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Encyclopedia > Parma
Comune di Parma

Municipal coat of arms
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Emilia-Romagna
Province Parma (PR)
Mayor Pietro Vignali
Elevation 55 m (180 ft)
Area 260 km² (100 sq mi)
Population (as of December 31, 2007)
 - Total 178,718
 - Density 687/km² (1,779/sq mi)
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 44°48′N, 10°20′E
Gentilic Parmigiani (Pram'zan) (Parmensi (Arijoz) are
called the province's inhabitants)
Dialing code 0521
Postal code 43100
Frazioni See list
Patron Sant'Ilario di Poitiers, Sant'Onorato, San Rocco
 - Day January 13
Website: www.comune.parma.it

Goober is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, famous for its architecture and the fine countryside around it. It is the home of the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in Italy. Parma is divided into two parts by the little stream with the same name. The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci (born in a hamlet in the countryside) wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital it received a stream, which is often dry". Parma, Italy Parma F.C. is the local football team Parma is also the name of several places in the United States: Parma, Idaho Parma, Michigan Parma Township, Michigan Parma, New York Parma, Ohio For the macropod, see Parma Wallaby For the food dish, see Parmigiana. ... Image File history File links Parma-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Parma (It. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... This article is about the Italian city. ... Hilarius or Hilary (c. ... Saint Honoratus (c. ... Saint Roch (Latin: Rochus; Italian: Rocco; Spanish: Roque; c. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... This article is about building architecture. ... The University of Parma, Italy, (Università degli Studi di Parma) is one of the oldest universities in the world, founded in the 11th century. ... Attilio Bertolucci (November 18, 1911 - June 14, 2000) is an Italian poet and writer. ...

Contents

Prehistory

Parma was already an built-up area in the Bronze Age. It has verified by now that in the current position of the city rose a "terramare". The "terramare" (Earthsea) were ancient villages in structural wood on pile-dwelling built according to a defined scheme and squared form, built on the dry land, generally in proximity of the rivers. During this age (among the 1500 B.C. and the 800 B.C.) the first necropolises (placed where there is the actual Cathedral Plaza and Millstone Square) rose also. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


History

The city was most probably founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma (circular shield) was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, and Parmeal, Parmni and Parmnial are names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions. Diodorus Siculus (XXII, 2,2; XXVIII, 2,1) reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the Gauls to the north, is more a matter of choice. The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ...


The Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Modena. 2000 families were settled. Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Aemilia and the Via Claudia. It had a forum, in what is today the central Garibaldi Square. In 44 BC, the city was destroyed, and Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC 184 BC - 183 BC - 182 BC 181 BC... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Via Aemilia (It. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The city was subsequently sacked by Attila, and later given by the barbarian king Odoacer to his fellows. During the Gothic War, however, Totila destroyed it. It was then part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (changing name to Chrysopolis, "Golden City", probably due to the presence of the army's treasure) and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. During the Middle Ages, Parma became an important stage of the Via Francigena, the main road connecting Rome to Northern Europe: several castles, hospitals and inns were built in the following centuries to host the increasing number of pilgrims. For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Franks Visigoths Commanders Belisarius Narses Mundalias Germanus Justinus Liberius Theodoric the Great Witigis Totila The Gothic War, was a war fought in Italy in 535-552. ... Totila, born in Treviso, was king of the Ostrogoths, chosen after the death of his uncle Ildibad, having engineered the assassination of Ildibads short-lived successor his cousin Eraric in 541. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... Events The Nubian kingdom of Alodia is converted to Christianity, according to John of Ephesus. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Route of the Via Francigena The Via Francigena is an ancient road to Rome for those coming from France. ...

Piazza della Pace with the Farnese family’s Palazzo della Pilotta.
Piazza della Pace with the Farnese family’s Palazzo della Pilotta.

Under the Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county (774). Like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, first being Guidobus. In the subsequent struggles between Papacy and Empire, Parma was usually member of the Imperial party. Two of its bishops became antipopes: Càdalo, founder of the Cathedral, as Honorius II); and Guibert, as Clement III). An almost independent commune was created around 1140. After the Peace of Constance (1183), quarrels with the neighbouring communes of Reggio Emilia, Piacenza and Cremona became harsher: the aim was the control over the vital trading line over the Po River. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1035, 353 KB) Description: Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, Italy own image, taken March 28th, 2002 Photographer: Herbert Ortner, Vienna, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: Parma Farnese ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1035, 353 KB) Description: Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma, Italy own image, taken March 28th, 2002 Photographer: Herbert Ortner, Vienna, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: Parma Farnese ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... Honorius II (d. ... Antipope Clement III. (middle) with Henry IV. (left), image froms Codex Jenesis Bose q. ... Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Reggio Emilia (RE) Mayor Graziano Delrio (from July 1, 2004) Elevation 58 m Area 231 km² Population  - Total 141,383  - Density 612/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Reggiani Dialing code 0522 Postal code 42100 Frazioni see list Patron San Prospero  - Day... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Cremona is a city in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left shore of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura padana (Po valley). ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ...


The struggle between Guelphs and Ghibelline was a feature of Parma too. In 1213 her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli. Then, after a long stance alongside the Emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248: the city was besieged by the Emperor Frederick II, who was however crushed in the battle that ensued. The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting, respectively, the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, known as the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo della Signoria Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later middle ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state (like otherwise styled counterparts in other cities... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... The Battle of Parma was fought in February 18, 1248 between the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and the Guelphs. ...


Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341. After a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family (1404-1409), Sforza imposed their rule (1440-1449) through their associated families of Pallavicino, Rossi, Sanvitale and Da Correggio. These created a kind of new feudalism, building towers and castles throughout the city and the land. These fiefs evolved into truly independent states: the Landi governed the higher Taro's valley from 1257 to 1682. The Pallavicino seignory extended over the eastern part of today's province, with the capital in Busseto. Parma's territories were an exception for Northern Italy, as its feudal subdivision frequently continued until more recent years. For example, Solignano was a Pallavicino family possession until 1805, and San Secondo belonged to the Rossi well into the 19th century. Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... Sforza was a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan. ... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Pallavicino may be Ferrante Pallavicino, Italian writer Pietro Sforza Pallavicino, historian and cardinal Category: ... Bob Rossi (Holy Cross Man of the Year - 1998) is an Italian surname, in fact, the most frequent in Italy. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... This article is about the plant. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma (PR) Mayor Luca Laurini Elevation m Area 76 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 6,890  - Density 90/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Bussetani Dialing code 0524 Postal code 43011 Frazioni Contrada della Chiesa, Frescarolo, Madonna Prati, Le... Thomas Jefferson. ... San Secondo may refer to: San Secondo Parmense, a comune in the province of Parma, Italy San Secondo di Pinerolo, a comune in the province of Turin, Italy It is also the Italian name of several Catholic saints (see Secundus) Category: ... Bob Rossi (Holy Cross Man of the Year - 1998) is an Italian surname, in fact, the most frequent in Italy. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Parma in the 15th century.
Parma in the 15th century.

Between the 14th and the 15th Centuries, Parma was at the centre of the Italian Wars. The Battle of Fornovo was fought in its territory. The Frenchheld the city in 1500-1521, with a short Papal parenthesis in 1512-1515. After the foreigners were expelled, Parma belonged to the Papal States until 1545. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 586 pixelsFull resolution (985 × 721 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Il copyright di questimmagine è scaduto. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 586 pixelsFull resolution (985 × 721 pixel, file size: 219 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Il copyright di questimmagine è scaduto. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Battle of Fornovo took place in July 1495 during the Italian Wars. ... Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Demonym French Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Nicolas Sarkozy  -  Prime Minister François Fillon Formation  -  French State 843 French State Formed   -  Current... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ...


In that year the Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy for his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendants ruled in Parma until 1731, when Antonio Farnese (1679-1731), last male of the Farnese line, died. The state was consolidated by Ottavio II Farnese (1547-1586). He also renovated the city's structures to create a true capital for his little but rich reign. The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Pier Luigi Farnese is also the name of Pier Luigi Farnese (b. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... Antonio Farnese (May 29, 1679 - February 26, 1731) was the last Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1727 until his death. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ...


In 1594 a Constitution was emanated, the University enhanced and the Nobles' College founded. The war to reduce the barons' power continued for several years: in 1612 Barbara Sanseverino was executed in the central square of Parma, together with six other nobles charged of plotting against the duke. At the end of the 17th century, after the defeat of Pallavicini (1588) and Landi (1682) the Farnese duke could finally hold with firm hand all Parmense territories. The castle of the Sanseverino in Colorno was turned into a luxurious summer palace by Ferdinando Bibiena. Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... The University of Parma, Italy, (Università degli Studi di Parma) is one of the oldest universities in the world, founded in the 11th century. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... 1588 was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 48. ...

The battistero of Parma.
The battistero of Parma.

In 1731 the combined Duchy of Parma and Piacenza was given to the House of Bourbon in a diplomatic shuffle of the European dynastic politics that were played out in Italy. Under the new rulers, however, it faced a certain decadence. In 1734 all the outstanding art collections of the duke's palaces of Parma, Colorno and Sala Baganza were moved to Naples. Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Events January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handels opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 48. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation 176 m Area 30. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


Parma was under French influence after the Peace of Aachen (1748). Parma became a modern state with the energetic action of prime minister Guillaume du Tillot. He created the bases for a modern industry and fought strenuously against the church's privileges. The city lived a period of particular splendour: the Palatine Library, the Archaeological Museum, the Picture Gallery and the Botanical Garden were founded, together with the Royal Printing Works directed by Giambattista Bodoni. Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bodoni is a typeface designed by Giambattista Bodoni (February 16, 1740 in Saluzzo – November 29, 1813 in Parma), an Italian engraver, publisher, printer and typographer of high repute. ...


During the Napoleonic Wars (1802-1814), Parma was part of the Taro Département. Under its French name Parme, it was also created a duché grand-fief de l'Empire for Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, the Emperor's Arch-Treasurer, on 24 April 1808 (extinguished 1926). Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Taro is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Italy. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Portugal, Spain and France (in Italy... Charles-François Lebrun Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, prince of the Empire (March 19, 1739 – June 16, 1824) was a French statesman. ...


After its restoration by the 1814-15 Vienna Congress, the Risorgimento's upheavals had no fertile ground in the tranquil duchy. In 1847, after Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma's death, it passed again to the Bourbons, the last of whom was stabbed in the city and left it to his Widow, Luisa Maria of Berry. On September 15, 1859 the dynasty was declared deposed, and Parma entered in the newly formed provinces of Emilia under Carlo Farini. With the plebiscite of 1860 the former duchy became part of the unified Kingdom of Italy. The Congress of Vienna (October 1, 1814 - June 9, 1815) was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Marie Louise (full name: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, later after 1817 in Italian Maria Luigia dAsburgo-Lorena, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla) (b. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... “Italian Republic” redirects here. ...


The loss of the capital role provoked an economical and social crisis in Parma. It started to recover its role of industrial prominence after the connection with Piacenza and Bologna of 1859, and with Fornovo and Suzzara in 1883. Trade unions were strong in the city, in which a famous General Strike was declared from May 1 to June 6, 1908. The struggle with Fascism lived its most dramatic moment in the August 1922, when the regime officer Italo Balbo attempted to enter in the popular quarter of Oltretorrente. The citizens organized into the Arditi del Popolo ("People's assaulters") and pushed back the squadristi. This episode is considered the first example of Resistance in Italy. For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fornovo may refer to the following Italian comuni (municipalities): Fornovo di Taro, in the province of Parma, seat of the famous battle. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Province of Mantua (MN) Mayor Elevation 20 m Area 60. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Fascist redirects here. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Air Marshal Italo Balbo Italo Balbo (June 6, 1896 - June 28, 1940) was an Italian aviator, blackshirt leader and possible successor of Mussolini. ...


During World War II, Parma was a strong centre of partisan resistance. The train station and marshalling yards were targets for high altitude bombing by the Allies in the spring of 1944. Much of the Palazzo della Pilotta — situated near the train station — was destroyed by errant bombs, but Parma did not see widespread destruction during the war. Parma was liberated of the German occupation (1943-1945) on April 26, 1945 by the partisan resistance and troops of Brazilian Expeditionary Force [1]. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Smoking Snake, symbol of the FEB // The Brazilian Expeditionary Force (Portuguese: Força Expedicionária Brasileira, or FEB) was the 25,300-man force formed by the Brazilian Navy, Army and Air Force that fought alongside the Allied forces in the Italian Campaign of World War II. FEB Troops...


Main sights

Churches

The Cathedral and the Baptistry of Parma.
The Cathedral and the Baptistry of Parma.
Façade of the church of St. Francis.
Façade of the church of St. Francis.
The Governor's Palace.
The Governor's Palace.
  • The Romanesque Cathedral houses both 12th century sculpture by Benedetto Antelami and a 16th century fresco masterpiece by Antonio da Correggio.
  • The Baptistery, adjacent to the cathedral was begun in 1196 by Antelami.
  • Church of Saint John the Evangelist of Parma, built between 1498 and 1510 behind the Cathedral's apse. It has Baroque facade and belfry, with a Latin cross plant and three naves. In 1520-1522, Correggio frescoed the dome with the Vision of St. John the Evangelist, a highly influential fresco which heralded illustionistic perspective in the decoration of church ceilings. Chapel frescoes by Parmigianino. Also the cloisters and the ancient Benedictine grocery are noteworthy. The library has books from the 15th and 16th centuries.
  • Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Steccata.
  • The Benedictine Monastery of San Paolo, founded in the 11th century. It houses precious frescoes by Correggio, in the so-called Camera di San Paolo (1519-1520), and Alessandro Araldi.
  • The Gothic church of San Francesco del Prato (13th century). Until the 1990s it was the city's jail

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1066 KB) Parma, Italia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1066 KB) Parma, Italia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (682 × 909 pixel, file size: 503 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (682 × 909 pixel, file size: 503 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1390x1000, 403 KB) Description: Townhall of Parma, Italy own image, taken March 28th, 2002 Photographer: Herbert Ortner, Vienna, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: Parma ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1390x1000, 403 KB) Description: Townhall of Parma, Italy own image, taken March 28th, 2002 Photographer: Herbert Ortner, Vienna, Austria File links The following pages link to this file: Parma ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Aerial view of the Duomo of Parma with its bell tower. ... Antelamis Deposition Benedetto Antelami (c. ... Antonio Allegri da Correggio. ... the Baptistry of Parma. ... Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... The Vision of St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the Princeton University eating club, see Cloister Inn. ... The Sanctuary of Santa Maria della Steccata is a greek-cross design Renaissance church in central Parma, Italy. ... Portrait of Barbara Pallavicino (c. ...

Palaces

  • The Palazzo della Pilotta (1583). It houses the Academy of Fine Arts with artists of the School of Parma (Painting), the Palatine Library, the National Gallery, the Archaeological Museum, the Bodoni Museum and the Farnese Theatre.
  • The Ducal Palace, built from 1561 for Duke Ottavio Farnese on a design by Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. Built on the former Sforza castle area, it was enlarged in the 17th-18th centuries. It includes the Palazzo Eucherio Sanvitale, with interesting decorations dating from the 16th centuries and attributed to Gianfrancesco d'Agrate, and a fresco by Parmigianino. Annexed is the Ducal Park also by Vignola. It was turned into a French-style garden in 1749.
  • The Palazzo del Comune, built in 1627.
  • The Palazzo del Governatore ("Governor's Palace"), dating from the 13th century.
  • The Bishop's Palace (1055).
  • Ospedale Vecchio ("Old Hospital"), created in 1250 and later renovated in Renaissance times. It is now home to the State Archives and to the Communal Library.

View of Palazzo della Pilotta. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... The five orders, engraving from Vignolas Regole delle cinque ordini darchitettura set the standards Giacomo (or Jacopo) Barozzi da Vignola (Vignola, near Modena, October 1, 1507 - July 7, 1573) was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism, also known as Vignola. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ...

Other

For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Giovan Battista Aleotti is a Northern Italian architect born in 1546, and died in 1636. ... Ranuccio Farnese (March 28, 1569 — March 5, 1622) or Ranuccio I, was the fourth Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1592 until his death. ... Cosimo I de Medici in Armour by Agnolo Bronzino Cosimo I de Medici (June 12, 1519 – April 21, 1574) was the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1537 to 1574, during the waning days of the Renaissance. ... Alexander Farnese Portrait by Otto Vaenius (ca 1585). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Orto Botanico di Parma Glass houses The Orto Botanico di Parma, also known as the Orto Botanico dellUniversità di Parma, is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Parma. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... The University of Parma, Italy, (Università degli Studi di Parma) is one of the oldest universities in the world, founded in the 11th century. ... Teatro Regio di Parma is a famous 19th century opera house and opera company in Parma, Italy. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Nicola or Niccolò Bettoli (September 3, 1780 - July 16, 1854) was an Italian architect. ... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. ... The Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church in San Giovanni Rotondo. ... Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... The Museo Lombardi is an art museum it the city of Parma, Emilia-Romagna (Italy). ... Marie Louise (full name: Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia von Habsburg-Lothringen, later after 1817 in Italian Maria Luigia dAsburgo-Lorena, Duchessa di Parma, Piacenza, e Guastalla) (b. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français...

Frazioni (villages)

Alberi, Baganzola, Beneceto, Botteghino, Ca'Terzi, Calestani, Carignano, Carpaneto, Cartiera, Casalbaroncolo, Casalora di Ravadese, Casaltone, Case Capelli, Case Cocconi, Case Crostolo, Case Nuove, Case Rosse, Case Vecchie, Casino dalla Rosa, Casagnola, Castelletto, Castelnovo, Cervara, Chiozzola, Coloreto, Corcagnano, Eia, Fontanini, Fontanellato, Gaione, Ghiaiata Nuova, Il Moro, La Catena, La Palazzina, Malandriano, Marano, Marore, Martorano, Molino di Malandriano, Osteria San Martino, Panocchia, Paradigna, Pedrignano, Pilastrello, Pizzolese, Ponte, Porporano, Pozzetto Piccolo, Quercioli, Ravadese, Ronco Pascolo, Rosa, San Prospero, San Ruffino, San Secondo, Sissa, Soragna, Valera, Viarolo, Viazza, Vicofertile, Vicomero, Vigatto, Vigheffio, Vigolante.


Food

Parma is famous for its food: Parmigiano Reggiano cheese (also produced in Reggio Emilia), Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham). In 2004 Parma was appointed the seat of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Parma also has two food multinationals, Barilla and Parmalat. Country of origin Italy Region, town Provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna (west of the Reno), Mantua (south of the Po) Source of milk Cows Pasteurised No Texture Hard Aging time Minimum: 12 months Vecchio: 18–24 months Stravecchio: 24–36 months Certification Italy: DOC 1955 EU: PDO 1992... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Reggio Emilia (RE) Mayor Graziano Delrio (from July 1, 2004) Elevation 58 m Area 231 km² Population  - Total 141,383  - Density 612/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Reggiani Dialing code 0522 Postal code 42100 Frazioni see list Patron San Prospero  - Day... Prosciutto Prosciutto (IPA: ) is the Italian word for ham, used in English to refer to dry-cured ham (prosciutto crudo). ... The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), an agency of the European Union, began operating in 2002. ... Logo For the plants or the plant product, see Barilla. ... Parmalat logo. ...


Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Website: http://www. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Castile-La Mancha Province Guadalajara Tows 5 (Guadalajara, Iriépal, Taracena, Usanos & Valdenoches) Founded 8th century, probably, by moors Government  - Mayor Jesús Alique (PSOE) Area  - Land 236 km² (91. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bourg-en-Bresse is a city in eastern France, préfecture (capital) of the Ain département, and was capital of the former province of Bresse. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Szeged and the Tisza river. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Joaquin Incorporated 1850 Government  - Mayor Edward J. Chavez  - City Manager J. Gordon Palmer, Jr. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

Sport

Parma F.C. was founded in 1913. It is a Serie A football club renowned in Italy and Europe for its successes including three national cups, a European Cup of the Winner's Cup, two UEFA Cups, a European Supercup and an Italian Supercup. It plays in the city's stade Ennio Tardini which can host up to 29,000 spectators. Also volleyball, women basketball, rugby union and baseball have large popularity in the city and have scored relevant successes. Parma Football Club (formerly Parma Associazione Calcio) is an Italian football club based in Parma, Emilia-Romagna, nicknamed Ducali (The Duchy Men), Crociati (Crusaders) and Gialloblu (Yellow-Blues). ... This article is about the Italian football league. ... Soccer redirects here. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ...


Parma is also home to two rugby union teams in the top national division, Overmach Rugby Parma and SKG Gran Rugby. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Parma Rugby is an Italian rugby union club currently competing in Super 10. ... SKG Gran Rugby is a Italian rugby union club currently competing in Super 10. ...


Miscellaneous

Parma hosts the Teatro Regio, a famous opera theatre. For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


Stendhal set much of his masterpiece (The Charterhouse of Parma) in the city, even though there was no "Charterhouse" in real life. Stendhal. ... The Charterhouse of Parma (French: La Chartreuse de Parme) is one of Stendhals two acknowledged masterpieces (and only complete novels) along with The Red and the Black. ...


John Grisham's novel Playing for Pizza is predominantly set in Parma. It is about an American professional football quarterback who plays for the local American football team, the Parma Panthers. Playing For Pizza is a forthcoming short novel by John Grisham, to be released on September 25, 2007. ... The Parma Panthers are an American football team based in Parma, Italy. ...

Detail of Correggio's frescoes in the Camera di San Paolo.
Detail of Correggio's frescoes in the Camera di San Paolo.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 491 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2473 pixel, file size: 443 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 491 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2473 pixel, file size: 443 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Painters and sculptors of Parma

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sisto Badalocchio Rosa (1581- c. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Portrait of Barbara Pallavicino (c. ... MIchelangelo Anselmi (c. ... Giovanni Maria Francesco Rondani (c. ... Girolamo Mazzola Bedoli (1500-1569), Italian Renaissance painter active mostly in Parma. ... Antonio Allegri da Correggio. ... Correggio is the name of a town in Italy and of a famous painter who was born there. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Reggio Emilia (RE) Mayor Graziano Delrio (from July 1, 2004) Elevation 58 m Area 231 km² Population  - Total 141,383  - Density 612/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Reggiani Dialing code 0522 Postal code 42100 Frazioni see list Patron San Prospero  - Day... Antelamis Deposition Benedetto Antelami (c. ... Giacomo Zanguidi also called Bertoia or Jacopo Zanguidi,(1544 - 1574), was an Italian painter of a late-Renaissance or Mannerist style that emerged in Parma towards the end of the 16th century. ... Bartolomeo Schedoni (1578-1615), Italian early Baroque painter of Reggio-Emilia. ...

Other famous people from Parma

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Bodoni is a typeface designed by Giambattista Bodoni (February 16, 1740 in Saluzzo – November 29, 1813 in Parma), an Italian engraver, publisher, printer and typographer of high repute. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... Ferdinando Paer (June 1, 1771 - May 3, 1839) was an Italian musical composer. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... Bernardo Bertolucci (born March 16, 1940) is an Italian writer and Academy Award winning film director. ... Self-portrait Giovannino Guareschi (May 1, 1908 - July 22, 1968) was an Italian journalist and humorist whose most famous creation is the priest Don Camillo. ... Alessandro Cortini Alessandro Cortini (born May 24, 1976) is an Italian musician best known as a touring keyboardist with Nine Inch Nails. ... Vittorio Bottego (Parma 1860, Africa 1897) was an italian army officier and one of the first explorers of the Juba region in Africa where he leaded two expeditions. ... Attilio Bertolucci (November 18, 1911 - June 14, 2000) is an Italian poet and writer. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

See also

The European College of Parma Foundation (Italian: Fondazione Collegio Europeo di Parma, French: La Fondation Collège Européen de Parme): is a higher education institution which provides academic training for young European graduates in the field of European Union law, economics and politics. ...

External links

  • The European Food Safety Authority Website
  • Parma travel guide from Wikitravel
  • The best of Parma
  • Parma's view from satellite (Google Earth)
  • 360° photos of City of Parma
Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... Parma (It. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 103. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation 625 m Area 190. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma Mayor Squeri Sergio Elevation 500 m Area 167 km² Population  - Total (as of 2001) 3,810  - Density 23/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Bedoniesi Dialing code 0525 Postal code 43041 Frazioni Alpe, Anzola, Bruschi di Sopra, Bruschi di Sotto, Calice... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma Mayor Elevation m Area km² Population  - Total  - Density /km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Dialing code Postal code Website: www. ... Bore is a commune in the Province of Parma, Italy. ... BORGO VAL DI TARO, a town and episcopal sea of Emilia, Italy, in the province of Parma, 14 m. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma (PR) Mayor Luca Laurini Elevation m Area 76 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 6,890  - Density 90/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Bussetani Dialing code 0524 Postal code 43011 Frazioni Contrada della Chiesa, Frescarolo, Madonna Prati, Le... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 57. ... Collecchio is a town in the province of Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 48. ... Compianos a medioeval walled town in the Taro Valley (parmesan Appeninis), 50 minute-drive to ligurian sea-side and to Parma. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 166. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 38. ... Fidenza is a town in the province of Parma, Italy. ... Fontanellato is a small town in the province of Parma in north Italy. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 25. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 57. ... Langhirano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Parma in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna, located about 90 km west of Bologna and about 20 km south of Parma. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 47. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 88. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 28. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 69. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 48. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 105. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation 62 m Area 79. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 70. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 82. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 25. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 40. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation 176 m Area 30. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma (PR) Mayor Giuseppe Franchi (since June 28, 2004) Elevation 157 m Area 81 km² Population  - Total 17,875  - Density 221/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Salsési Dialing code 0524 Postal code 43039 Frazioni See list Patron San Vitale  - Day... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 38. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 42. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 73. ... Soragna. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation 40 m Area 39. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 72. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 78. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 69. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 37. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation 170 m Area 54. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 29. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 67. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 64. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 79. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Province of Parma (PR) Mayor Elevation m Area 23. ... Image File history File links Provincia_di_Parma-Stemma. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1767 words)
Parma is a medieval city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, famous for its architectures and the fine countryside around it.
Parma became an important stage of the Via Francigena, the main Middle Ages road connecting Rome to Northern Europe: several castles, hospitals and inns were founded in the following centuries to host the increasing number of pilgrims.
Parma is famous for its food: its cheese "Parmigiano Reggiano" (as well as Reggio Emilia) and Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham).
Parma, Ohio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1213 words)
Parma is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio and is the largest suburb of Cleveland, Ohio.
Parma High School is located in the center of the city, and includes students from central and northern Parma.
In 1924, Parma was incorporated as a village, and in 1926 it adopted the mayor-council form of government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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