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Encyclopedia > Parliament of South Africa
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South Africa

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
South Africa
Image File history File links Padlock. ... Image File history File links Za-coa. ... // Constitution Following the 1994 elections, South Africa was governed under an interim constitution. ...



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The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's legislature and is composed of the National Assembly of South Africa and the National Council of Provinces. The President of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the President of the Republic of South Africa. ... The Deputy President of South Africa is appointed by the President of South Africa. ... Mrs Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka (born November 3, 1955) is the current Deputy President of South Africa. ... Ministers, in the South African government, are Members of Parliament who hold a ministerial warrant to perform certain functions of government. ... The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... The Speaker of the National Assembly presides over the South African National Assembly. ... Tony Leon Anthony James Leon (born 15 December 1956) is a South African politician and the leader of the Democratic Alliance, South Africas main opposition party and current leader of the opposition. ... Tony Leon Anthony James Leon (born 15 December 1956) is a South African politician and the leader of the Democratic Alliance, South Africas main opposition party. ... The Judiciary of South Africa is an independent branch of government, subject only to the South African Constitution and the laws of the country. ... The South African Constitutional Court was established in 1994 by South Africas first democratic constitution: the Interim Constitution of 1993. ... The South African Supreme Court of Appeal (Afrikaans; Hoogste Hof van Appel van Suid Afrika) is the South African court that has the final say on all matters other than those that involve the interpretation of the constitution. ... The High Court of South Africa is a court of law in South Africa. ... Magistrates Courts in South Africa are the lower courts and the courts of of first instance and decide all matters as provided for by an act of parliament. ... Elections in South Africa gives information on election and election results in South Africa. ... Political parties in South Africa lists political parties in South Africa. ... A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ... Foreign Relations of South Africa South African forces fought on the Allied side in both World War I and World War II, and it participated in the postwar United Nations force in the Korean War. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ...


It has undergone many transformations as a result of the country's tumultuous history. From 1910 to 1994, it was elected mainly by South Africa's white minority, before the first democratic elections were held in 1994. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...

Parliament Buildings in Cape Town, South Africa's legislative capital
Parliament Buildings in Cape Town, South Africa's legislative capital

Under the 1994 Constitution, the Parliament, consisting of a Senate and a National Assembly, was also the 'Constitution-Making Body' (CMB). This was a compromise between the African National Congress, which wanted a Constituent Assembly to draft the constitution, and the other parties, who wanted constitutional principles agreed first, before the final constitution was drafted and adopted in 1997. Under the 1997 Constitution, the Senate, elected by members of each of the nine Provincial Legislatures, was replaced by a National Council of Provinces, or (NCoP), which retained the former Senate's membership, although changed its legislative and constitutional role. The National Assembly remained unchanged as the primary legislative chamber, with the President of South Africa being the leader of the largest party in that house. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1571 KB) Summary Andres de Wet - taken by myself in January 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1571 KB) Summary Andres de Wet - taken by myself in January 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... The Senate (Senaat in Afrikaans) was the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa between 1910 and 1981, and between 1994 and 1997. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... The African National Congress (ANC) is a centre-left political party, and has been South Africas governing party supported by a tripartite alliance between itself, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ... A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ... The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997. ... The President of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ...

Contents

History

The Union

When the Union of South Africa was established in 1910, the Parliament was bicameral and consisted of the Senate and the House of Assembly (known in Afrikaans as the Volksraad). The Senate was indirectly elected by members of each of the four Provincial Councils, and the members of the House of Assembly being elected mainly by whites. National motto: Ex Unitate Vires (Latin: From Unity, strength} Official languages Afrikaans, Dutch and English. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Senate (Senaat in Afrikaans) was the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa between 1910 and 1981, and between 1994 and 1997. ... House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral legislature, in some countries, often at subnational level. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


South West Africa

In 1948, white residents of the United Nations mandated territory of South West Africa became eligible to vote in South African elections, despite the territory never being formally incorporated into the Union. Representation for the territory in the South African Parliament was abolished in 1981. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conqured from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory...


Apartheid

When the National Party came to power on a policy of racial segregation or apartheid in 1948, it began to push through controversial legislation to deprive non-whites of what few political rights they already had. The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


In 1959, the government of Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd passed legislation to strip the mixed race Coloureds of their voting rights. In order to amend entrenched clauses in the Union's Constitution, there needed to be a two-thirds majority in favour in both Houses of Parliament. This is a list of South African Prime Ministers. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... In the South African and Namibian context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruine Afrikaners) refers to a rather heterogeneous group of people of mixed Khoisan, white European descent, Malay, Malagasy, Black (Bantu), and South Indian ancestry, especially in the Western Cape. ...


As the National party did not have a majority in the Senate, Verwoerd instead increased its membership, appointing a large number of Senators who duly voted for the changes. In anticipation of a referendum on making South Africa a republic, Verwoerd also lowered the voting age for whites from 21 to 18. When a referendum was held on October 5, 1960, 52 per cent of whites voted in favour of a republic. In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... On 5th October, 1960, South Africas white minority government held a referendum on whether or not the then Union should sever links with the British monarchy and become a republic. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


The creation of the Republic of South Africa did not change the role of the Parliament, which remained whites-only, and dominated by the National Party, although the mace used in the House of Assembly, featuring a British Crown, was replaced by a new South African design, and portraits of the British Royal Family were removed. Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony Close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom are known by the appellation The Royal Family. ...


Tricameral Parliament

Main article: Tricameral Parliament

In 1980, Prime Minister P.W. Botha announced plans for constitutional reform. The Senate was abolished in 1981, and a new 'President's Council' was appointed to advise on a new Constitution, under which Coloureds and Asians would be represented. The Council was chaired by a Vice State President, Mr Alwyn Schlebusch, who would be the only person to hold the post. Its membership was composed of Whites, Coloureds and Asians (including a Chinese member as well as Indians), but the Black majority had no representation at all. The Tricameral Parliament was the name given to the South African parliament and its structure from 1984 to 1994. ... P.W. Botha Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ...


Under the 1984 Constitution, the House of Assembly, elected by whites only, became one of three Houses of Parliament, the other two being the House of Representatives, elected by the mixed race Coloureds and the House of Delegates, elected by Asians. Each House had a Ministers' Council, responsible for 'own affairs', but the white-controlled President's Council could override any decisions made by Coloured and Asian leaders. House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral legislature, in some countries, often at subnational level. ... House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... In the South African and Namibian context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruine Afrikaners) refers to a rather heterogeneous group of people of mixed Khoisan, white European descent, Malay, Malagasy, Black (Bantu), and South Indian ancestry, especially in the Western Cape. ... The House of Delegates is the name given to the lower house of the legislature in three U.S. states – Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. ... Asians in South Africa constitute two per cent of South Africas population, and most are of Indian origin, although there is also a small Chinese community. ...


The black majority were still disenfranchised, and the new system lacked legitimacy even among the Coloureds and Asians, many of whom boycotted elections. In 1994, one of the last pieces of legislation passed by the Tricameral Parliament was Act 200 of 1994 – the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa – before the first non-racial elections were held on April 27 that year.


Cape Town or Pretoria?

Parliament sits in Cape Town, even though the seat of government is in Pretoria. This dates back to the foundation of the Union, when there was disagreement between the four provinces as to which city would be the national capital. As a compromise, Cape Town was designated the legislative capital, Bloemfontein the judicial capital, and Pretoria the administrative capital. The African National Congress (ANC) government has proposed moving Parliament to Pretoria, arguing that the present arrangement is cumbersome as ministers, civil servants and diplomats must move back and forth when Parliament is in session. However, many Capetonians have spoken out against such a move, accusing the ANC of trying to centralise power. Under the Constitution, there is provision for Parliament meeting outside Cape Town should the Speaker of the National Assembly see fit. City motto: Spes Bona (Latin: Good Hope) Location of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape Province Province Western Cape Mayor Helen Zille Area  - % water 2,499 km² N/A Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Not ranked 2,893,251 1,158/km² Established 1652 Time zone SAST (UTC+2... City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ... Coat of arms of Bloemfontein Bloemfontein (Dutch for fountain of flowers) is one of South Africas three capital cities, along with Pretoria and Cape Town. ... The African National Congress (ANC) is a centre-left political party, and has been South Africas governing party supported by a tripartite alliance between itself, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ...


External links

  • Parliament of South Africa


Legislatures in Africa

Algeria · Angola · Benin · Botswana · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cameroon · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Comoros · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Côte d'Ivoire · Djibouti · Egypt · Equatorial Guinea · Eritrea · Ethiopia · Gabon · The Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Kenya · Lesotho · Liberia · Libya · Madagascar · Malawi · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Morocco · Mozambique · Namibia · Niger · Nigeria · Rwanda · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Sierra Leone · Somalia/Somaliland · South Africa · Sudan · Swaziland · Tanzania · Togo · Tunisia · Uganda · Western Sahara · Zambia · Zimbabwe A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... The unicameral House of Representatives of Somaliland is the self-declared, breakaway republics legislative body. ...


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