrot of the genus Psittacus, native to Africa. ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercini); these are sometimes considered a subfamily (Platycercinae). ... ... In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Lorikeets were previously regarded as a third family Loriidae,[8] though now most often considered a subfamily of the Psittacidae.[9] Others lump all Psittaciformes into one giant family.[citation needed] The present majority view is that they are distinct enough to warrant subfamily status, but some consider the quite pronounced differences not evidence of a uniquely deep evolutionary split but rather not different quantitatively from the differences between more closely related lineages. Biogeography suggests that the lorikeets are best considered a uniquely distinct lineage, not as divergent as cockatoos maybe, but still standing apart from other psittacids. Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ...


Recent molecular studies, such as that of mtDNA in 1998,[10] or the sex chromosome spindlin gene in 2005,[11] find the relationships of the main lineages of living parrots to be for the most part unresolvable with any confidence. An unexpected[12] result was that according to the spindlin sequence data, the only major divergence among living parrots that could be reliably positioned in the calculated phylogenies occurred between some New Zealand parrots - Kakapo, Kākā and Kea - and the remaining psittaciformes. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... The ZW sex-determination system is a system that birds, some fishes, and some insects (including butterflies and moths) use to determine the sex of their offspring. ... Binomial name Gray, 1845 The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), also called owl parrot, is a species of nocturnal parrot with finely blotched yellow-green plumage endemic to... Binomial name Nestor meridionalis (Gmelin, 1788) The Kākā, Nestor meridionalis, is a parrot native to the forests of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Nestor notabilis Gould, 1856 The Kea (Nestor notabilis) is a highly unusual species of parrot found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. ...


The case for distinctness of at least the nestorines seems to be fairly complete by now. Its position - with or without the Kakapo - and ancient age as suggested by the molecular data is at odds with the fossil record though, as it would require an absurdly high degree of homoplasy and a decidedly non-parsimonious character distribution in living parrots. As the study relies upon an obsolete molecular clock model uncalibrated by material evidence, the results are highly spurious. The scenario of Miyaki et al. (1998),[10] while less complete (and excluding the kakapo) agrees better, though not completely, with the material evidence. Again, an unreliable molecular clock model was used. In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution describes the process whereby organisms not closely related independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate and sometimes varying ecosystems. ... Look up parsimony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The molecular clock (based on the molecular clock hypothesis (MCH)) is a technique in genetics, which researchers use to date when two species diverged. ...


While the latter two seem indeed to constitute a distinct lineage, placement of the Kakapo with these is contradicted by mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data.[10] In any case, the major lineages of psittacines seem indeed to represent distinct clades, but their relationship among them is not well resolvable by the present molecular data. They appear to have radiated throughout a fairly limited timespan, approximately during the Eocene. One finding of major importance is that neither cockatoos nor lories seem to be as distinct from other major parrot lineages as they are usually assumed to be. CoQ Cytochrome c reductase The Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase complex, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times Complex III, is the third complex in the electron transfer chain (PDB 1KYO, EC 1. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Image:Darwins large finches. ...


Systematics

The following classification is a version in which several subfamilies are recognized. Molecular data (see above) suggests that several subfamilies might indeed be valid and perhaps even be elevated to family rank, but the arrangement of tribes in these is not well resolved at present.

Rainbow Lorikeet(Juvenile) (Trichoglossus haematodus
Rainbow Lorikeet(Juvenile) (Trichoglossus haematodus
Skeleton of a parrot
Skeleton of a parrot

Family Psittacidae: true parrots Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1900 × 1900 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1900 × 1900 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) Swainsons Lorikeet () The Rainbow Lorikeet, Trichoglossus haematodus is a species of Australasian parrot found in Australia, eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. ... For the runtime engine for Perl 6, see Parrot virtual machine. ...

  • Subfamily Arinae: Neotropical parrots, about 160 species in some 30 genera. Probably 2 distinct lineages:[10][11]
  • Subfamily Loriinae: Around a dozen genera with some 50 species of lorikeets and lories, centered in New Guinea, spreading to Australia, Indonesia, and the islands of the south Pacific.
  • Subfamily Micropsittinae: 6 species of pygmy parrot, all in a single genus.
  • Subfamily Nestorinae or Strigopinae: The New Zealand parrots.
    • Tribe Nestorini: 1 genus with only 2 living species, the Kea and Kākā of the New Zealand region.
    • Tribe Strigopini: The flightless, nearly extinct Kakapo of New Zealand.
  • Subfamily Psittacinae
    • Tribe Cyclopsitticini: fig parrots, 3 genera, all from New Guinea or nearby.
    • Tribe Polytelini: three genera from Australia and the Wallacea. - may belong to broad-tailed parrots.
    • Tribe Psittrichadini: A single species, Pesquet's Parrot.
    • Tribe Psittacini: Afrotropical parrots, about a dozen species in 3 genera.
    • Tribe Psittaculini: Paleotropic psittaculine parrots, nearly 70 living species in 12 genera, distributed from India to Australasia.
  • Subfamily Platycercinae: Broad-tailed parrots; nearly 30 species in roughly one dozen genera.

The Neotropical Parrots (subfamily Arinae) belong to the family of the true parrots Psittacidae. ... Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lories and lorikeets are small to medium-sized arboreal parrots which comprise the subfamily Loriinae. ... Species Micropsitta pusio Micropsitta keiensis Micropsitta geelvinkiana Micropsitta meeki Micropsitta finschii Micropsitta bruijnii The pygmy parrots are the smallest members of the parrot family. ... Species The genus Nestor, the only genus of the Nestorinae subfamily, contains two parrot species from New Zealand and one extinct species from Norfolk Island, Australia. ... Binomial name Strigops habroptilus Gray,GR, 1845 The Kakapo (Maori for night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (owl-faced soft feathers), is a species of nocturnal parrot endemic to New Zealand. ... Species The genus Nestor, the only genus of the Nestorinae subfamily, contains two parrot species from New Zealand and one extinct species from Norfolk Island, Australia. ... Binomial name Nestor notabilis Gould, 1856 The Kea (Nestor notabilis) is a highly unusual species of parrot found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Nestor meridionalis (Gmelin, 1788) The Kākā, Nestor meridionalis, is a parrot native to the forests of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Gray, 1845 The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), also called owl parrot, is a species of nocturnal parrot with finely blotched yellow-green plumage endemic to... Binomial name Gray, 1845 The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptilus (from the Greek strix, genitive strigos: owl and ops: face; and habros: soft, and ptilon: feather), also called owl parrot, is a species of nocturnal parrot with finely blotched yellow-green plumage endemic to... Tribes Psittrichadini Cyclopsittacini Polytelini Psittaculini Psittacini The Psittacinae is a subfamily in the parrot family Psittacidae. ... Genera Cyclopsitta Psittaculirostris Bolbopsittacus Cyclopsitticini are a tribe of parrots of the Psittacidae family. ... Map of Wallacea; upper right corner facing North. ... Binomial name Psittrichas fulgidus Lesson, 1831 The Pesquets Parrot also known as Vulturine Parrot, Psittrichas fulgidus is a black and scarlet plumaged parrot, up to 46cm in body length, that inhabits and endemic to New Guinea. ... Binomial name Psittrichas fulgidus Lesson, 1830 Pesquets Parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus), also known as the Vulturine Parrot (leading to easy confusion with Pionopsitta vulturina from Brazil), is the only member of its genus. ... Genera Coracopsis Psittacus Poicephalus Tribus Psittacini consists of Afrotropical parrots; there are 13 species in 3 genera. ... Families Cacatuidae Psittacidae Parrots or Psittacines (order Psittaciformes) includes about 353 species of bird which are generally grouped into two families: the Cacatuidae or cockatoos, and the Psittacidae or true parrots. ... A broad-tailed parrot is any of about 35 species belonging to the subfamily Platycercinae. ... Binomial name Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe Melopsittacini in the subfamily of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercinae). ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercini); these are sometimes considered a subfamily (Platycercinae). ... Genera The tribe Neophemini contains two genera, Neophema and Neopsephotus and belongs to the subfamily Platycercinae, or Broad-tailed parrots. ... Species The genus Pezoporus contains two Australian species: the Night Parrot (Pezoporus occidentalis) and the Ground Parrot (Pezoporus wallicus). ... A broad-tailed parrot is any of about 35 species belonging to the subfamily Platycercinae. ... Species Platycercus adscitus Platycercus caledonicus Platycercus elegans Platycercus eximius Platycercus icterotis Platycercus venustus A rosella is one of six species of colorful Australian parrots in the genus Platycercus. ...

Other lists

This is a species list of parrots sorted alphabetically for ease of reference. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about the family of birds. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... This is a species list of parrots sorted taxonomically for ease of reference. ...

Range and distribution

Most parrot species are tropical but a few species, like this Austral Parakeet, range deeply into temperate zones.
Most parrot species are tropical but a few species, like this Austral Parakeet, range deeply into temperate zones.

Parrots are found on all tropical and subtropical continents including Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, India, southeast Asia, southern regions of North America, South America and Africa. Some Caribbean and Pacific islands are home to endemic species. By far the greatest number of parrot species come from Australasia and South America. Binomial name Enicognathus ferrugineus (Müller, 1776) Also known as Austral Parakeet, Emerald Parakeet. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the ecological meaning of endemic. See also endemic (epidemiology). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Several parrot species enter the cool, temperate regions of South America and New Zealand. One species, the Carolina Parakeet existed in temperate North America, but was hunted to extinction in the early 20th century. Numerous species have been introduced in areas with temperate climates, and have established stable populations. The Monk Parakeet currently breeds in at least 15 U.S. states. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Binomial name Conuropsis carolinensis (Linneaus, 1758) Synonyms Psittacus carolinensis Linneaus, 1758 Conurus carolinensis Lesson, 1831 Mounted specimen of Conuropsis carolinensis, Museum Wiesbaden, Germany The Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis[1]) was the only parrot species native to the eastern United States. ... IT is a new species. ... Binomial name (Boddaert, 1783) The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), also known as the Quaker Parrot, is a species of parrot that originated in the temperate areas of Argentina and Brazil in South America. ...


While a few parrot species are wholly sedentary or fully migratory, the majority fall somewhere between the two, making poorly understood regional movements, some species adopting an entirely nomadic lifestyle. i am vegeta ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ...


Morphology

Parrots are sometimes referred to as "hookbills," which alludes to their most notable physical characteristic: their strong, curved, broad bill. The upper mandible is prominent, curves downward, and comes to a point. It is not fused to the skull, which allows it to move independently, and contributes to the tremendous biting pressure these birds are able to exert. The lower mandible is shorter, with a sharp, upward facing cutting edge, which moves against the flat portion of the upper mandible in an anvil-like fashion. Seed eating parrots have a strong tongue which helps to manipulate seeds or position nuts in the bill so that the mandibles can an apply an appropriate cracking force. The head is large, with eyes positioned sideways, which limits binocular vision, but greatly enhances peripheral vision. They have an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed feet, with two toes facing forward and two toes facing rearward on each foot, (zygodactyl). The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... // In biology, dactyly is the arrangement of digits (fingers and toes) on the hands, feet, or sometimes wings of a tetrapod animal. ...


Cockatoo species have a mobile crest of feathers on the top of their heads which can be raised for display, and retracted. The cockatiel - an example of a crested bird species Several bird species exhibit prominent feathered crests upon their heads. ...


Behaviour

Parrots have a strong, direct flight. Most species spend most of their time perched or climbing in tree canopies. They often use their bills for climbing by gripping or hooking on branches and other supports. On the ground parrots often walk with a rolling gait.


Diet

This Musk Lorikeet is feeding on nectar.
This Musk Lorikeet is feeding on nectar.

The diet of parrots consists of seeds, fruit, nectar and pollen and to a lesser degree animal prey. Without question the most important of these to most true parrots and cockatoos are seeds. The evolution of the large and powerful bill can be explained primarily as an adaptation to opening and consuming seeds. All true parrots except the Pesquet's Parrot employ the same method to obtain the seed from the husk; the seed is held between the mandibles and the lower mandible crushes the husk, whereupon the seed is rotated in the bill and the remaining husk is removed.[13] A foot is sometimes used in order to help holding large seeds in place. Parrots are seed predators rather than seed dispersers; and in many cases where species are recorded as consuming fruit they are only eating the fruit in order to get at the seed. As seeds often have poisons to protect them, parrots are careful to remove seed coats and other fruit parts which are chemically well defended, prior to ingestion. Many species in the New World, Africa, and Papua New Guinea consume clay which both releases minerals and adsorbs toxic compounds from the parrots' gut.[14] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 504 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (673 × 800 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Musk Lorikeet Glossopsitta concinna feeding on nectar. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 504 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (673 × 800 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Musk Lorikeet Glossopsitta concinna feeding on nectar. ... Binomial name Glossopsitta concinna (Shaw, 1791) The Musk Lorikeet Glossopsitta concinna inhabits south-central/eastern Australia. ... Food is any substance, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk by an animal for nutrition and/or pleasure. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parrot. ... Binomial name Psittrichas fulgidus Lesson, 1830 Pesquets Parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus), also known as the Vulturine Parrot (leading to easy confusion with Pionopsitta vulturina from Brazil), is the only member of its genus. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...

Macaws and parrots at a clay lick in Ecuador. Consuming clay neutralises toxins in the diet.
Macaws and parrots at a clay lick in Ecuador. Consuming clay neutralises toxins in the diet.

The Lories and lorikeets, Swift Parrot and Philippine Hanging Parrot are primarily nectar and pollen consumers, and have tongues with brush tips to collect this source of food, as well as some specialized gut adaptations to accommodate this diet.[15] Many other species also consume nectar as well when it becomes available. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 363 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Chestnut-fronted Macaws (Ara severa) Yellow-crowned Amazons (Amazona ochrocephala) and Dusky-headed Conures (Aratinga weddellii) at a clay lick in Ecuador. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 363 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Chestnut-fronted Macaws (Ara severa) Yellow-crowned Amazons (Amazona ochrocephala) and Dusky-headed Conures (Aratinga weddellii) at a clay lick in Ecuador. ... Genera Ara Anodorhynchus Cyanopsitta Primolius Orthopsittaca Diopsittaca For other uses, see Macaw (disambiguation). ... Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lories and lorikeets are small to medium-sized arboreal parrots which comprise the subfamily Loriinae. ... Binomial name Lathamus discolor (White, J., 1790) The Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) inhabits south eastern Australia from Griffith-Warialda in Queensland to Tasmania and west to Adelaide. ... Binomial name (P.L.S. Müller, 1776) Colasisis are parrot species of the Psittacidae family. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ...


In addition to feeding on seeds and flowers, some parrot species will prey on animals. Golden-winged Parakeets prey on water snails, and famously the Keas of New Zealand will scavenge on sheep carcases and even kill juvenile petrels. Another New Zealand parrot, the Antipodes Island Parakeet, enters the burrows of nesting Grey-backed Storm-petrels and kills the incubating adults.[16] Some cockatoos and the Kākā will also excavate branches and wood in order to obtain grubs. Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) The Golden-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris chrysoptera) is a species of parrot in the Psittacidae family. ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Nestor notabilis Gould, 1856 The Kea (Nestor notabilis) is a highly unusual species of parrot found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. ... Species See text. ... Genera Several, List of Procellariidae. ... Binomial name Cyanoramphus unicolor (Lear, 1831) The Antipodes Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) is endemic to the Antipodes Islands. ... Binomial name (Gould, 1841) The Grey-backed Storm-petrel (Garrodia nereis) is a species of seabird in the Hydrobatidae family. ... This article is about the family of birds. ... Binomial name Nestor meridionalis (Gmelin, 1788) The Kākā, Nestor meridionalis, is a parrot native to the forests of New Zealand. ... Grub or GRUB can mean: a slang term for food a beetle larva that resembles a worm a distributed commercial search engine: see Grub (search engine) a number of places in Switzerland, Austria and Germany, such as: Grub, canton of Appenzell Outer Rhodes, Switzerland Grub, Germany for the GNU project...


Breeding

Two parrot eggs (Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx) six days old, lit from below. The left egg is infertile, the right contains an embryo with a visibly beating heart. Arteries can be seen growing over the yolk.
Two parrot eggs (Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx) six days old, lit from below. The left egg is infertile, the right contains an embryo with a visibly beating heart. Arteries can be seen growing over the yolk.

Although there are a few exceptions, parrots are monogamous breeders which nest in cavities and hold no territories other than their nesting sites.[13][17] Only the Monk Parakeet and five species of Agapornis lovebird build nests in trees,[18] and three Australian and New Zealand ground parrots nest on the ground. All other parrots and cockatoos nest in cavities, either tree hollows or cavities dug into cliffs, banks, termite nests or the ground. In monogamy (Greek: monos = single/only and gamos = marriage) a person has only one spouse at a time (as opposed to polygamy). ... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... Binomial name (Boddaert, 1783) The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), also known as the Quaker Parrot, is a species of parrot that originated in the temperate areas of Argentina and Brazil in South America. ... Species Nine - see text A lovebird (genus Agapornis, which is Greek for lovebird) is a very social and affectionate parrot. ...


The eggs of parrots are white. In most species the female undertakes all the incubation, although incubation is shared for a few species. The female remains in the nest for almost all of the incubation period and is fed by the male. The chicks are altricial, usually hatched naked (although some have down).[citation needed] The female remains with the chicks for 1 to 2 weeks, again fed by the male, until the chicks are larger and have gained some feathering, and no longer require constant brooding.[citation needed] The chicks tend to huddle together to keep warm.[citation needed] The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... In bird and mammal biology, altricial species are those whose newly hatched or born young are relatively immobile, have closed eyes, lack hair or down, and must be cared for by the adults. ...


As typical of K-selected species, the macaws and other larger parrot species have low reproductive rates. They require several years to reach maturity, produce one or very few young per year, and sometimes do not breed every year at all. In ecology, K-selection (note : upper case K) relates to the selection of traits (in organisms) that allow success in stable or predictable environments. ...


Intelligence

Sun conure parrot demonstrating parrots' puzzle-solving skills.
Sun conure parrot demonstrating parrots' puzzle-solving skills.

Studies with captive birds have given us insight into which birds are the most intelligent. While parrots have the distinction of being able to mimic human speech, studies with the African Grey Parrot have shown that some are able to associate words with their meanings and form simple sentences (see Alex and N'kisi). Along with crows, ravens, and jays (family Corvidae), parrots are considered the most intelligent of birds. The brain-to body size ratio of psittacines and corvines is actually comparable to that of higher primates.[19] One argument against the supposed intelligent capabilities of bird species is that birds have a relatively small cerebral cortex, which is the part of the brain considered to be the main area of intelligence in other animals. However, it seems that birds use a different part of their brain, the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, as the seat of their intelligence. Not surprisingly, research has shown that these species tend to have the largest hyperstriata, and Dr. Harvey J. Karten, a neuroscientist at UCSD who has studied the physiology of birds, discovered that the lower part of avian brains are functionally similar to ours. Not only have parrots demonstrated intelligence through scientific testing of their language using ability, but some species of parrot such as the Kea are also highly skilled at using tools and solving puzzles[20]. Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Psittacus erithacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 Psittacus erithacus timneh Fraser, 1844 and see text The African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is a medium-sized parrot of the genus Psittacus, endemic to primary and secondary rainforest of West and Central Africa, and is considered one of the... Alex (1976 - September 6, 2007[1]) was an African Grey Parrot and the subject of a thirty-year (1977-2007) experiment by animal psychologist Irene Pepperberg, initially at the University of Arizona and later at Harvard and Brandeis University. ... This article is about a parrot. ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ... Genera Garrulus Podoces Ptilostomus Perisoreus Aphelocoma Gymnorhinus Cyanocitta Calocitta Cyanocorax Cyanolyca The jays are several species of medium-sized, usually colorful and noisy passerine birds in the crow family Corvidae. ... Genera many, see article text Corvidae is a family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies and nutcrackers (Clayton and Emery 2005, [1]). Collectively its members are called corvids and there are over 120 species. ... The High Vocal Center (HVC) is a nucleus in the brain of the songbirds (order passeriformes) necessary for both the learning and the production of bird song. ...

Sound imitation and speech

Main article: Talking birds
See also: Animal language

Many species can imitate human speech or other sounds, and the results of a study by Irene Pepperberg suggested a high learning ability in an African Grey Parrot named Alex. Alex was trained to use words to identify objects, describe them, count them, and even answer complex questions such as "How many red squares?" with over 80% accuracy. A second example is that of N'kisi, another African grey, which has been shown to have a vocabulary of approximately a thousand words and has displayed an ability to invent as well as use words in context and in the correct tense. Talking birds are birds who can imitate human speech. ... Animal language is the modeling of human language in non human animal systems. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dr. Irene Pepperberg (born April 1, 1949, Brooklyn, New York) is a scientist noted for her studies in animal cognition, particularly in relation to parrots. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Psittacus erithacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 Psittacus erithacus timneh Fraser, 1844 and see text The African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is a medium-sized parrot of the genus Psittacus, endemic to primary and secondary rainforest of West and Central Africa, and is considered one of the... Alex (1976 - September 6, 2007[1]) was an African Grey Parrot and the subject of a thirty-year (1977-2007) experiment by animal psychologist Irene Pepperberg, initially at the University of Arizona and later at Harvard and Brandeis University. ... This article is about a parrot. ...


Parrots do not have vocal cords, so sound is accomplished by expelling air across the mouth of the bifurcated trachea. Different sounds are produced by changing the depth and shape of trachea. So, talking parrots are really whistling in different variations. Congo African Grey Parrots (CAG) are well known for their ability to "talk", which may be caused by more control, or stronger trachea. But that does not mean that a Cockatiel (Cockatiels are not well known for their talking ability), could have a greater vocabulary than an African Grey Parrot.


This ability has made them prized as pets from ancient time to now. In the Masnavi, a writing by Rumi of Persia, AD 1250, the author talks about an ancient method for training parrots to speak. The Masnavi or Masnavi-I Manavi (Persian: مثنوی معنوی), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the celebrated Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of both Sufism and Persian literature. ... Rumi redirects here. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...

"Parrots are taught to speak without understanding the words. The method is to place a mirror between the parrot and the trainer. The trainer, hidden by the mirror, utters the words, and the parrot, seeing his own reflection in the mirror, fancies another parrot is speaking, and imitates all that is said by the trainer behind the mirror."

Relationship with humans

Humans and parrots have a complicated relationship. Economically they can be beneficial to communities as sources of income from the pet trade and are highly marketable tourism draws and symbols. But some species are also economically important pests, particularly some cockatoo species in Australia. Some parrots have also benefited from human changes to the environment in some instances, and have expanded their ranges where agricultural practices, and many parrots have declined as well.


As tens of millions of individuals have been removed from the wild, parrots have been traded in greater numbers and for far longer than any other group of wild animals [21]. A large number of parrot species are threatened by this trade as well as habitat loss, predation by introduced species and other forms of hunting. Some parrot species are agricultural pests, eating fruits, grains, and other crops, but parrots can also benefit economies through birdwatching based ecotourism. This article is in need of attention. ... IT is a new species. ... Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection A pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded as injurious or unwanted. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ... Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism that appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious individuals. ...


Parrots as pets

Pet parrots in Cuba
Pet parrots in Cuba
Further information: Companion parrot

Popular as pets due to their sociable nature, high intelligence, bright colours and ability to imitate human voices, parrots have historically been kept captive in many cultures. Europeans kept birds matching the description of the Rose-ringed Parakeet (or called the ring-necked parrot.) Such as in this first century account by Pliny the Elder[22]. As they have been prized for thousands of years for their beauty and ability to talk, they have also proven hard to care for. For example, author Wolfgang de Grahl discusses in his 1987 book "The Grey Parrot," that some importers allowed parrots to drink only coffee while they were being shipped by boat considering pure water to be detrimental and believing that their actions would increase survival rates during shipping. (These days it is commonly accepted that the caffeine in coffee is toxic to birds.) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2136 × 2848 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2136 × 2848 pixel, file size: 1. ... Companion parrot is a general term used for any parrot kept as a pet that interacts with its human a great deal, while companion parrots is the collective designation for any species of parrot that is considered by practitioners of aviculture to make an affectionate pet parrot. ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... Talking birds are birds who can imitate human speech. ... Binomial name (Scopoli, 1769) Original (wild) range The Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri), also known as the Ringnecked Parakeet, is a gregarious tropical parakeet species that is popular as a pet. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


Captive parrots can be kept in a cage or aviary. Some are wing-clipped. Depending on locality parrots may be either wild caught or be captive bred. They require feeding, grooming, veterinary care, and environmental enrichment through the provision of toys. Some parrot species, including large cockatoos, Amazon, and macaws, have very long life-spans with 80 years being reported and record ages of over one hundred. Other parrots, such as love birds and hanging parrots have short life spans. An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. ... An Asian elephant in a zoo manipulating a suspended ball provided as environmental enrichment. ... Species Nine - see text A lovebird (genus Agapornis, which is Greek for lovebird) is a very social and affectionate parrot. ... Species The hanging parrots are birds in the parrot genus Loriculus . ...


Parrots types that are commonly kept as pets include conures, macaws, Amazons, cockatoos, African Greys, lovebirds, cockatiels, budgerigars, eclectus, Caiques, and parakeets. Each species of bird has different needs. This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... Conures are a loosely-defined group of large, new world parakeets. ... Genera Ara Anodorhynchus Cyanopsitta Primolius Orthopsittaca Diopsittaca For other uses, see Macaw (disambiguation). ... Species Many, see text. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of about 20 species of bird belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Psittacus erithacus erithacus Linnaeus, 1758 Psittacus erithacus timneh Fraser, 1844 and see text The African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) is a medium-sized parrot of the genus Psittacus, endemic to primary and secondary rainforest of West and Central Africa, and is considered one of the... Species Nine - see text A lovebird (genus Agapornis, which is Greek for lovebird) is a very social and affectionate parrot. ... Binomial name (Kerr, 1792) Cockatiel range (in red; all-year resident) Synonyms Psittacus hollandicus Kerr, 1792 Leptolophus hollandicus The Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), also known as the Quarrion and the Weero, is a diminutive Cockatoo endemic to Australia and prized as a household pet. ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercini); these are sometimes considered a subfamily (Platycercinae). ... Binomial name Eclectus roratus (Statius Muller, 1776) The Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus) is a parrot native to the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, northeastern Australia and the Maluku Islands (Moluccas). ... A Caique is one of two species of small, brightly colored parrot of the genus Pionites. ... Budgerigar Parakeets A parakeet is a term for any one of a large number of unrelated small parrot species. ...


In 1992 the newspaper USA Today published that there were 11 million pet birds in the United States alone. USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ...


The popularity of pet parrots has led to large numbers of captive parrots being abandoned. As parrots are not domesticated and require special care and equipment (in contrast a dog or cat that can be allowed to roam freely in a house and do not need a set of perches and specialty toys) many parrots go from home to home during the course of their lifespan. A common problem is that large parrot species are purchased as gentle babies and grow into loud, aggressive adults. There are so many unwanted birds that parrot sanctuaries are becoming commonplace. An example of a parrot sanctuary in the United States is Mollywood, where hundreds of huge white cockatoos live, having been rejected or otherwise abandoned by their owners. It is a common misconception that a local zoo will accept a pet parrot when it is no longer wanted. Except for the case of rare species such as Black Palm Cockatoos, zoos cannot set aside extra resources to care for rejected pets, and usually already have all the animals they need for their general and education collections. Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... Genera Probosciger Calyptorhynchus Callocephalon Eolophus Cacatua Nymphicus A cockatoo is any of about 20 species of bird belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ...


In 2004, Britain's Daily Mirror newspaper carried the story of a female macaw supposedly born in 1899, and subsequently a pet of Winston Churchill during World War II; the aged parrot, called Charlie, was reputed to curse the Nazis and Adolf Hitler.[citation needed] Subsequent research strongly suggested that the parrot had never belonged to Winston Churchill,[23] although Charlie's great age was not in question. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... Genera Ara Anodorhynchus Cyanopsitta Primolius Orthopsittaca Diopsittaca For other uses, see Macaw (disambiguation). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Churchill redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Charlie (hatched c. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Trade of parrots

10,000 Hyacinth Macaws were taken from the wild for the pet trade in the 1980s.
10,000 Hyacinth Macaws were taken from the wild for the pet trade in the 1980s.[24]

The popularity of parrots as pets has led to a thriving - and often illegal - trade in the birds, and some species are now threatened with extinction. A combination of trapping of wild birds and damage to parrot habitats makes survival difficult or even impossible for some species of parrot. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 662 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hyacinth Macaws Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the Pantanal. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 662 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hyacinth Macaws Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the Pantanal. ...


The trade continues unabated in some countries. A report published in January 2007 presents a clear picture of the wild-caught parrot trade in Mexico, stating: "The majority of parrots captured in Mexico stay in the country for the domestic trade. A small percentage of this capture, 4% to 14%, is smuggled into the USA."[25]


The scale of the problem can be seen in the Tony Silva case of 1996, in which a parrot expert and former director at Tenerife's Loro Parque (Europe's largest parrot park) was jailed in the United States for 82 months and fined $100,000 for smuggling Hyacinth Macaws.[26] (Such birds command a very high price.) The case led to calls for greater protection and control over trade in the birds. Different nations have different methods of handling internal and international trade. Australia has banned the export of its native birds since 1960. The United States protects its only native parrot through its Endangered Species Act, and protects other nations' birds through its Wild Bird Conservation Act. Following years of campaigning by hundreds of NGOs and outbreaks of avian flu, in July 2007, the European Union halted the importation of all wild birds with a permanent ban on their import. Prior to an earlier temporary ban started in late October 2005, the EU was importing approximately two million live birds a year, about 90% of the international market: hundreds of thousands of these were parrots. There are no national laws protecting feral parrot populations in the USA. Mexico has a licensing system for capturing and selling native birds (though the laws are not well enforced). Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Flag of Tenerife Tenerife in the Canary Islands chain. ... Sea Lions perform in Loro Parque. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) Native to the forests of central South America, the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is the largest macaw and the largest flying parrot species in the world, though the flightless Kakapo of New Zealand can outweigh it at up to 3. ... The Endangered Species Act (, et seq. ...


Parrots and culture

Moche Parrot. 200 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.
Moche Parrot. 200 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

Parrots have featured in human writings, story, art, humor, religion and music for thousands of years. From the Roman poet Ovid's "The Dead Parrot"(in Latin), (in English)to Monty Python's Dead Parrot Sketch millenia later, parrot have existed in the writings and art of many cultures. Recent books about parrots in human culture include Parrot Culture.[27] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ...


In ancient times and currently parrot feathers have been used in ceremonies, and for decoration. The "idea" of the parrot has been used to represent the human condition in medieval literature such as the bestiary. They also have a long history as pets. Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... A bestiary is a medieval book that has short descriptions of various real or imaginary animals, birds and even rocks. ...


Currently parrots feature in many media. There are magazines devoted to parrots as pets, and to the conservation of parrots (PsittaScene). Recent fictional books featuring parrots include Next. Fictional films include Paulie, and documentaries include The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill. The Paulie movie poster. ... Mark Bittner (Vancouver, Washington, 1951). ...


Parrots have also been considered sacred. The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped birds and often depicted parrots in their art.[28] The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


Parrots are used as symbols of nations and nationalism. A parrot is found on the flag of Dominica. The St. Vincent parrot is the national bird of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, a Caribbean nation. Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Dominica was adopted on November 3, 1978. ...


Sayings about parrots color the modern English language. The verb "parroting" can be found in the dictionary, and means "to repeat by rote." There are also cliches, such as the British saying "sick as a parrot." Fan of musical artist Jimmy Buffett call themselves "parrot heads." Jimmy Buffett tours Pearl Harbor with United States Navy Admiral Jonathan Greenert, June 12, 2003 James William Jimmy Buffett (born December 25, 1946) is a singer, songwriter, author, businessman, and recently a film producer best known for his island escapism lifestyle and music including hits such as Margaritaville (No. ...


It is possible to devote entire careers to parrots. Zoos and aquariums employ keepers to care for and shape the behavior of parrots. Some veterinarians who specialize in avian medicine will treat exclusively for parrots. Biologists study parrot populations in the wild and help to conserve wild populations. Aviculturalists will breed and sell parrots for the pet trade.


Feral populations

Main article: Feral parrots
Feral Red-masked Parakeets in San Francisco. The population is the subject of the book and film, The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill.
Feral Red-masked Parakeets in San Francisco. The population is the subject of the book and film, The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill.

Escaped parrots of several species have become established in the wild outside their natural ranges and in some cases outside the natural range of parrots. Among the earliest instances were pet Red Shining-parrots from Fiji which established new a population on the islands of southern Tonga. These introductions were prehistoric and Red-shining Parrots were recorded in Tonga by Captain Cook in the 1770s.[29] Escapees first began breeding in cities in California, Texas and Florida in the 1950s (with unproven earlier claims dating back to the 1920s in Texas and Florida).[30] They have proved surprisingly hardy in adapting to conditions in Europe and North America. They sometimes even multiply to the point of becoming a nuisance or pest, and a threat to local ecosystems. Feral parrot is a term for any parrot that lives in an ecosystem to which it is not native. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 683 pixel, file size: 262 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Parrot ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 683 pixel, file size: 262 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Parrot ... Binomial name Aratinga erythrogenys (Lesson, 1844) The Red-masked parakeet, Aratinga erythrogenys, is a medium-sized South American parrot from Ecuador and Peru. ... Mark Bittner (Vancouver, Washington, 1951). ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1788) The Red Shining-parrot (Prosopeia tabuensis) is a species of parrot in the Psittacidae family. ... British explorer James Cook is most noted for having discovered Australia and Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Threats and conservation

A mounted specimen of the Carolina Parakeet which was hunted to extinction.
A mounted specimen of the Carolina Parakeet which was hunted to extinction.

A large number of parrot species are in decline, and several species are now extinct. Of the 350 or so living species of parrot 130 species are listed as near threatened or worse by the IUCN.[31] There are numerous reasons for the decline of so many species, the principal threats being habitat loss, hunting, and for some species, wild-bird trade. Parrots are persecuted for a number of reasons; in some areas they may (or have been) hunted for food, for feathers, and as agricultural pests. For a time, Argentina offered a bounty on quaker parakeets (an agricultural pest), resulting in hundred of thousands of birds being killed, though apparently this did not greatly affect the overall population [1]. Capture for the pet trade is a threat to many of the rarer or slower to breed species. Habitat loss or degradation, most often for agriculture, is a threat to numerous parrot species. Parrots, being cavity nesters, are vulnerable to the loss of nesting sites and to competition with introduced species for those sites. The loss of old trees is particularly a problem in some areas, particularly in Australia where suitable nesting trees may be many hundreds of years old. Many parrot species occur only on islands and are vulnerable to introduced species such as rats and cats, as well as physical threats such as hurricanes and volcanic eruptions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 572 KB) Summary Author: Fritz Geller-Grimm, Museum Wiesbaden - mounted specimen. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 572 KB) Summary Author: Fritz Geller-Grimm, Museum Wiesbaden - mounted specimen. ... Binomial name Conuropsis carolinensis (Linneaus, 1758) Synonyms Psittacus carolinensis Linneaus, 1758 Conurus carolinensis Lesson, 1831 Mounted specimen of Conuropsis carolinensis, Museum Wiesbaden, Germany The Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis[1]) was the only parrot species native to the eastern United States. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Island tameness is the tendency of many populations and species of animals living on isolated islands to lose their wariness of potential predators, particularly of large animals. ... IT is a new species. ...


Trade, export and import of all wild-caught parrots is regulated and only permitted under special licensed circumstances in countries party to CITES, the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species, that came into force in 1975 to regulate the international trade of all endangered wild caught animal and plant species. In 1975, 24 parrot species were included on Appendix I of CITES, thus prohibiting commercial international trade in these birds. Since that initial listing, continued threats from international trade have lead CITES to add an additional 32 parrot varieties to Appendix I, including nine in the last four years. All the other parrot species are protected on Appendix II of CITES. In addition, individual countries may have laws to regulate trade in certain species. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


There are many active conservation groups whose goal is the conservation of wild parrot populations. These groups tend to be supported the most by pet owners who care deeply about parrots. One of the largest includes The World Parrot Trust, an international organization. The group gives assistance to worthwhile projects as well as producing a magazine and raising funds through donations and memberships. They state they have helped conservation work in 22 countries. On a smaller scale local parrot clubs (or hookbill clubs as they're called,) will raise money to donate to a cause of conservation. Zoo and wildlife centers usually provide public education, to change habits that cause damage to wild populations. A popular attraction that many zoos now employ is a feeding station for lories and lorikeets, where visitors feed small parrots with cups of liquid food. This is usually done in association with educational signs and lecture. Genera Chalcopsitta Eos Pseudeos Trichoglossus Lorius Phigys Vini Glossopsitta Charmosyna Oreopsittacus Neopsittacus Lories and lorikeets are small to medium-sized arboreal parrots which comprise the subfamily Loriinae. ...


References and footnotes

  1. ^ Psittacine. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company (2000). Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  2. ^ Psittacine. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  3. ^ IUCN, Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, 2000-2004, Parrots, Foreword
  4. ^ Stidham T. (1998) "A lower jaw from a Cretaceous parrot" Nature 396: 29-30
  5. ^ Dyke GJ, Mayr G. (1999) "Did parrots exist in the Cretaceous period?" Nature 399: 317-318
  6. ^ Waterhouse DM. (2006) "Parrots in a nutshell: The fossil record of Psittaciformes (Aves)" Historical Biology 18(2): 227-238
  7. ^ Dyke GJ, Cooper JH (2000) "A new psittaciform bird from the London clay (Lower Eocene) of England" Palaeontology 43: 271-285
  8. ^ Forshaw, Joseph M. & Cooper, William T. (1978): Parrots of the World (2nd ed). Landsdowne Editions, Melbourne Australia ISBN 0-7018-0690-7
  9. ^ Forshaw, Joseph M. & Cooper, William T. (2002): Australian Parrots (3rd ed). Press, Willoughby, Australia. ISBN 0-9581212-0-6
  10. ^ a b c d Miyaki, Y. (1998). "Parrot evolution and paleogeographical events: Mitochondrial DNA evidence". Molecular Biology and Evolution 15 (5): 544-551. 
  11. ^ a b de Kloet, R.S. & de Kloet, S.R. (2005): The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 706-721.
  12. ^ But not unsurprising, given the amount of early Paleogene endemic bird lineages in New Zealand. See moa, hihi, Acanthisittidae, Callaeidae.
  13. ^ a b Collar N (1997) "Family Psittacidae (Parrots)" in Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 4; Sandgrouse to Cuckoos (eds del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J) Lynx Edicions:Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9
  14. ^ Diamond, J (1999). "Evolutionary biology: Dirty eating for healthy living" Nature 400(6740): 120-121
  15. ^ Gartrell B, Jones S, Brereton R & Astheimer L (2000) "Morphological Adaptations to Nectarivory of the Alimentary Tract of the Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor". Emu 100(4) 274 - 279
  16. ^ Greene, Terry (1999 Nov/Dec). "Aspects of the ecology of Antipodes Island Parakeet (Cyanoramphus unicolor) and Reischek's Parakeet (C. novaezelandiae hochstetten) on Antipodes Island". Notornis 46 (2): 301-310. Ornithological Society of New Zealand. 
  17. ^ Rowley I(1997) "Family Cacatuidae (Cockatoos)" in Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 4; Sandgrouse to Cuckoos (eds del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J) Lynx Edicions:Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-22-9
  18. ^ Eberhard J (1998) "Evolution of nest-builing behavior in Agapornis parrots" Auk 115(2): 455-464
  19. ^ Iwaniuk, Andrew. "This Bird Is No Airhead", Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, 2004-02-09. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  20. ^ Beynon, Mike. "Who's a clever bird, then?", BBC News, April 2000. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  21. ^ IUCN, Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, 2000-2004, Parrots, Foreword
  22. ^ Parrot. The Medieval Bestiary (2008-02-13).
  23. ^ "Churchill's parrot gets the bird", BBC News, 2004-01-20. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  24. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 27 August 2007.
  25. ^ Stopping the Illegal Mexican Parrot Trade. Defenders of Wildlife. Retrieved on 23 December, 2007.
  26. ^ Lowther, Jason; Cook, Dee & Roberts, Martin (2002-08-05), Crime and Punishment in the Wildlife Trade, World Wildlife Federation, <http://www.wwf.org.uk/filelibrary/pdf/crime_and_punishment.pdf>. Retrieved on 9 September 2007
  27. ^ Boehrer, Bruce (2004). Parrot Culture. ISBN 978-0-8122-3793-1. 
  28. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  29. ^ Steadman D, (2006). Extinction and Biogeography in Tropical Pacific Birds, University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-77142-7
  30. ^ Butler C (2005) "Feral Parrots in the Continental United States and United Kingdom: Past, Present, and Future" Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 19(2): 142-149
  31. ^ IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN (2006). Retrieved on 31 August, 2007..

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... Binomial name Notiomystis cincta (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1839) The Stitchbird, or Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) is a rare bird endemic to New Zealand. ... Genera Acanthisitta Rifleman Xenicus Traversia (extinct) Pachyplichas (extinct) The New Zealand wrens, family Acanthisittidae, are tiny passerines restricted to New Zealand. ... Genera  Callaeas  Philesturnus  Heteralocha The small bird family Callaeidae is restricted to New Zealand. ... The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... Species Nine - see text A lovebird (genus Agapornis, which is Greek for lovebird) is a very social and affectionate parrot. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ...

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External anatomy (topography) of a typical bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast... It has been suggested that keel (bird) be merged into this article or section. ... Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 1024 pixel, file size: 223 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), Rondeau Provincial Park, 2005; de: Zitronenwaldsänger Photograph: Mdf first upload in en wikipedia on 23:23, 24... Paleornithology is the scientific study of bird evolution and fossil birds. ... Species A. lithographica Meyer, 1861 (type) Synonyms See below Archaeopteryx (from Ancient Greek archaios meaning ancient and pteryx meaning feather or wing; pronounced Ar-kay-op-ter-iks ) is the earliest and most primitive known bird to date. ... The Enantiornithes, or opposite birds (because their foot bones are fused differently than in modern birds), are an extinct group of flying birds. ... Families Enaliornithidae Baptornithidae Hesperornithidae Synonyms Odontornithes Marsh, 1873 (partim) Odontolcae Marsh, 1875 Gaviomorphae Cracraft, 1982 (partim) Hesperornithes are an extinct and highly specialized subclass of Cretaceous toothed birds. ... A bird hybrid is basically a bird that has two different species as parents. ... Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. ... For a list of birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and (usually) known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Later Quaternary Prehistoric Birds. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy is a radical bird taxonomy based on DNA-DNA hybridization studies conducted in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Since 1500, over 140 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. ... Blackbird (Turdus merula), singing male. ... Bird intelligence deals with the definition of intelligence and its measurement as it applies to birds. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... The word incubate in the context of birds refers to the development of the chick (embryo) within the egg and the constant temperature required for the development of it over a specific period. ... A Common Cuckoo being raised by a Reed Warbler. ... Deep cup nest of the Great Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... Genera Tinamus Nothocercus Crypturellus Rhynchotus Nothoprocta Nothura Taoniscus Eudromia Tinamotis The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird, members of a South American bird family of about 47 species in 9 genera. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ... Families Megapodidae Numididae Odontophoridae Phasianidae Meleagrididae Tetraonidae Cracidae Mesitornithidae The Galliformes is an order of birds containing the turkeys, grouse, quails and pheasants. ... Global distribution of Gaviidae (breeding and winter ranges combined) Species Gavia stellata Gavia arctica Gavia pacifica Gavia immer Gavia adamsii The Loons (N.Am. ... Families Procellariidae Diomedeidae Hydrobatidae Pelecanoididae Procellariiformes (from the Latin procella, a storm) is an order of birds formerly called Tubinares and still called tubenoses in English. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Families Fregatidae Pelecanidae Sulidae Phalacrocoracidae Anhingidae Phaethontidae For prehistoric families, see article text. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Species See text For other uses, see Flamingo (disambiguation). ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... Families †Gastornithidae Aramidae Psophiidae Rallidae Heliornithidae Rhynochetidae †Aptornithidae Eurypigidae Cariamidae Otidae Gruidae †Phorusrhacidae The diverse order Gruiformes contains about 12 bird families with, on first sight, little in common. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Genera Pterocles Syrrhaptes Sandgrouse is also the name of the journal of the Ornithological Society of the Middle East - see Sandgrouse (journal) The sandgrouse are a group of 16 near passerine bird species in the order Pteroclidiformes. ... Families Columbidae The bird order Columbiformes the includes the very widespread and successful doves and pigeons, classified in the family Columbidae, and the extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire, long classified as a second family Raphidae. ... Families Musophagidae Cuculidae Opisthocomidae The near passerine bird order Cuculiformes traditionally included three families as below: Order Cuculiformes Family Musophagidae: turacos and allies Family Cuculidae: cuckoos Family Opisthocomidae: Hoatzin However, the taxonomy of this group is now controversial. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Families see text The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes a number of birds with global distribution (except Antarctica). ... Families Apodidae Hemiprocnidae Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three families: the swifts, Apodidae, the tree swifts, Hemiprocnidae, and the hummingbirds, Trochilidae. ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Brachypteraciidae Coraciidae Leptosomidae Meropidae Momotidae Todidae Bucerotidae Upupidae Phoeniculidae The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colourful near passerine birds including the kingfishers, the Hoopoe, the bee-eaters, the rollers, and the hornbills. ... Families Galbulidae Bucconidae Capitonidae Ramphastidae Picidae Indicatoridae For prehistoric taxa, see text Six families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. ... Genera Apaloderma Euptilotis Harpactes Pharomachrus Priotelus Trogon The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae. ... Genera Colius Urocolius The mousebirds are a small group of near passerine birds which have no clear affinities to other groups, and are therefore given order status. ... Families Many, see text A passerine is a bird of the giant order Passeriformes. ... This page lists living orders and families of birds, class Aves (for extinct birds, please see Extinct birds and Prehistoric birds). ... // The following are the regional bird lists by continent. ... Bird ringing (also known as bird banding) is an aid to studying wild birds, by attaching a small individually numbered metal or plastic ring to their legs or wings, so that various aspects of the birds life can be studied by the ability to re-find the same individual... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Marbled Godwit, Limosa fedoa, prepared as a skin (shmoo), skeleton, and spread wing Bird collections are curated repositories of scientific specimens consisting of birds and their parts. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... The extinction of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow was caused by habitat loss. ... Aviculture is the practice of keeping and often breeding pet birds, generally companion parrots, and the culture that forms around it. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parrots Senegals Amazons Lovebirds at Parrot Parrot (769 words)
Parrot-Parrot is a site dedicated to the smaller parrots such as lovebirds (Agapornis species) and budgies (parakeets), but it is also an excellent resource for information on ALL birds and parrots, with pages dedicated to our favorite amazon parrot (Inca, the Amazon Queen) and that devilishly handsome Senegal parrot, Maxwell.
We give you the best books on lovebirds, amazons, budgies, and other parrots, as well as on bird behavior and avian nutrition (books on growing wheatgrass and sprouting are excellent resources), and don't miss our special section that carries technical avian veterinarian texts.
Although many people think a small parrot such as a lovebird or budgie is "easier" they still require quite a bit of time and care compared with cats or dogs.
Parrot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1041 words)
Parrots or Psittacines (order Psittaciformes) includes about 353 species of bird which are generally grouped into two families: the Cacatuidae or cockatoos, and the Psittacidae or true parrots.
Parrots can be found in most of the warm parts of the world, including India, southeast Asia and west Africa, with one species, now extinct, in the United States (the Carolina Parakeet).
Parrots are kept as pets, particularly conures, macaws, amazons, cockatoos, african greys, lovebirds, minimacaws, cockatiels and budgerigars (also known as parakeets), because of their rich and varied colouration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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