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Encyclopedia > Parodist

In contemporary usage, parody is a form of satire that imitates another work of art in order to ridicule it. Parody exists in all art media, including literature, music, and cinema. Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which principally ridicules its subject (for example, individuals, organizations, or states) often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ... Great Museums in the World (Louvre, Metropolitan Museum, MoMA, Picasso …) Weird photography CGFA: A Virtual Art Museum Very large website with good reproduction quality scans of thousands of paintings Art-Atlas. ... Open Directory Project: Literature World Literature Electronic Text Archives Magazines and E-zines Online Writing Writers Resources Libraries, Digital Cataloguing, Metadata Distance Learning Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Classicism in Literature The Universal Library, by Carnegie Mellon University Project Gutenberg Online Library Abacci - Project Gutenberg texts matched with Amazon... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikicities has a wiki about Music: Music Music City : a collaborative music database All Music Guide: includes a comprehensive and flexible Genre and Style system MusicWiki: A Collaborative Music-related encyclopedia Science...

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Western origin

In ancient Greek literature, a parody was a type of poem that imitated another poem's style. Indeed, the Greek roots of the word parody are par- ("beside" or "subsidiary") and -ody ("song", as in ode). Thus, the original Greek meant, roughly, "mock poem". At the moment this page contains a list of links. ...


Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous effect. In French Neo-classical literature, "parody" was also a type of poem where one work's style is imitated by another for humorous effects. Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ...


Musical use

In 15th- and 16th-century music, "parody" refers to a reworking of one kind of composition into another, such as turning a motet into a keyboard work; Cavazzoni, Cabezon, and Mudarra created keyboard parodies of Josquin motets. More commonly, a parody mass (missa parodia) used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets; Victoria, Palestrina, Lassus, and other notable composers of the 16th century used this technique. Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikicities has a wiki about Music: Music Music City : a collaborative music database All Music Guide: includes a comprehensive and flexible Genre and Style system MusicWiki: A Collaborative Music-related encyclopedia Science... Josquin Des Prez Josquin Des Prez (diminutive of Joseph; latinized Josquinus Pratensis) (c. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – August 20, 1611) was a gifted Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. ... Palestrina (ancient Praeneste) was and is a very ancient city of Latium (modern Lazio) 23 miles (37 km) east of Rome, and was reached by the Via Praenestina (see below). ... Orlande de Lassus, a. ...


Song parodies can be filled with mishearings known as mondegreens. A mondegreen (also sometimes spelt mondagreen) is the mishearing (usually accidental) of a phrase, such that it acquires a new meaning. ...


English term

The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a parodie! to make it absurder then it was." The next notable citation comes from John Dryden in 1693, who also appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was not in common use. In his "Preface to the Satires", he says: "We may find, that they were Satryrique Poems, full of Parodies; that is, of Verses patch'd up from great Poets, and turn'd into another Sence than their Author intended them." The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... Benjamin Jonson (June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which principally ridicules its subject (for example, individuals, organizations, or states) often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ...


Dryden's definition is therefore a departure from previous usage (as he implies satire), and Dryden adapts what was still a foreign term (parody) to apply to a recent literary subgenre that had no name: the mock-heroic. A mock-heroic is a type of satirical poetry or parody popular in the post-Restoration and Augustan periods in Great Britain. ...


In "MacFlecknoe", Dryden created an entire poem designed to ridicule by parody. Dryden imitates Virgil's Aeneid, but the poem is about Thomas Shadwell, a minor dramatist. The implicit contrast between the heroic style from Virgil and the poor quality of the hero, Shadwell, makes Shadwell seem even worse. When dressed in Aeneas's clothes, Shadwell looks all the more ridiculous. The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ... Thomas Shadwell (c. ...


Other parodies of the Restoration and early 18th century were similar to Dryden's: they employed an imitation of something serious and revered to ridicule a low or foolish person or habit. This is generally referred to as the mock-heroic, a genre generally credited to Samuel Butler and his poem Hudibras. When conscious, the contrast of very serious or exalted style with very frivolous or worthless subject is parody. When the combination is unconscious, it is bathos (derived from Alexander Pope's parody of Longinus, "Peri Bathos"). A mock-heroic is a type of satirical poetry or parody popular in the post-Restoration and Augustan periods in Great Britain. ... Samuel Butler Samuel Butler (December 4, 1612 - June 18, 1680) was born in Worcestershire: he is remembered now primarily for a long satirical burlesque poem on Puritanism entitled Hudibras. ... Bathos is unintended humor caused by an incongruous combination of high and low. ... Alexander Pope Alexander Pope (May 22, 1688 – May 30, 1744) is considered one of the greatest English poets of the eighteenth century. ... Longinus (Λογγινος) is a conventional name applied to a Greek teacher of rhetoric or literary critic who may have lived in the 1st century, and is known only for his treatise On the Sublime (Περι υψους). ...


Jonathan Swift is the first English author to apply the word parody to narrative prose, and it is perhaps because of a misunderstanding of Swift's own definition of parody that the term has since come to refer to any stylistic imitation that is intended to belittle. In "The Apology for the &c.", which is one of the prefaces to his A Tale of a Tub, Swift says that a parody is the imitation of an author one wishes to expose. In essence, this makes parody very little different from mockery and burlesque, and, given Swift's attention to language, it is likely that he knew this. In fact, Swift's definition of parody might well be a parody of Dryden's presumed habit of explaining the obvious or using loan words. This article is about the satire by Jonathan Swift. ...


After Jonathan Swift, the term parody was used almost exclusively to refer to mockery, particularly in narrative.


Alternate meaning

In the older sense of the word, parody can occur when whole elements of one work are lifted out of their context and reused. Pastiche is a form of parody, and parody can also occur when characters or settings belonging to one work are used in a humorous way in another. The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ...


In Flann O'Brien's novel At Swim-Two-Birds, for example, mad King Sweeney, Finn MacCool, a pookah, and an assortment of cowboys all assemble in an inn in Dublin: the mixture of mythic characters, characters from genre fiction, and a quotidian setting combine for a humor that is not directed at any of the characters or their authors. This combination of established and identifiable characters in a new setting is not the same as the post-modernist habit of using historical characters in fiction out of context to provide a metaphoric element. However, in the postmodern sensibility, blank parody is common where an artist takes the skeletal form of another art work and places it in a new context with new content. Flann OBrien was the best known pseudonym of Brian ONolan (October 5, 1911 - April 1, 1966), who also published under the name Myles na gCopaleen. ... At Swim-Two-Birds is a novel by Irish novelist Flann OBrien (one pen-name of Brian ONolan) published in 1939. ... King Sweeney, also known as Mad King Sweeney, was a legendary king of Ulster in Ireland whose story is told in Buile Suibhne, an Irish poem mixed with prose which exists in manuscripts dating from 1671 - 1674 but which was almost surely written and circulated in its modern form sometime... Fionn mac Cumhail was a legendary warrior of Irish mythology. ... ... A cowboy (Spanish vaquero) tends cattle and horses on cattle ranches in North and South America. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath1),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located2 near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region3. ... A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...


Evolution of film genres

Some genre film theorists see parody as a natural development in the life cycle of any genre, especially in film. Western movies, for example, after the classic stage defined the conventions of the genre, underwent a parody stage, in which those same conventions were lampooned. Because audiences had seen these classic Westerns, they had expectations for any new Westerns, and when these expectations were inverted, the audience laughed. Even in the early days of film history, the audience appetite for new content was voracious. ... A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ...


Sometimes the reputation of a parody outlasts the reputation of what is being parodied. A notable case is the novel Joseph Andrews by Henry Fielding (1742), which was a parody of the gloomy epistolary novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) by Samuel Richardson. Many of Lewis Carroll's parodies, such as "You Are Old, Father William", are much better known than the originals. A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Joseph Andrews is a novel by Henry Fielding, first published in 1742. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 - October 8, 1754) was a British novelist and dramatist. ... Events January 24 - Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... An epistolary novel is a literary technique in which a novel is composed as a series of letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. ... Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded is a novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Samuel Richardson (August 19, 1689 - July 4, 1761) was an eighteenth century writer best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). ... Photograph of Lewis Carroll taken by himself, with assistance Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was a British author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ...

An example of a modern parody.
An example of a modern parody.

A subset of parody is self-parody in which artists satirize themselves or their work, or an artist or genre repeats elements of earlier works to the point that originality is lost. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Self-parody is parody of ones own work. ...


Copyright issues

Although a parody can be considered a derivative work under United States Copyright Law it can be protected under the fair use of 17 USC § 107. In 2001, the federal Court of Appeals, 11th District in Suntrust v. Houghton Mifflin upheld the right of Alice Randall to publish a parody of Gone With the Wind called The Wind Done Gone, which told the same story from the point of view of Scarlett O'Hara's slaves, who were glad to be rid of her. See also the Supreme Court of the United States case Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music regarding the song Oh, Pretty Woman. In copyright law, a derivative work is an artistic creation that includes aspects of work previously created and protected. ... United States copyright law is rooted in Article One of the United States Constitution, which states: The Congress shall have the power. ... Although company logos such as these are often copyrighted and trademarked, the fair use doctrine permits their use in certain contexts without prior permission. ... Suntrust v. ... Gone With the Wind was an instant success. ... The Wind Done Gone is the first novel written by Alice Randall. ... Scarlett OHara (full name Katie Scarlett OHara Hamilton Kennedy Butler), is the main protagonist in the Margaret Mitchell novel Gone With the Wind. ... Seal of the Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest federal court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States to interpret and decide questions of federal law, including the... Campbell v. ... For the film Pretty Woman, see Pretty Woman (movie) . Oh, Pretty Woman is a song which was a worldwide hit for Roy Orbison. ...


See also

See literary technique. See also parody religion. Novels and short stories do not simply come from nowhere. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Examples

Historical examples

Sir Topas is Chaucers tale in The Canterbury Tales (1387). ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right) Don Quixote de la Mancha (IPA: ) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 - April 23, 1616), was a Spanish author, best known for his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567 - ?1600) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ... The Knight of the Burning Pestle is a play by Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher (likely almost entirely by Beaumont) first published in 1613 which is notable as the first parody play in English. ... Francis Beaumont (1584 – 1616), was an English dramatist most famous for his collaborations with John Fletcher. ... John Fletcher (playwright) (1579-1625) John Fletcher (Methodist) (1729-1785) ... The Dragon of Wantley is a 17th century satirical verse parody about a dragon and a brave knight. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19, 1631 – May 12, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, and playwright. ... This article is about the satire by Jonathan Swift. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 - October 19, 1745) was an Anglo-Irish writer who is famous for works like Gullivers Travels and A Tale of a Tub. ... SThe Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic poem written by Alexander Pope, first Npublished in 1712 in two cantos, and then reissued in 1714 in a much-expanded 5-canto Iversion. ... Alexander Pope Alexander Pope (May 22, 1688 – May 30, 1744) is considered one of the greatest English poets of the eighteenth century. ... Namby Pamby is a term for affected, weak, and maudlin speech/verse. ... Henry Carey is the name of either Henry Charles Carey (1793-1879) - an American economist Henry Carey (died 1743) - dramatist and song-writer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735) is a work of fiction by Jonathan Swift that is both a satire on human nature and a parody of the travellers tales literary sub-genre. ... The Dunciad is a landmark literary satire by Alexander Pope published in three different versions at different times. ... Alexander Pope Alexander Pope (May 22, 1688 – May 30, 1744) is considered one of the greatest English poets of the eighteenth century. ... John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... John Arbuthnot (April 29, 1667 - February 27, 1735) was a British physician and author best known for his satirical writings. ... Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer (5 December 1661 - 21 May 1724), was an English statesman of the Stuart and early Georgian periods. ... Samuel Johnson circa 1772, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. ... W. A. Mozart, 1790 portrait by Johann Georg Edlinger Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 26, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is considered one of the greatest composers of European classical music (especially, of the Classical music era). ... Divertimento for two horns and strings, A Musical Joke, (Ein Musikalischer Spaß,) K. 522 was published on June 14, 1787 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Thomas Carlyles major work, Sartor Resartus (meaning The tailor re-tailored), purported to be a commentary on the thought and early life of a German philosopher called Diogenes Teufelsdröckh (which translates as god-born devil-shit), author of a tome entitled Clothes: their Origin and Influence. ... The usual spelling for the name is Thomas Carlyle and there is an extensive article on him under that heading. ...

Contemporary examples


  Results from FactBites:
 
Parodeities: Writing Your Own Parodies II: Rhyme (2684 words)
A parodist can argue that they are working under severe restrictions that the original poet did not have, and this is a valid argument for breaking a few rhymes by using assonance or identities now and then.
Poet purists may vehemently disagree with this statement, but parodists often have some severe constraints put on their word choices (based on the original lyrics) and sometimes the value of the parody is greater if you break a few rules.
Some parodists don't feel that this extra effort is worth it; particularly if it affects their ability to tell a story cleanly without a lot of hackneyed English.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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