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Encyclopedia > Parliamentary system
States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. States denoted in green have the roles of head of state and head of government in one office, similar to presidential systems, but this office is filled by parliament's choice and elected separately.
States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. States denoted in green have the roles of head of state and head of government in one office, similar to presidential systems, but this office is filled by parliament's choice and elected separately.

A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. Hence, there is no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches, leading to a differing set of checks and balances compared to those found in a presidential republic. Parliamentary systems usually have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government being the prime minister or premier, and the head of state often being an elected (either popularly or through parliament) president or hereditary monarch. Though in Parliamentary systems the prime minister and cabinet will exercise executive power on a day-to-day basis, actual authority will usually be bestowed in the head of state, giving them many codified or uncodified reserve powers, providing some balance to these systems. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 52 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Parliament Parliamentary system User:The Tom/maps Categories: ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 52 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Parliament Parliamentary system User:The Tom/maps Categories: ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...


The term parliamentary system does not mean that a country is ruled by different parties in coalition with each other. Such multi-party arrangements are usually the product of an electoral system known as proportional representation. Parliamentary countries that use "first past the post" voting usually have governments composed of one party. However, parliamentary systems in continental Europe do use proportional representation, and tend to produce election results in which no single party has a majority of seats. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... An electoral system is the system used to administer an election. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


Parliamentarianism may also be for governance in local governments. An example is the city of Oslo, which has an executive council as a part of the parliamentary system. The council-manager system of municipal government used in some U.S. cities bears many similarities to a parliamentary system. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... The council-manager government is one of two main variations of representative municipal government in the United States. ...

Contents

Types

There are broadly two forms of Parliamentary Democracies. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

  • Western European Parliamentary Model (e.g., Spain, Germany) tend to have a more consensual debating system, and have semi-cyclical debating chambers. Proportional representation systems are used, where there is more of a tendency to use party list systems than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of these Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber. This model is sometimes called the West German Model since its earliest exemplar in its final form was in the Bundestag of West Germany (which became the Bundestag of Germany upon the absorption of the GDR by the FRG).

There also exists a Hybrid Model, the semi-presidential system, drawing on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems, for example the French Fifth Republic. Much of Eastern Europe has adopted this model since the early 1990s. The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... An example of a plurality ballot. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... Type Lower house Speaker of the House David Hawker, Liberal since November 16, 2004 Members 150 Political groups ALP (85) Liberal Party (53) National Party (10) Last elections 24 November 2007 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site House of Representatives Entrance to the House of Representatives Judicial High... Example Instant-runoff voting ballot Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting system most commonly used for single member elections in which voters have one vote, but can rank candidates in order of preference. ... Preferential voting (or preference voting) is a type of ballot structure used in several electoral systems in which voters rank a list or group of candidates in order of preference. ... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Party lists are used in elections to legislatures which use Party-list proportional representation or additional member proportional representation to designate a partys nominees in the at-large portion of the vote. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Party lists are used in elections to legislatures which use Party-list proportional representation or additional member proportional representation to designate a partys nominees in the at-large portion of the vote. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ on whether the government needs the explicit approval of the parliament to form, rather than just the absence of its disapproval, and under what conditions (if any) the government has the right to dissolve the parliament. Like Jamaica and many others.


Advantages of a parliamentary system

Some believe that it is easier to pass legislation within a parliamentary system. This is because the executive branch is dependent upon the direct or indirect support of the legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature. Thus, this would amount to the executive (as the majority party or coalition of parties in the legislature) possessing more votes in order to pass legislation. In a presidential system, the executive is often chosen independently from the legislature. If the executive and legislature in such a system include members entirely or predominantly from different political parties, then stalemate can occur. Former US President Bill Clinton often faced problems in this regard, since the Republicans controlled Congress for much of his tenure. Presidents can also face problems from their own parties, however, as former US President Jimmy Carter often did[citation needed]. Accordingly, the executive within a presidential system might not be able to properly implement his or her platform/manifesto. Evidently, an executive in any system (be it parliamentary, presidential or semi-presidential) is chiefly voted into office on the basis of his or her party's platform/manifesto. It could be said then that the will of the people is more easily instituted within a parliamentary system. Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... GOP redirects here. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


In addition to quicker legislative action, Parliamentarianism has attractive features for nations that are ethnically, racially, or ideologically divided. In a unipersonal presidential system, all executive power is concentrated in the president. In a parliamentary system, with a collegial executive, power is more divided. In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement, in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a strong president to a system more structurally similar to a classical parliamentarianism. Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be equivalent to Shiite domination; Afghanistan's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... For other uses, see Race. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The Taif Agreement was negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia by the surviving members of Lebanons 1972 parliament; fathered by Parliament Speaker President Hussein El-Husseini. ... Islam in Lebanon is divided between five Muslim sects; Sunnis, Shiites, Druze, Alawites, and Ismailis. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


It can also be argued that power is more evenly spread out in the power structure of parliamentarianism. The premier seldom tends to have as high importance as a ruling president, and there tends to be a higher focus on voting for a party and its political ideas than voting for an actual person.


In The English Constitution, Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for producing serious debates, for allowing the change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time. Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural.[citation needed] The English Constitution is a book by Walter Bagehot. ... Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877), IPA (see [[1]]), was a nineteenth century British economist. ...


There is also a body of scholarship, associated with Juan Linz, Fred Riggs, Bruce Ackerman, and Robert Dahl that claims that parliamentarianism is less prone to authoritarian collapse. These scholars point out that since World War II, two-thirds of Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully made the transition to democracy. By contrast, no Third World presidential system successfully made the transition to democracy without experiencing coups and other constitutional breakdowns. As Bruce Ackerman says of the 30 countries to have experimented with American checks and balances, "All of them, without exception, have succumbed to the nightmare [of breakdown] one time or another, often repeatedly."[citation needed] Juan J. Linz is the Sterling Professor of Political Science at Yale University, best known for his theories on Totalitarian and Authoritarian systems of government. ... Bruce Arnold Ackerman (born August 19, 1943) is a famous constitutional law scholar in the United States. ... Robert A. Dahl (b. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


A recent World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with lower corruption.[1] The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...


Criticisms of parliamentarianism

One main criticism of many parliamentary systems is that the head of state is in almost all cases not directly elected. In a presidential system, the president is usually chosen directly by the electorate, or by a set of electors directly chosen by the people, separate from the legislature. However, in a parliamentary system the prime minister is elected by the legislature, often under the strong influence of the party leadership. Thus, a party's candidate for the head of government is usually known before the election, possibly making the election as much about the person as the party behind him or her.


Another major criticism of the parliamentary system lies precisely in its purported advantage: that there is no truly independent body to oppose and veto legislation passed by the parliament, and therefore no substantial check on legislative power. Conversely, because of the lack of inherent separation of powers, some believe that a parliamentary system can place too much power in the executive entity, leading to the feeling that the legislature or judiciary have little scope to administer checks or balances on the executive. However, most parliamentary systems are bicameral, with an upper house designed to check the power of the lower (from which the executive comes). The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ...


Although it is possible to have a powerful prime minister, as Britain has, or even a dominant party system, as Japan has, parliamentary systems are also sometimes unstable. Critics point to Israel, Italy, India, the French Fourth Republic, and Weimar Germany as examples of parliamentary systems where unstable coalitions, demanding minority parties, votes of no confidence, and threats of such votes, make or have made effective governance impossible. Defenders of parliamentarianism say that parliamentary instability is the result of proportional representation, political culture, and highly polarised electorates. A dominant-party system, or one party dominant system, is a party system where only one political party can realistically become the government, by itself or in a coalition government. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (in German Weimarer Republik). It is named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German monarchy was abolished following the nations defeat in World... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


Former Prime Minister Ayad Allawi criticized the parliamentary system of Iraq, saying that because of party-based voting "the vast majority of the electorate based their choices on sectarian and ethnic affiliations, not on genuine political platforms."[2] Iyad Allawi Dr. Iyad Allawi (اياد علاوي) (born 1945) is the interim Prime Minister of Iraq. ...


Although Walter Bagehot praised parliamentarianism for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused. In some systems, such as the British, a ruling party can schedule elections when it feels that it is likely to do well, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity. Thus, by wise timing of elections, in a parliamentary system a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system. This problem can be alleviated by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments. In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date. Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877), IPA (see [[1]]), was a nineteenth century British economist. ...


Alexander Hamilton argued for elections at set intervals as a means of insulating the government from the transient passions of the people, and thereby giving reason the advantage over passion in the accountability of the government to the people.[citation needed] Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ...


Critics of parliamentary systems point out that people with a lot of popular support in the community are prevented from becoming prime minister if they cannot get elected to parliament since there is no option to "run for prime minister" like one can run for president under a presidential system. Additionally, popular prime ministers may lose their position solely because they lose their seat in parliament, even though they may still have a lot of support nationally. Supporters of parliamentarianism can respond by saying that as a member of parliament, the prime minister is elected firstly to represent his/her electoral constituents and if he/she loses their support then he/she as a consequence is no longer entitled to be prime minister. In parliamentary systems, the role of the statesman who represents the country as a whole goes to the separate position of head of state, which is generally non-executive and non-partisan. Promising politicians in parliamentary systems likewise are normally preselected for safe seats - ones that are unlikely to be lost at the next election - which allows them to focus instead on their political career.


Countries with a parliamentary system of government

Unicameral system

This table shows countries with parliament consisting of a single house.


[-india [[

Country Parliament
Albania Kuvendi
Bangladesh Jatiyo Sangshad
Bulgaria National Assembly
Burkina Faso National Assembly
Croatia Sabor
Denmark Folketing
Dominica House of Assembly
Estonia Riigikogu
Finland Eduskunta/Riksdag
Greece Hellenic Parliament
Hungary National Assembly
Iceland Althing
Israel Knesset
Kurdistan Region Kurdistan National Assembly
Latvia Saeima
Lithuania Seimas
Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies
Malta House of Representatives
Moldova Parliament
Mongolia State Great Khural
Montenegro Parliament
New Zealand Parliament
Norway* Storting
Palestinian Authority Parliament
Papua New Guinea National Parliament
Portugal Assembly of the Republic
Republic of Macedonia Sobranie - Assembly
Saint Kitts and Nevis National Assembly
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines House of Assembly
Samoa Fono
Serbia National Assembly
Singapore Parliament
Slovakia National Council
Sri Lanka Parliament
Sweden Riksdag
Turkey Grand National Assembly
Ukraine Verhovna Rada
Vanuatu Parliament
  • The Norwegian Parliament is divided in the Lagting and Odelsting in legislative matters. This separation will be abolished with the next parliament in 2009 due to a constitutional amendment.

The Assembly of Albania (Kuvendi i Shqipërisë), also known as the Peoples Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor) is the parliament of Albania. ... Jatiyo Sangshad (Bangla: জাতীয় সংসদ) or National Assembly is the national parliament of Bangladesh. ... The National Assembly of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Народното събрание, transliterated: Narodno Sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... The unicameral National Assembly of Burkina Faso is the countrys legislative body. ... The word Sabor redirects here. ... The Folketing [], or Folketinget, is the national parliament of Denmark. ... The unicameral House of Assembly of Dominica is the countrys legislative body. ... The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the parliament of Estonia. ... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... The Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Βουλή των Ελλήνων; transliterated Vouli ton Ellinon; literally Council of the Greeks) is the parliament of Greece, located in Syntagma Square in Athens. ... The National Assembly of Hungary (Országgyűlés) is the national parliament of Hungary. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... See also (Southern) Kurdistan The Kurdistan Region is an autonomous political entity located in northeastern Mesopotamia in Middle-East where today is northern part of modern Iraq. ... Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly (Kurdish: Encumenî Nîştimanî Kurdistan, Arabic: lit: Al-Majlis Al-Watani Li Kurdistan) is the parliament of Kurdistan Regional Government in Iraqi Kurdistan. ... The Saeima Plenary Chamber The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... Seimas is the Lithuanian parliament. ... The Chamber of Deputies (French: Chambre des Députés) is the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Luxembourg. ... The Parliament of Malta, the House of Representatives (Il-Kamra tar-Raprezentanti), has 65 members, elected for a five year term in 13 5-seat constituencies with a possibility of rewarding bonus members for the popular largest party which doesnt succeed in getting absolute majority in parliament. ... Parliament building The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova (Parlamentul Republicii Moldova) is a unicameral assembly with 101 seats. ... The State Great Khural (Sometimes Hural or translated as Assembly) is the Parliament of Mongolia. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro (Serbian: Skupština Republike Crne Gore) is the legislature of Montenegro. ... The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council. ... The Storting (Stortinget, literally The Big Thing) is the Norwegian Parliament, and is located in the capital city Oslo. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The Palestinian Legislative Council, (sometimes referred to to as the Palestinan Parliament) the legislature of the Palestinian Authority, is a unicameral body with 88 members, elected from 16 electoral districts in the West Bank and Gaza. ... The National Parliament of Papua New Guinea is the unicameral national legislature in Papua New Guinea. ... São Bento Palace, home of the Portuguese Parliament. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The Parliament of the Macedonia, the Assembly (Sobranie), has 120 members, elected for a four year term, by proportional representation. ... The National Assembly is the parliament of Saint Kitts and Nevis. ... The unicameral House of Assembly serves as Saint Vincent and the Grenadines legislative body. ... The Fono or Legislative Assembly is the parliament of Samoa. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... The parliament of Serbia is known as the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Народна скупштина Републике Србије). The current Speaker of the National Assembly is Predrag Marković (G17 Plus). ... The unicameral Parliament of Singapore is the legislature of Singapore with the President as its head [1]. It currently consists of 94 Members of Parliament. ... Building of the National Council of the Slovak Republic next to the Bratislava Castle The National Council of the Slovak Republic (in Slovak: Národná rada Slovenskej republiky, often just: Národná rada, abbr. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The parliament building from outside. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Type Unicameral Houses 1 Speaker Oleksandr Moroz, Socialist Party since July 6, 2006 Members 450 Political groups (as of March 26, 2006 elections) Party of Regions (186), Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (129), Our Ukraine (81), Socialist Party (33), Communist Party (21) Meeting place Verkhovna Rada building, Kiev Web site portal. ... The Parliament or Parlement has 52 members, elected for a four year term in multi-seat constituencies. ...

Bicameral system

This table shows organisations and countries with parliament consisting of two houses.

Organisation or Country Parliament Upper chamber Lower chamber
Australia Parliament Senate House of Representatives
Austria Parliament Federal Council National Council
Antigua and Barbuda Parliament Senate House of Representatives
The Bahamas Parliament Senate House of Assembly
Barbados Parliament Senate House of Assembly
Belize National Assembly Senate House of Representatives
Belgium Federal Parliament Senate Chamber of Representatives
Bhutan Parliament (Chitshog)[3] National Council (Gyalyong Tshogde) National Assembly (Gyalyong Tshogdu)
Canada Parliament Senate House of Commons
Czech Republic Parliament Senate Chamber of Deputies
Ethiopia Federal Parliamentary Assembly House of Federation House of People's Representatives
European Union Council of the European Union European Parliament
Germany Bundesrat (Federal Council) Bundestag (Federal Diet)
Grenada Parliament Senate House of Representatives
India Parliament (Sansad) Rajya Sabha (Council of States) Lok Sabha (House of People)
Ireland Oireachtas Seanad Éireann Dáil Éireann
Iraq National Assembly Council of Union[4] Council of Representatives
Italy Parliament Senate of the Republic Chamber of Deputies
Jamaica Parliament Senate House of Representatives
Japan Diet House of Councillors House of Representatives
Malaysia Parliament Dewan Negara (Senate) Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)
The Netherlands States-General Eerste Kamer Tweede Kamer
Pakistan Majlis-e-Shoora Senate National Assembly
Poland Parliament Senate Sejm
Romania Parliament Senate Chamber of Deputies
Russia Federal Assembly Federation Council State Duma
Saint Lucia Parliament Senate House of Assembly
Slovenia Parliament National Council National Assembly
South Africa Parliament National Council of Provinces National Assembly
Spain Cortes Generales Senate Congress of Deputies
Switzerland Federal Assembly Council of States National Council
Thailand National Assembly[5] Senate House of Representatives
Trinidad and Tobago Parliament Senate House of Representatives
United Kingdom Parliament House of Lords House of Commons

Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Type Lower house Speaker of the House David Hawker, Liberal since November 16, 2004 Members 150 Political groups ALP (85) Liberal Party (53) National Party (10) Last elections 24 November 2007 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site House of Representatives Entrance to the House of Representatives Judicial High... Type Bicameral Houses Bundesrat Nationalrat Members 245 Meeting place In the Parliament of Austria (Österreichisches Parlament) is vested the legislative power of the Republic of Austria. ... The Federal Council of Austria or Bundesrat is one of the two separate councils of parliament of Austria. ... The National Council or Nationalrat is one of the two houses of the Federal Assembly, the bicameral federal parliament of the Federal Republic of Austria. ... The Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda consists of two chambers: The Senate (Upper Chamber) The House of Representatives (Lower Chamber) External link Parliament of Antigua & Barbuda This politics-related article is a stub. ... The Senate is the Upper House of Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda. ... The House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is the lower chamber of the countrys bicameral Parliament. ... The Bahamian Parliament is a bicameral body that, in its organisation and functions, closely follows the canons of the Westminster system. ... The Bahamian Parliament is a bicameral body that, in its organisation and functions, closely follows the canons of the Westminster system. ... The Bahamian Parliament is a bicameral body that, in its organisation and functions, closely follows the canons of the Westminster system. ... The Parliament of Barbados is composed of three elements: the Sovereign (currently Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Sir Clifford Husbands), the Senate, and the House of Assembly. ... The Senate is a component of the Parliament of Barbados, which also includes the Sovereign (represented by the Governor-General and the House of Assembly. ... The House of Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Barbados. ... The National Assembly of is the bicameral legislature of Belize. ... The Senate is one of the chambers of the National Assembly. ... The House of Representatives of Belize is one of two chambers of the National Assembly, the other being the Senate. ... The Belgian Federal Parliament is a bicameral parliament. ... The Belgian Senate (Dutch: de Senaat, French: le Sénat) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... The Belgian Chamber of Representatives (Dutch: de Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French: la Chambre des Représentants) is one of the two chambers of the Belgian Federal Parliament. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The term National Council may refer to: The National Council of Austria (Nationalrat) The National Council of Monaco The National Council of the Slovak Republic (Národná rada) The National Council of Slovenia (Državni svet) The National Council of Switzerland (Nationalrat, Conseil national) State National Council in Poland, 1944... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Type Upper House Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative since February 8, 2006 Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative since February 6, 2006 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal since January 18, 2007 Members 105 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... The Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech Parlament ÄŒeské republiky) is the legislative body of the Czech Republic. ... The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Czech: , usually referred to as Senát) is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. ... The Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech Poslanecká snÄ›movna Parlamentu ÄŒeské republiky, abbr. ... The Parliament of Ethiopia consists of two chambers: The House of Federation (Upper Chamber) The House of Peoples Representatives (Lower Chamber) Created with the adoption of the Ethiopian Constitution of 1995, the Parliament replaced the Shengo as the legislative branch of the Ethiopian government. ... The House of Federation (Amharic language የፌዴሬሽን ምክር ቤት Yefedereshn Mekir Bet) is the upper house of the bicamerial Parliament of Ethiopia of Ethiopia. ... The Federal Parliamentary Assembly of Ethiopia has two chambers. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... The Parliament of Grenada has two chambers. ... The Senate is one of the chambers of the Parliament of Grenada. ... The House of Representatives is one of the chambers of the Parliament of Grenada. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... The Iraqi National Assembly is the unicameral parliament of Iraq which meets in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad. ... The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... Back side of Palazzo Montecitorio designed by architect Ernesto Basile. ... Parliament is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica. ... The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... The Dewan Negara is the Malaysian Senate. ... The Parliament of Malaysia consists of the lower house (Dewan Rakyat or literally Peoples Hall, in Malay) and upper house (Dewan Negara or Nations Hall in Malay). ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ... The Tweede Kamer (second chamber) is the lower house of the Staten-Generaal, the parliament in the Netherlands. ... Bold text Majlis-e-Shoora (Urdu: مجلس شوری) (Council of Advisors in Urdu, although referred to as Parliament) is the bicameral federal legislature of Pakistan that consists of the Senate (upper house) and the National Assembly (lower house). ... The Senate of Pakistan is the upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. ... The Polish Senate The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senatul Camera DeputaÅ£ilor President of the Senate Nicolae Văcăroiu, PSD since 2004 President of the Chamber of Deputies Bogdan Olteanu, PNL since 2006 Members 469 137 senators 332 deputies Political groups (as of 2004 elections) Senate: PSD, PNL, PD,PRM, UDMR, PC, Independents Chamber... Coat of Arms of The Senate of Romania The Senate of Romania (Romanian: Senat) is the upper house in Romanias bicameral parliament. ... Type Lower house President (Speaker) Bogdan Olteanu, PNL, since 2006 Number of members 332 Political groups (as of 2006 elections) PSD, PNL, PD, PRM, UDMR, PC, National minorities, Independents Meeting place Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest Web site www. ... Federal Assembly of Russia (Федеральное Собрание) is the name of the parliament of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation, 1993. ... Federation Council of Russia (Russian: ; Sovet Federatsii) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation. ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ... The Parliament of Saint Lucia has two chambers. ... The Legislature has two chambers. ... The Legislature has two chambers. ... The Slovenian Parliament (Slovenian: ) is the legislative body of Slovenia. ... The National Council (Slovenian: Državni svet) is the constitutional representative of social, economic, professional and local interest groups and can be considered as the upper house of the Slovenian parliament. ... The National Assembly (Državni zbor) is the assembly of the parliament of the Republic of Slovenia. ... The Parliament of South Africa is South Africas legislature and is composed of the National Assembly of South Africa and the National Council of Provinces. ... The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... Type Upper house Houses Senate President Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 Members 259 Political groups PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU, CC, Mixto Last elections 2004 Meeting place Palacio del Senado, Plaza de la Marina Española, Madrid Web site www. ... The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... The Bundeshaus (Swiss parliament building) The Federal Assembly (in German, Bundesversammlung; in French, Assemblée fédérale; in Italian language, Assemblea federale), is Switzerlands federal parliament. ... The Council of States of Switzerland (German: Ständerat, French Conseil des Etats, Italian Consiglio degli Stati) is the upper house of the Swiss parliament. ... The National Council of Switzerland (German: Nationalrat, French: Conseil National, Italian: Consiglio Nazionale) is the large Chamber of the parliament and has 200 seats. ... The National Assembly (Rathasapha) is the legislative branch of the government of Thailand. ... The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Senate is the appointed Upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The House of Representatives is the elected Lower House of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ...

Notes

  1. ^ SSRN-Accountability and Corruption: Political Institutions Matter by Daniel Lederman, Norman Loayza, Rodrigo Soares
  2. ^ "How Iraq’s Elections Set Back Democracy", Ayad Allawi, The New York Times, November 2, 2007
  3. ^ Bhutan is in the process of becoming a democratic constitutional monarchy in 2008
  4. ^ The Council of Union is defined in the constitution of Iraq but does not currently exist.
  5. ^ Prior to the coup d'etat of September 19, 2006
Iyad Allawi Dr. Iyad Allawi (اياد علاوي) (born 1945) is the interim Prime Minister of Iraq. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The current constitution of Iraq was approved by a referendum that took place on 15 October 2005. ... Wikinews has news related to: Category:2006 Thailand coup The 2006 Thailand coup détat took place on Tuesday 19 September 2006, when the Royal Thai Army staged a coup against the government of caretaker Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. ...

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Under this system, powers are distributed between a national government (the Commonwealth) and the six States (three Territories - the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory, and Norfolk Island have self-government arrangements).
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A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence.
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