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Encyclopedia > Parma, Ohio
Parma, Ohio
Location within the state of Ohio
Location within the state of Ohio
Country United States
State Ohio
County Cuyahoga
Founded 1816
Township March 7, 1826
Incorporated Fall, 1924 (village) & January 1, 1931 (city)
Government
 - Mayor Dean DePiero
Area
 - City  20.0 sq mi (51.7 km²)
 - Land  20.0 sq mi (51.7 km²)
 - Water  0.04 sq mi (0.1 km²)
Population (2006)[1]
 - City 80,009
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Website: http://www.cityofparma-oh.gov/

Parma is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio in Cuyahoga County and is the largest suburb of Cleveland. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 85,655. The 2003 estimate put the population at 83,861.[2] Adapted from Wikipedias OH county maps by Catbar. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states, which are... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Listed are the 88 counties of the state of Ohio. ... Cuyahoga County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern Daylight Time or EDT is equal to: In North America, Eastern Standard Time + 1, or UTC − 4 hours. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Cuyahoga County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Nickname: Motto: Progress & Prosperity Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State County Cuyahoga Founded 1796 Incorporated 1814 (village)   1836 (city) Government  - Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D) Area [1]  - City  82. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...

Contents

Demographics

As of the 2000 census², there were 85,655 people, 35,126 households, and 23,323 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,656.9/km² (4,291.4/mi²). There were 36,414 housing units at an average density of 704.4/km² (1,824.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.67% White, 1.06% Black, 0.14% Native American, 1.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, and 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.54% of the population. 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... The following is a list of sources used in the creation of encyclopedia articles on various geographic topics and locations, such as cities, counties, states, and countries. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...


There were 35,126 households out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.6% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.99. Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


In the city the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.3 males.


The median income for a household in the city was $43,920, and the median income for a family was $52,436. Males had a median income of $39,801 versus $27,701 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,293. About 3.3% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over. The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Parma ranks as one of the safest cities in the United States with a population between 60,000 and 100,000. Parma's ranking has declined in recent years from 17th safest to 19th safest. As of 3 November 2006, the rank has fallen further to 32nd.[3] See the history section of this article for possible reasons for this decline. The following table of 2005 murders is based on Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports statistics that initially became available in September 2006. ...


Economy

During the population boom between 1950 and 1980, Parma's commercial sector grew to match its residential sector. Since the 1950s, Parma has fostered the growth of many small businesses and been an operating hub for such well-known companies as General Motors, the Union Carbide Research Center, and Cox Cable Television.[4] General Motors Corporation, also known as GM or The General, an American multinational corporation, is the worlds largest auto company. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Cox Enterprises is the successor to the publishing company founded at Dayton, Ohio, by James Middleton Cox, who began with the Dayton Daily News. ...


Located close to the city's town hall is Parmatown Mall, which has recently been overshadowed in size by the neighboring South Park Mall, located south of Parma in Strongsville. Parmatown Mall is a shopping mall located in Parma, Ohio, approximately 10 miles south of Cleveland. ... Westfield SouthPark, formerly SouthPark Center, is an enclosed shopping mall in Strongsville, Ohio. ... Nickname: Crossroads of the Nation Location in Ohio Country United States State Ohio County Cuyahoga Township created 1818 Village created 1923 Incorporated 1961 Government type Mayor-council Mayor Thomas Perciak Area    - City 63. ...


Education

The City contains three public high schools: Parma Senior High School, Valley Forge High School, and Normandy High School. The schools share a common stadium for football and track events, called Byers Field. The rivalry that exists between these schools is well documented.[5] Normandy High School is located in the southeastern part of the city, and its population is made up of students from south Parma, and Seven Hills. Valley Forge is located in the southwestern portion of the city, and includes students from southwestern Parma, as well as Parma Heights. Parma High School is located in the center of the city, and includes students from central and northern Parma. Parma Senior High School (alternatively known as PSH or Parma High School), is one of three public high schools in the Parma City School District in Cuyahoga County, Ohio in Parma, Ohio. ... Valley Forge High School is a high school located in the Cleveland, Ohio suburb of Parma Heights. ... Normandy High School, established in 1968, is one of three high schools in the Parma City School District, which encompasses the three communities of Parma, Parma Heights, and Seven Hills, located on the southwest boundary of Cleveland, Ohio in Cuyahoga County. ... The Seven Hills of Rome east of the Tiber form the heart of Rome. ... Parma Heights is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ...


The city also is home to a private Catholic high school, Padua Franciscan High School. Founded in 1961 as a school for boys, Padua Franciscan became co-educational in 1983 and as of 2005 was the largest private, co-educational secondary school in northeast Ohio.[6] Padua's principal rivalry is with Holy Name High School, located in nearby Parma Heights.[7] Padua Franciscan High School is a private co-educational Franciscan high school in Parma, Ohio. ... Holy Name High School High School Holy Name High School (HNHS) is a private, Catholic, coeducational high school in Parma Heights, Ohio. ...


Famous Parmans

Chef Boyardee in an early television commercial. ... Sean H. Faris (born March 25, 1982 in Houston, Texas) is an American actor. ... Padua Franciscan High School is a private co-educational Franciscan high school in Parma, Ohio. ... Dan Fritsche (born July 13, 1985 in Parma, Ohio) is a professional ice hockey player for the Columbus Blue Jackets of the NHL. He played junior hockey for the Sarnia Sting and the London Knights, and won a gold medal at the 2004 World Junior Hockey Championship, playing for the... Tom Fritsche (born September 30th, 1986 in Parma, Ohio) is an American ice hockey forward currently playing for the Ohio State Buckeyes hockey team. ... Edward Miguel Mike García (November 17, 1923 - January 13th, 1986) was a Major League Baseball player of Mexican-Indian descent who was one of the Cleveland Indians The Big Four pitching staff in the 1950s. ... Michael Timothy Good is a NASA astronaut. ... Brian Holzinger (born October 10, 1972, in Parma, Ohio, USA) is a retired American professional ice hockey center. ... Ted Levine (born May 29, 1957 in Parma, Ohio) is an American actor best known for playing the serial killer Buffalo Bill in the 1991 blockbuster thriller The Silence of the Lambs. ... Jodie Foster and Anthony Hopkins in the film version The Silence of the Lambs is a novel by Thomas Harris, his second to feature sociopath psychiatrist and cannibal Dr. Hannibal Lecter. ... The Mangler is a short horror story by Stephen King. ... Monk is an Emmy Award winning television show about the private detective Adrian Monk (Tony Shalhoub), afflicted by Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and multiple phobias. ... The Hills Have Eyes is a 2006 remake of Wes Cravens 1977 film of the same name, about a family who becomes the target of a group of mutants after their car breaks down in the desert. ... James Jim Arthur Lovell, Jr. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ransom Eli Olds (June 3, 1864–August 26, 1950) was a pioneer of American automobile industry. ... Alan Ruck (born July 1, 1956 in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American stage, television and film actor. ...

Geography

Parma is located at 41°23′31″N, 81°43′43″W (41.391852, -81.728502)1. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1887x1507, 60 KB) Parma, Ohio This map shows the communitys extent in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... The following is a list of sources used in the creation of encyclopedia articles on various geographic topics and locations, such as cities, counties, states, and countries. ...


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 51.7 km² (20.0 mi²). 51.7 km² (20.0 mi²) of it is land and 0.1 km² (0.04 mi²) of it is water. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


Two major changes and developments have recently occurred regarding several principal sites within the city:

1. The West Creek Preservation Agency has worked to preserve various historic and natural sites in the city, including the Henninger House and the West Creek Watershed.[9]
2. Henninger House, the oldest home in Parma, which was built in 1849, is planned to be part of the proposed Quarry Creek Historic District.[10]

History

Parma is an incorporated city southwest of Cleveland. It is bounded by Cleveland and Brooklyn on the north, Brooklyn Heights, and Seven Hills on the east, North Royalton and Broadview Heights on the south, and Brook Park, Middleburg Heights, and Parma Heights on the west. Parma was originally part of Parma Township, created in 1826. The first settlers were the Benaiah Fay family from New York State, who settled along the Cleveland-Columbus Road in 1816. The name was taken from Parma, New York, where it was probably derived from the early-19th century fascination with classical Italy. During the 19th century, Parma remained largely agricultural. In 1912, a portion of the township seceded to form the village of Parma Heights. In 1924, Parma was incorporated as a village, and in 1926 it adopted the mayor-council form of government. In 1931 a proposition to annex it to the city of Cleveland was defeated, and Parma became a city. Parma's tremendous growth came after World War II as young families began moving from Cleveland into the Suburbs. During the Cold War, Parma's Nike Site Park housed Nike missiles located in underground silos.[11][12] Between 1950 and 1980, Parma's population soared from less than 20,000 to more than 110,000.[13] More recently, the population has declined to well below 90,000. [14] Nickname: Motto: Progress & Prosperity Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State County Cuyahoga Founded 1796 Incorporated 1814 (village)   1836 (city) Government  - Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D) Area [1]  - City  82. ... Nickname: Motto: Progress & Prosperity Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State County Cuyahoga Founded 1796 Incorporated 1814 (village)   1836 (city) Government  - Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D) Area [1]  - City  82. ... Brooklyn is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Brooklyn Heights is a village in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Seven Hills is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... North Royalton is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Broadview Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Brook Park is a suburb of Cleveland in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Middleburg Heights is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States. ... Parma Heights is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Launch of a Nike Zeus missile Project Nike was a US Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. ...


Nevertheless, Parma's local, state, and even national image has been marred by four incidents:

1. Such major newspapers as The New York Times covered allegations from the 1970s onwards that Parma's government worked to resist racial integration. Former Parma City Council President Kenneth Kuczma famously said, "I do not want Negroes in the city of Parma," and even federal courts ruled on the matter.[15]
2. In 2003, Parma made national news after a 345-kV transmission line failed in the city due to a tree, which played a significant role in the early stages of the 2003 North America blackout.[16] A major water crisis in Parma and nearby communities also resulted from the blackout.[17]
3. According to the official website of the Cuyahoga County Common Pleas Court, since 1998 the city has been engaged in an ongoing (i.e. still active) and costly civil suit pitting seventeen Parma residents as plaintiffs against around a dozen prominent city officials (including the current mayor and council president) as defendants. Most recently, the case titled Michael Perry et al vs. Parma, City of-et al, held a pre-trial on March 9, 2007, but the "defendant" failed to appear. Thus, the parties were to have contacted the court by telephone on The Ides of March of 2007. A new pretrial is set for July 31, 2007 at 9:45 AM.[18]
4. Parma has recently been plagued by negative press in the local media as a result of a larger conflict between the police and city government, which has some of its origins from an on-and-off investigation into whether or not former Republican Councilman John Stover stole "files from another council member's briefcase" in 2000--allegations that the Stover family disputes.[19] The incident, which has been referred to as "Filegate" by local and regional media sources, has thus far had inconclusive results, but many residents and outside observers have interpreted the escalation in tensions between the police department and city government as one of reprisals and counter-reprisals of which "Filegate" may serve as an early salvo.[20]

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The 2003 North America blackout was a massive power outage that occurred throughout parts of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada on Thursday, August 14, 2003. ...

Disputes Between City Government and Police Department

A possible fifth incident that has marred Parma's image in the recent past involves tensions between the local media and city government on one side and the police department on the other.


A Witch Hunt?

Photograph of a Parma Witch Hunt sticker on a vehicle in Parma taken during the height of the incident.

Those who believe in the existence of a Parma political machine led by Prosecutor Bill Mason contend that in order to distract from their own suspect activities, "Good Old Boy" politicians allegedly concocted a "Witch Hunt" that scapegoated police officers.[21][22][23] Ultimately, investigator Dick DiCicco wrote in his official report that there “was no evidence presented to” substantiate “the allegation that officers were taking turns calling in sick in order that other officers could earn overtime to maintain minimums,” “there was no actual duplicate billing” concerning officers Kuchler and Robertson as indicated in The Plain Dealer articles, and based “on the review of the above activity no specific pattern of reciprocity was detected” on the part of Officer Mekruit. On page B2 of The Plain Dealer, Joe Wagner quoted Prosecutor Michael Nolan as reportedly declaring that Mayor DePiero and Council President Germana removed the “police tax request from May 3 ballot . . . ‘as an excuse for, apparently, their own inaction.’” In turn, on March 11, 2005, The Plain Dealer quoted Councilwoman Stys who summed up the investigation as a “sham,” and on January 12, 2006, prosecutor Dan Kasaris recommended that the case of The State of Ohio vs. Donald Mcnea, a retired Parma police officer who served as a focus of numerous newspaper articles, be dismissed. Further revelations about the "Witch Hunt", as found in such newspaper articles as "Report clears Parma police in payroll-padding probe," and including the retroactive appointment of a special prosecutor who had been prosecuting (in violation of the Ohio Revised Code) select police union representatives who had raised concerns about possible political corruption, has led to calls for the resignations of many members of the current mayoral administration and city council. As confirmed on the county website, most recently, on February 26, 2007, Judge Brian J. Corrigan found Patrolman Brian Barta not guilty of bribery.[24] Officer Barta was earlier discharged of charges of obstructing justice,[25] with the judge citing the fact that the prosecution's witness "skipped court appearances" and was "twice arrested and convicted, for drug trafficking and possession." According to The Plain Dealer, attorney Henry Hillow said that Barta "should have never been charged" and called Barta's experience "a travesty."[26] Nevertheless, the long-term consequences of the crisis, which lasted for nearly four years (2003-2007) are yet to be seen. 1533 account of the execution of a witch charged with burning the town of Schiltach in 1531. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... The Plain Dealer is a Restoration comedy by William Wycherley, first performed on 11 December 1676. ...


Mayors[27][28]

Frank D. Johnson 1928-1933
Anthony A. Fleger 1934-1935
Roland E. Reichert 1936-1942
Sylvester Augustine 1942-1945
Roland E. Reichert 1946-1949
Lawrence Stary 1950-1951
Stephen A. Zona 1952-1957
Joseph W. Kadar 1958-1959
Sylvester Augustine 1960-1961
John Bobko 1961
James W. Day 1962-1967
John Petruska 1967-1987
Michael A. Ries 1988-1994
Gerald M. Boldt 1994-2003
Dean DePiero 2004-present

References in Popular Culture

  • Parma was, throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the butt of jokes by local movie show hosts Ghoulardi, Hoolihan & Big Chuck, and The Ghoul, due to its Eastern European, most specifically Polish, make-up. Ghoulardi famously made a series of shorts called "Parma Place." The jokes dealt with Parmans' alleged love of white socks, pink flamingos, chrome balls, kielbasa and pierogis.[citation needed]

Ghoulardi was a fictional character invented and portrayed by disc jockey, voice announcer, and actor Ernie Anderson, as the horror host of late night Shock Theater at WJW-TV, Channel 8, in Cleveland, Ohio from 1963 through 1966. ... Big Chuck and Little John are two guys with a TV show aired local to Cleveland. ... Ron Sweed as The Ghoul Ron Sweed, (born 1950, Cleveland, Ohio), is an American entertainer best known for his late-night television horror host character The Ghoul. ... Drew Allison Carey (born May 23, 1958) is an American comedian and actor. ...

References

  1. ^ US Census 2000 est
  2. ^ Parma (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau
  3. ^ Parma Ranked 32nd Safest City Nationwide
  4. ^ Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: Parma. Case Western Reserve University (June 29, 2003).
  5. ^ Even though rivalry may exist on the field of sports, the Spanish pen pals found connections to begin new friendships; “On the field, you think that the guys from Valley Forge and Parma are bad guys because they’re playing you tough trying to get the win” said recent Normandy graduate Dan Ebinger, who will play defensive end. “But, after you meet with them, you realize that they’re all actually pretty nice guys. It’s pretty nice getting to know them as people instead of just judging them by how they played against you.”; Normandy was upsetted last week against Parma. Over the years, a second rivalry has formed between Valley Forge & Normandy, the battle of Parma, a battle that would determine the better team.
  6. ^ www.ohsaa.org/members/hsenroll05.htm OHSAA enrollment figures. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  7. ^ "Holy Name (5-4) vs. Padua (6-3)" - article discusses how their game, called "Holy War Jr.", "is more about area bragging rights and pride."
  8. ^ Robert Olds of Windsor and Suffield, CT and his descendants
  9. ^ Welcome to West Creek!
  10. ^ Historic Henninger House Saved (OH)
  11. ^ EPA checks for hazards at former Nike site
  12. ^ Records Relating to Nike Missile Sites at the National Archives and Records Administration-Great Lakes Region
  13. ^ Kubasek, Ernest R., The History of Parma (1976). Parma Chamber of Commerce, Parma (1984). Parma Sesquicentennial, 1826-1976
  14. ^ The 2006 population estimate for Parma city, Ohio is 80,009.
  15. ^ Parma City Council President makes national headlines for racism. URL Accessed June 25, 2006
  16. ^ "Lights out again - some on purpose" by Donna Iacoboni, URL accessed on April 10, 2007
  17. ^ website features a photograph with the citation: "The National Guard supplied water to Parma City, Ohio, and other communities Aug. 15, 2003, after a massive blackout disrupted clean drinking water supplies.", URL accessed on April 10, 2007
  18. ^ For the official and detailed information on this case, do a civil search on this government website for either "Michael Perry" or "Parma, City of", URL accessed on July 18, 2007
  19. ^ "Parma and Madison Councilmen Are Ambassadors For Truth" - article that provides additional background information on John Stover
  20. ^ [http://www.cleveland.com/parmapolice/index.ssf?/parmapolice/more/104729732388160.html "Extended medical leave, unquestioned by officials, paves way to retirement" - article cites "Filegate" twice]
  21. ^ Debbie Lime takes on Dean DePiero for mayor - and Bill Mason and Parma's political establishment
  22. ^ "DePiero and Cuyahoga County Prosecutor Bill Mason control what is referred to as the “Parma Democratic machine,” and Lime – elected to council as a Democrat – is running as an anti-machine Democrat."
  23. ^ Parma Good Old Boys
  24. ^ For the official and detailed information on this case, do a criminal search on this government website for "Brian Barta", URL accessed on April 10, 2007
  25. ^ For the official and detailed information on this case, again, do a criminal search on this government website for "Brian Barta", URL accessed on April 10, 2007
  26. ^ Nichols, Jim. The Plain Dealer, 26 February, 2007. Retrieved 15 March, 2007.
  27. ^ The Political Graveyard: Mayors of Parma, Ohio
  28. ^ Most of the list of mayors came from the city.

References for the Witch Hunt: Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

References for Police Chiefs:

External links

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Cleveland Suburb Finder

North:
Cleveland, Brooklyn, Old Brooklyn (Cleveland)
West:
Brook Park, Parma Heights, Middleburg Heights
Parma East: Seven Hills, Independence, Brooklyn Heights
South: North Royalton, Broadview Heights

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parma: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2360 words)
Made part of the duchy of Parma and Piacenza in 1545, it was held by the Farnese family and later passed to the Austrians.
In 1847, after Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma's death, it passed again to the Bourbons, the last of whom was stabbed in the city and left it to his Widow, Luisa Maria of Berry.
Parma is famous for its food: Parmigiano Reggiano cheese (also produced in Reggio Emilia), Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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