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Encyclopedia > Parody

A parody (pronounced [ˈpɛɹədiː]), in contemporary usage, is a work created to mock, comment on, or poke fun at an original work, its subject, or author, by means of humorous or satiric imitation. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon (2000: 7) puts it, "parody … is , not always at the expense of the parodied text." Another critic, Simon Dentith (2000: 9), defines parody as "any cultural practice which provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production or practice." Linda Hutcheon is University Professor in the Department of English and of the Centre for Comparative Literature at the University of Toronto, where she has taught since 1988. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music, and cinema. Parodies are colloquially referred to as spoofs or lampoons. This article is about (usually written) works. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origins

According to Aristotle (Poetics, ii. 5) Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a kind of parody; by slightly altering the wording in well-known poems he transformed the sublime into the ridiculous.In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treat light, satirical or mock-heroic subjects" (Denith, 10). Indeed, the apparent Greek roots of the word are par- (which can mean beside, counter, or against) and -ody (song, as in an ode). Thus, the original Greek word has sometimes been taken to mean counter-song, an imitation that is set against the original. The Oxford English Dictionary, for example, defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect" (quoted in Hutcheon, 32). Because par- also has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule" (Hutcheon, 32). Hegemon of Thasos, Greek writer of the old comedy, nicknamed ~ae~ from his fondness for lentils. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ...


Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. In French Neoclassical literature, parody was also a type of poem where one work imitates the style of another for humorous effect. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ...


Use in classical music

In reference to 15th- to 18th-century music, parody means a reworking of one kind of composition into another (e.g., a motet into a keyboard work as Girolamo Cavazzoni, Antonio de Cabezón, and Alonso Mudarra all did to Josquin motets.) More commonly, a parody mass (missa parodia) used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets; Victoria, Palestrina, Lassus, and other notable composers of the 16th century used this technique, also called marichu chollu. Song parodies can be filled with mishearings known as mondegreens. See also the main article on musical parody. In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... Girolamo Cavazzoni was an Italian organist who wrote organ masses, hymns, and ricercari. ... Antonio de Cabezón (1510–March 26, 1566) was a Spanish composer and organist of the Renaissance. ... Alonso Mudarra (c. ... Josquin Des Prez Josquin Des Prez (diminutive of Joseph; latinized Josquinus Pratensis) (c. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – August 20, 1611) was a gifted Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526[1] - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. ... Composer Orlande de Lassus Orlande de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Roland de Lassus, or Roland Delattre) (1532 (possibly 1530) – June 14, 1594) was a Franco-Flemish composer of late Renaissance music. ... A mondegreen is the mishearing (usually accidental) of a phrase as a homophone or near-homophone in such a way that it acquires a new meaning. ... Parody of Star Wars: Episode 1 Parody music, or musical parody, involves changing or recycling existing musical ideas or lyrics - or copying the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or even a general style of music. ...


English term

The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder than it was." The next notable citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who also appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was not in common use. The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ...


Modernist and post-modernist parody

In the broader sense of Greek parodia, parody can occur when whole elements of one work are lifted out of their context and reused, not necessarily to be ridiculed. Hutcheon argues that this sense of parody has again become prevalent in the Twentieth Century, as artists have sought to connect with the past while registering differences brought by modernity. Major modernist examples of this recontextualizing parody include James Joyce's Ulysses, which incorporates elements of Homer's Odyssey in a Twentieth-Century Irish context, and T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land, which incorporates and recontextualizes elements of a vast range of prior texts. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... The Waste Land (1922)[1] is a highly influential 434-line[2] modernist poem by T. S. Eliot. ...


blank parody, in which an artist takes the skeletal form of another art work and places it in a new context without ridiculing it, is common. Pastiche is a closely related genre, and parody can also occur when characters or settings belonging to one work are used in a humorous or ironic way in another, such as the transformation of minor characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern from Shakespeare's drama Hamlet into the principal characters in a comedic perspective on the same events in the play (and film) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. In Flann O'Brien's novel At Swim-Two-Birds, for example, mad King Sweeney, Finn MacCool, a pookah, and an assortment of cowboys all assemble in an inn in Dublin: the mixture of mythic characters, characters from genre fiction, and a quotidian setting combine for a humor that is not directed at any of the characters or their authors. This combination of established and identifiable characters in a new setting is not the same as the post-modernist habit of using historical characters in fiction out of context to provide a metaphoric element. The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... A lithograph of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in the flute scene from Hamlet Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are minor fictional characters from William Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead is a humorous, absurdist, tragic and existentialist play by Tom Stoppard, first staged in 1966. ... Flann OBrien (October 5, 1911, Strabane, County Tyrone Ireland – April 1, 1966 Dublin) is a pseudonym of the twentieth century Irish novelist and satirist Brian ONolan (in Irish Brian Ó Nuallain), best known for his novels An Béal Bocht, At Swim-Two-Birds and The Third Policeman. ... At Swim-Two-Birds is a novel by Irish novelist Flann OBrien (one pen-name of Brian ONolan) published in 1939. ... King Sweeney, also known as Mad King Sweeney, was a legendary king of Ulster in Ireland whose story is told in Buile Suibhne, an Irish poem mixed with prose which exists in manuscripts dating from 1671 - 1674 but which was almost surely written and circulated in its modern form sometime... Fionn mac Cumhaill (pronounced /fʲiːn̪ˠ mˠak kuwaːlʲ/ in Irish or /fɪn mɘ kuːl/ in English) (earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, later Anglicised to Finn McCool) was a mythical hunter-warrior of Irish mythology, occurring also in the mythologies of Scotland... ... For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ...


Reputation

Sometimes the reputation of a parody outlasts the reputation of what is being parodied. For example, Don Quixote, which mocks the traditional knight errant tales, is much better known than the novel that inspired it, Amadis de Gaula (although Amadis is mentioned in the book). Another notable case is the novel Shamela by Henry Fielding (1742), which was a parody of the gloomy epistolary novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) by Samuel Richardson. Many of Lewis Carroll's parodies, such as "You Are Old, Father William", are much better known than the originals. In more recent times, the television sitcom 'Allo 'Allo! is much better known than the drama Secret Army that originated it. This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... The Knight Errant (1870), by John Everett Millais. ... For other uses, see Amadis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... An Apology for the Life of Mrs. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... // Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ... Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Samuel Richardson (August 19, 1689 – July 4, 1761) was a major 18th century writer best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). ... The Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... Allo Allo! was a long-running British sitcom broadcast on BBC1 from 1982 to 1992 comprising eighty-five episodes. ... Secret Army was a BBC television drama series created by Gerard Glaister that ran for three series from September 7, 1977 to December 15, 1979. ...


Also, some artists carve out careers by making parodies. One of the best-known examples is that of "Weird Al" Yankovic. His career of parodying other musical acts and their songs has outlasted many of the artists or bands he has parodied. It is worth mentioning that while he is not required under law to get permission to parody, as a personal rule, however, he does seek permission to parody a person's song before recording it. This is to help maintain good relations with others in the music industry, and has become something of a badge of honor for other artists, since many artists parodied by Yankovic felt that he would not choose to create a parody of a song or genre that was not successful. There was, however, one incident in which "Weird Al" did not get full permission. This was because of a misunderstanding that Al had with the agent of another music artist. This article is about the musician. ...


The point that in most cases a parody of a work constitutes fair use was upheld in the case of Rick Dees, who decided to use 29 seconds of the music from the song When Sonny Gets Blue to parody Johnny Mathis singing style even after being refused permission. An appeals court upheld the trial court's decision that this type of parody represents fair use. Fisher v. Dees 794 F.2d 432 (9th Cir. 1986) Rigdon Osmond Rick Dees III (born March 14, 1950 in Jacksonville, Florida) is a radio disc jockey who currently lives in the San Fernando Valley community of Toluca Lake in Los Angeles, California, U.S.. Dees is best known for his syndicated radio show Rick Dees Weekly Top 40 and... John Royce Mathis (b. ... Court citation is a standard system used in common law countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia to uniquely identify the location of past court cases in special series of books called reporters. ...


New technology, such as MP3 and the internet, have offered new avenues for parody. JibJab, for instance, published a critical video of George W. Bush. For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... The JibJab logo, with its Victorian era appearance, illustrates the influence of Terry Gilliam on the duos animation JibJab is a website featuring Flash cartoons. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Film parodies

Some genre theorists, following Bakhtin, see parody as a natural development in the life cycle of any genre; this idea has proven especially fruitful for genre film theorists. Such theorists note that Western movies, for example, after the classic stage defined the conventions of the genre, underwent a parody stage, in which those same conventions were ridiculed and critiqued. Because audiences had seen these classic Westerns, they had expectations for any new Westerns, and when these expectations were inverted, the audience laughed. A subset of parody is self-parody in which artists satirize themselves (as in Ricky Gervais's Extras) or their work (such as Antonio Banderas's Puss in Boots in Shrek 2), or an artist or genre repeats elements of earlier works to the point that originality is lost. For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (November 17, 1895 (new style)-1975) wrote influential works in literary theory and literary criticism. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... Self-parody is parody of oneself or ones own work. ... Ricky Dene Gervais (born 25 June 1961) is a triple Golden Globe-, double Emmy- and seven-time BAFTA award-winning English comedian, writer, actor and former New Romantic musician from Reading, Berkshire. ... Extras is a sitcom about extras working on movie sets and theatre. ... José Antonio Domínguez Banderas (born August 10, 1960), better known as Antonio Banderas, is a Spanish film actor and singer who has starred in high-profile Hollywood films including Assassins, Interview with the Vampire, Mariachi sequels, Philadelphia, The Mask of Zorro, and the Shrek sequels. ... Puss in Boots is a character from the Shrek film series, voiced in English and Spanish by Antonio Banderas. ... Shrek 2, which was released in the United States on May 19, 2004, is the 2004 sequel to the 2001 computer-animated DreamWorks Pictures film Shrek. ...


Copyright issues

Although a parody can be considered a derivative work under United States Copyright Law, it can be protected from claims by the copyright owner of the original work under the fair use doctrine, which is codified in 17 USC § 107. The Supreme Court of the United States stated that parody "is the use of some elements of a prior author's composition to create a new one that, at least in part, comments on that author's works." That commentary function provides some justification for use of the older work. See Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. This montage of different images is an example of a derivative work In copyright law, a derivative work is an artistic creation that includes major, basic copyrighted aspects of an original, previously created first work. ... United States copyright law governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works in the United States. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Presiding judge Justice Souter delivered the opinion of the Court. ...


In 2001, the United States Court of Appeals, 11th Circuit, in Suntrust v. Houghton Mifflin, upheld the right of Alice Randall to publish a parody of Gone with the Wind called The Wind Done Gone, which told the same story from the point of view of Scarlett O'Hara's slaves, who were glad to be rid of her. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: Middle District of Alabama Northern District of Alabama Southern District of Alabama Middle District of Florida Northern District of Florida Southern District of Florida Middle... Suntrust v. ... Alice Randall (born in Detroit, Michigan) is an African American author and songwriter. ... For the film, see Gone with the Wind (film). ... The Wind Done Gone is the first novel written by Alice Randall. ... Scarlett OHara (full name Katie Scarlett OHara Hamilton Kennedy Butler) of French-Irish ancestry is the protagonist in Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel Gone with the Wind and in the later film of the same name. ...


Parodying music is legal in the U.K, America and Canada. For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


Social and political uses

Parody is closely related to satire and is often used in conjunction with it to make social and political points. Examples include Swift's A Modest Proposal, which satirizes English neglect of Ireland by parodying emotionally disengaged political tracts, and, in contemporary culture, The Daily Show and The Colbert Report, which parody a news broadcast and a talk show, respectively, to satirize political and social trends and events. Some events, such as a national tragedy, can be difficult to handle. Chet Clem, Editorial Manager of the news parody publication The Onion, told Wikinews in an interview the questions that are raised when addressing difficult topics: 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a satirical pamphlet written and published by Jonathan Swift in 1729. ... The Daily Show is a Peabody and Emmy Award-winning American satirical television program produced by and airing on Comedy Central. ... The Colbert Report (—the Ts are silent in Colbert and Report) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. ... The Onion is a United States-based parody newspaper published weekly in print and daily online. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

I know the September 11 issue was an obviously very large challenge to approach. Do we even put out an issue? What is funny at this time in American history? Where are the jokes? Do people want jokes right now? Is the nation ready to laugh again? Who knows. There will always be some level of division in the back room. It’s also what keeps us on our toes.[1]

However, satire is usually used when someone is earnestly trying to push for change. Parodies are sometimes done with respect and appreciation of the subject involved, while not being a heedless sarcastic attack. The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ...


Parody has also been used to facilitate dialogue between cultures or subcultures. Sociolinguist Mary Louise Pratt identifies parody as one of the "arts of the contact zone," through which marginalized or oppressed groups "selectively appropriate," or imitate and take over, aspects of more empowered cultures. [1] Similarly, Henry Louis Gates and Gene Caponi regard parody as an important technique of signifying, the African-American rhetoric of indirect criticism and semantic innovation. Mary Louise Pratt is a Silver Professor and Professor of Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Literatures at New York University. ... Henry Louis Gates Jr. ... Signifyin(g) (Gates) or signifyin (slang) is an African-American rhetorical device featuring indirect communication or persuasion and the creating of new meanings for old words and signs. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ...


Shakespeare often uses a series of parodies to convey his meaning. In the social context of his era the best example can be seen in King Lear were the fool is introduced with his coxcomb to be a parody of the king. King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ...


Educational aspects

Parody is an important element of student writing, David Bartholomae argues, because students imitate and alter academic forms in an attempt to master those forms.


Also, parody arguably sometimes makes canonical works accessible to larger audiences by presenting them humorously; see, for example, parodies of Poe's "The Raven" and "The Tell-Tale Heart" on The Simpsons. Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... For other uses, see The Raven (disambiguation). ... The Tell-Tale Heart is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe written in 1843. ... Simpsons redirects here. ...


See also

Intertextuality is the shaping of texts meanings by other texts. ... A literary technique or literary device may be used in works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. ... A parody advertisement is a fictional advertisement for a non-existent product, either done within another advertisement for an actual product, or done simply as parody of advertisements -- used either as a way of ridiculing or drawing negative attention towards a real advertisement or such an advertisements subject, or... Parody of Star Wars: Episode 1 Parody music, or musical parody, involves changing or recycling existing musical ideas or lyrics - or copying the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or even a general style of music. ... A recent parody religion, Pastafarianism was created in 2005 to protest a decision by the Kansas State Board of Education to allow intelligent design to be taught in science classes alongside evolution. ... Parody science, sometimes called spoof science, is a parody of science. ... A subvertisement based on the Coca-Cola logo Subvertising refers to the practice of making spoofs or parodies of corporate and political advertisements in order to make a statement. ...

Examples

Historical examples

Sir Topas is Chaucers tale in The Canterbury Tales (1387). ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... Chaucer redirects here. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... Cervantes can refer to: Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, 16th-century man of letters Cervantes, Ilocos Sur, a municipality in the Philippines Cervantes, a town in Western Australia Cervantes de Leon, a character in the Soul Calibur series of fighting games This is a... William Billy Baldwin (born February 21, 1963 in Massapequa, New York) is an American actor best known for his early starring roles in such films as Backdraft (1991) and Flatliners (1990). ... The Knight of the Burning Pestle is a play by Francis Beaumont written around 1607 or 1611 and first published in a quarto in 1613. ... Sketch of Francis Beaumont Francis Beaumont (1584 – March 6, 1616) was a dramatist in the English Renaissance theatre, most famous for his collaborations with John Fletcher. ... John Fletcher (1579-1625) was a Jacobean playwright. ... The Dragon of Wantley is a 17th century satirical verse parody about a dragon and a brave knight. ... Hudibras is a mock heroic poem from the 17th century written by Samuel Butler. ... Samuel Butler Samuel Butler (4 December 1612 – 18 June 1680) was born in Strensham, Worcestershire and baptised 14 February 1613. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... A Tale of a Tub (play). ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... The New Star, Illustration by Aubrey Beardsley for The Rape of the Lock The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic poem written by Alexander Pope, first published in 1712 in two cantos, and then reissued in 1714 in a much-expanded 5-canto version. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... Namby Pamby is a term for affected, weak, and maudlin speech/verse. ... Henry Carey is the name of either Henry Charles Carey (1793-1879) - an American economist Henry Carey (died 1743) - dramatist and song-writer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Gullivers Travels (disambiguation). ... Alexander Pope The Dunciad is a landmark literary satire by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... For other people named John Arbuthnot, see John Arbuthnot (disambiguation) Dr. John Arbuthnot, often known simply as Dr. Arbuthnot, (baptised April 29, 1667 – February 27, 1735), was a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London. ... Robert Harley (1579-1656) Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer Robert Harley, British comedy writer, most noted for Smack the Pony and Green Wing. ... David Dav Pilkey (b. ... Cover of 1976 Penguin English Library edition of Rasselas The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, often abbreviated to Rasselas, is a novella by Samuel Johnson. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word meaning thus, so, as such, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized—[sic]—to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been reproduced... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Divertimento for two horns and strings, A Musical Joke, (Ein Musikalischer Spaß,) K. 522 was published on June 14, 1787 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Sartor Resartus, Oxford Worlds Classics edition 1999 Thomas Carlyles major work, Sartor Resartus (meaning The tailor re-tailored), first published as a serial in 1833-34, purported to be a commentary on the thought and early life of a German philosopher called Diogenes Teufelsdröckh (which translates as... The usual spelling for the name is Thomas Carlyle and there is an extensive article on him under that heading. ... Ways and Means may refer to: Committee of Ways and Means of the UK parliament United States House Committee on Ways and Means Ways and Means, an episode of The West Wing This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... Alice in Wonderland is the widely known and used title for Alices Adventures in Wonderland, a book written by Lewis Carroll -- as well as several movie adaptations of the book -- and is also the setting for several short stories. ... Through the Looking Glass redirects here. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Front of an envelope mailed in the U.S. in 1906 contains postage stamp and address. ... Rowland Hill Sir Rowland Hill KCB, FRS (December 3, 1795 - August 27, 1879) was a British teacher and social reformer. ... Choosing the Wedding Gown illustrating ch 1 of Vicar of Wakefield by Oliver Goldsmith William Mulready (April 1, 1786 - July 7, 1863) was an Irish genre painter living in London. ...

Contemporary examples

An impressionist is a performer whose act consists of giving the impression of being someone else by imitating the other persons voice and mannerisms. ... For the English fantasy illustrator, see Brian Froud (illustrator). ... The Swiss Family Robinson (Der Schweizerische Robinson) is a novel, first published in 1812, about a Swiss family who is shipwrecked in the East Indies en route to Port Jackson, Australia. ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... Cease-and-desist is a legal term meaning essentially stop: It is used in demands for a person or organization to stop doing something (to cease and desist from doing it). ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... Stanley Victor Freberg (born August 7, 1926 in Los Angeles) is an American author, recording artist, animation voice actor, comedian, puppeteer and advertising creative director. ... This article is about the musician. ... Thomas Andrew Tom Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician. ... Barry Poole (born December 18, 1964, in Marietta, Georgia) is an American country music singer-songwriter and parodist who records under the stage name Cledus T. Judd. ... Bob Rivers is one of the best-known rock and roll radio on air personalities in the northwestern United States, as well as a prolific producer of parody songs. ... Art Paul Schlosser (born January 4, 1960) has been a street musician and busker as well as an outsider artist on State Street in Madison, Wisconsin[1] since 1986. ... Allan Sherman (sometimes incorrectly Alan and Allen), November 30, 1924 – November 20, 1973, was an American musician, parodist, satirist, and television producer. ... This article is about the musical composition. ... Mel Brooks (born June 28, 1926) is an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, comedian, actor and producer best known as a creator of broad film farces and comedy parodies. ... Bold text Spaceballs is a 1987 science fiction parody film co-written, directed by, and starring Mel Brooks. ... Robin Hood: Men In Tights (1993) is a film parody of the story of Robin Hood, particularly parodying Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves. ... Alex Karras as Mongo in Blazing Saddles Blazing Saddles (1974) is a comedy directed by Mel Brooks and starring Cleavon Little and Gene Wilder, and released by Warner Brothers. ... For the Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, see Christopher Guest, Baron Guest. ... 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Zero Hour! is a 1957 movie written by Arthur Hailey that served as the basis for the much more widely known spoof of it, Airplane!. The rights to the movie were purchased by the makers of Airplane!, and they were able to use the screenplay almost verbatim. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article is about the spy series. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... The Boomer Bible is a book written by R. F. Laird. ... The Complete Works of William Shakespeare (Abridged) is a parody of the plays written by William Shakespeare with all of them being performed (in shortened form) during the show. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... CNNNN (Chaser NoN-stop News Network) was an Australian television show, satirising American news channels CNN and Fox News. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... The Daily Show is a Peabody and Emmy Award-winning American satirical television program produced by and airing on Comedy Central. ... The Colbert Report (—the Ts are silent in Colbert and Report) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An example of The OReilly Factors Talking Points Memo The OReilly Factor is an American talk show on the Fox News Channel hosted by commentator Bill OReilly, who discusses current political and social issues with guests from opposing ends of the political spectrum. ... Dead Ringers is a UK radio and television comedy impressions show broadcast on BBC Radio 4 and BBC Two. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Dont Be a Menace to South Central While Drinking Your Juice in the Hood is a 1996 film. ... Juice is a 1992 drama film that has gained a certain classic status. ... South Central is a 1992 drama film, written and directed by Steve Anderson. ... For other uses, see Higher Learning (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1989 film. ... Menace II Society is a 1993 American hood film and the directorial debut of twin brothers Allen and Albert Hughes. ... Poetic Justice is a 1993 drama/romance film starring Janet Jackson, Tupac Shakur, Regina King and Joe Torry. ... For the Father Ted episode, see New Jack City (Father Ted). ... This article is about the American action movie. ... This article is about the song by rapper Eazy-E. For 1991 film, see Boyz n the Hood. ... Drawn Together is an American animated television series that uses a sitcom format with a TV reality show setting. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... // This article is about the genre of TV shows. ... Facelift is a 1/2 hour multi-visual, topical comedy show produced for New Zealands TV One, by the Gibson Group. ... Hot Shots! is a 1991 comedy spoof which starred Charlie Sheen, Cary Elwes, Valeria Golino, Lloyd Bridges, Jon Cryer, Kevin Dunn, and Bill Irwin. ... Top Gun is a 1986 American film directed by Tony Scott and produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer in association with Paramount Pictures. ... US movie poster The Kentucky Fried Movie is an American comedy film, released in 1977 and directed by John Landis. ... Kung Fu Hustle (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a 2004 Hong Kong martial arts film co-written, co-produced and directed by Stephen Chow, who also stars in the film. ... Stephen Chow in Kung Fu Hustle Stephen Chow (周星馳; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōu Xīngchí; Cantonese Romanization: Chow Sing Chi) (born June 22, 1962) is a Hong Kong actor and director, and considered to be a king of comedy. ... WÇ”xiá (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: , Mandarin IPA: , Cantonese Pinyin: mou5 hap6), literally meaning martial (arts) heroes, is a distinct quasi-fantasy sub-genre of the martial arts genre in literature, television and cinema. ... The Landover Baptist Church is a Bible believing, Fundamentalist, Independent Baptist Church. ... Harvey Kurtzmans cover for the first issue of the comic book Mad Mad is an American humor magazine founded by publisher William Gaines and editor Harvey Kurtzman in 1952. ... For other uses, see Mad TV (disambiguation). ... Christopher Morris (born September 5, 1965 in Bristol, England) is an English satirical comedian, writer, director, producer, actor and radio DJ. Morris began his career in radio before moving into television. ... The Day Today is a surreal British parody of television current affairs news programmes. ... Brass Eye is a UK television series of satirical spoof documentaries which aired on Channel 4 in 1997 and was re-run in 2001. ... A news program is a regularly scheduled radio or television program that reports current events. ... The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad! is the first film in a series of comedy movies starring Leslie Nielsen, Priscilla Presley, George Kennedy, and O.J. Simpson. ... Police Squad! is a television comedy series first broadcast in 1982. ... Not Another Teen Movie is a USA comedy film released in 2001 by Columbia Pictures. ... Shes All That is a 1999 romantic comedy film, directed by Robert Iscove, and is a modern remake of George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion (which was also the basis for the musical comedy My Fair Lady starring Audrey Hepburn and Rex Harrison). ... 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This article is about the novels. ... Terence David John Pratchett OBE (born 28 April 1948, in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England)[1] is an English fantasy author, best known for his Discworld series. ... For the updated film based on the TV series, see Get Smart (film). ... Serialized in Young King OURs Original run April 1997 – Present Volumes 18 (Ongoing) TV anime Director Shinichi Watanabe Studio J.C. Staff Licensor ADV Films Network TV Tokyo Original run 7 October 1999 – 30 March 2000 Episodes 26 (total) Excel Saga ) is a comedy manga series by Koushi Rikudou,[1... Animé redirects here. ...

Visual examples

Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. Original painting from circa 1503 – 1507. Oil on poplar.
Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. Original painting from circa 1503 – 1507. Oil on poplar.
Duchamp's parody of the Mona Lisa adds a goatee and moustache.
Duchamp's parody of the Mona Lisa adds a goatee and moustache.

Marcel Duchamp's Dadaist readymade L.H.O.O.Q. parodies DaVinci's Mona Lisa by marring it with a goatee and moustache. In keeping with his Dadaist practices, which called artistic conventions and aesthetic assumptions into question, Duchamp paired his visual parody with a low pun; in French, when the letters "L.H.O.O.Q." are pronounced one after the other, the phrase sounds like "elle a chaud au cul", or "her ass is hot". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (560x864, 45 KB) MONA LISA 1509 Subject: The Mona Lisa Source: [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Painting Mona Lisa Talk:Mona Lisa Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/August Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/August 22 Talk:August 22 Wikipedia:Selected... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (560x864, 45 KB) MONA LISA 1509 Subject: The Mona Lisa Source: [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Painting Mona Lisa Talk:Mona Lisa Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/August Wikipedia:Selected anniversaries/August 22 Talk:August 22 Wikipedia:Selected... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Mona Lisa (disambiguation). ... A traditional goatee, notice the mustache par does not touch A goatee is a beard formed by a tuft of hair on the chin and a moustache around the upper lip. ... Edgar Allan Poe grew a moustache later in his life. ... Marcel Duchamp (pronounced ) (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was a French artist (he became an American citizen in 1955) whose work and ideas had considerable influence on the development of post-World War II Western art, and whose advice to modern art collectors helped shape the tastes of the... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Found art, or more commonly and less confusingly, Found Object (French: objet trouvé) is a term used to describe art created from common objects not normally considered to be artistic (also assemblage). ... Marcel Duchamp (July 28, 1887 – October 2, 1968) was an influential French/American artist. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mona Lisa (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ An interview with The Onion, David Shankbone, Wikinews, November 25, 2007.
Look up Parody in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Bakhtin, Mikhail (1981). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1981. ISBN 0-292-71527-7.
  • Caponi, Gena Dagel (1999). Signifyin(g), Sanctifyin', & Slam Dunking: A Reader in African American Expressive Culture. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-183-X.
  • Dentith, Simon. Parody (The New Critical Idiom). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18221-2.
  • Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (1988) The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503463-5.
  • Gray, Jonathan. (2006) Watching with The Simpsons: Television, Parody, and Intertextuality. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-4153-6202-4.
  • Harries, Dan. (2000) Film Parody. London: BFI. ISBN 0-851-70802-1.
  • Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Parody: The Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms' (1985). New York: Methuen. ISBN 0-252-06938-2.
  • Pratt, Mary Louise. "Arts of the Contact Zone"
  • Rose, Margaret. (1993) Parody: Ancient, Modern and Post-Modern. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41860-7.
  • Tnuva Spoof
Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parody: Fair Use or Copyright Infringement (2082 words)
Parody, as a method of criticism, has been a very popular means for authors, entertainers and advertisers to communicate a particular message or point of view to the public.
Since copyright law prohibits the substantial use of a copyrighted work without permission of the copyright owner, and because such permission is highly unlikely when the use is to create a parody, it may be necessary for the parodist to rely on the fair-use defense to forestall any liability for copyright infringement.
The courts have continually struggled with parody cases when ascertaining whether a particular parody falls within the parameters of fair use or is instead copyright infringement.
Parody and Fair Use (585 words)
The court established that parody is a defense against copyright infringement claims.
Bright lines or not, parody does provide some protection and to some extent, depending on the circumstances, parody may permit the use of copyrighted or trademarked material.
Parody is an American defense to copyright infringement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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