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Encyclopedia > Parliament of New Zealand
New Zealand

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
New Zealand
Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_New_Zealand. ... New Zealand functions as a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. ...


Constitution

Executive

Legislative New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Flag of the Governor-General of New Zealand. ... Judge Anand Satch[1] Satyanand DCNZM, (born 22 July 1944 in Auckland) is a New Zealand lawyer, judge and ombudsman. ... The Executive Council of New Zealand is the body which provides the formal basis for the Cabinet. ... The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of the New Zealand governments executive branch. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...

Judicial The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... In New Zealand The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the individual who chairs the countrys legislative body, The House of Representatives (commonly known as Parliament). The Speaker fulfills a number of important functions in relation to the operation Parliament, much of which is based upon the British... The Official Opposition in New Zealand is usually the largest political party or coalition which is not a member of the ruling government. ... The Leader of the Opposition in New Zealand is the politician who, at least in theory, leads the Opposition bloc in the New Zealand Parliament. ... Members of New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, normally gain their seats in nationwide general elections, or (less frequently) in by-elections. ... In New Zealand, an electorate is a voting district for Parliamentary elections. ... Referendums (or referenda) are held only occasionally by the government of New Zealand. ... In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, and provide a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...

Regional authorities The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ... The Chief Justice of New Zealand is the senior judge of the High Court of New Zealand, and presides over the Supreme Court of New Zealand. ... The Court of Appeal of New Zealand, located in Wellington, is New Zealand’s principal intermediate appellate court. ... The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980. ... Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ...

Other
Territorial authorities is the formal term for the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ...


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The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council. However most people incorrectly refer to the House of Representatives as 'Parliament'. The House of Representatives usually consists of 120 Members of Parliament (currently 121 due to an overhang). MPs are directly elected by universal suffrage. New Zealand essentially follows the Westminster system of government, and is governed by a cabinet and Prime Minister chosen by the House of Representatives. The following is a list of New Zealand politicians, both past and present. ... New Zealand national politics feature a pervasive party system. ... This page lists a number of articles relating to issues, ideas, and events in New Zealand politics. ... Apirana Ngata, perhaps the most prominent Maori politician Māori politics is the politics of the Māori people, who were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and who are now the countrys largest minority. ... New Zealand’s foreign policy is oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Queen Elizabeth IIs personal flag for New Zealand New Zealands Head of State is Queen Elizabeth II of New Zealand. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... The Legislative Council of New Zealand was the upper house of the New Zealand Parliament from 1853 until 1951. ... Overhang seats can arise in elections under mixed member proportional (MMP), when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies. ... Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of suffrage to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or social status. ... The Westminster system is a democratic system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of the New Zealand governments executive branch. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ...


The Parliament was established by the British New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 which established a bicameral legislature, but the upper house, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1951 so Parliament is now unicameral. Parliament received full control over all New Zealand affairs in 1947 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was the first enactment to grant the colony of New Zealand self-government. ... The bicameral legislature of the United States is housed in a capitol building with two wings. ... The Legislative Council of New Zealand was the upper house of the New Zealand Parliament from 1853 until 1951. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947 was a constitutional Act of the New Zealand New Zealand Parliament that formally granted New Zealand full external autonomy. ...


Parliament is physically located in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. The Beehive (left) and Parliament House (right), Wellington New Zealand Parliament Buildings houses the New Zealand Parliament and is situated on a 45,000 square metre site in and around the northern end of Lambton Quay, Wellington. ... Wellington (Te Whanganui-a-Tara or Poneke in Māori) is the capital of New Zealand, the countrys second largest urban area and the most populous national capital in Oceania. ...

Contents

Parliamentary Sovereignty

The New Zealand Parliament is sovereign with no institution able to over-ride its decisions. The ability of Parliament to act is, legally, unimpeded. The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act is a normal piece of legislation, it is not superior law. Parliament is limited in extending its term deciding on who can vote, how they vote (via secret ballot), how the country should be divided into electorates, and the make up of the Representation Commission which decides on these electorates. These issues require either 75% of all MPs to support the bill or a referendum on the issue. The entrenchment of these provisions was done through a normal Act of Parliament however. The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 is an enactment of the New Zealand Parliament setting out the rights and fundamental freedoms of the citizens of New Zealand. ... Referendums (or referenda) are held only occasionally by the government of New Zealand. ...


Houses of Parliament

New Zealand House of Representatives

Main article: New Zealand House of Representatives Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Summary Bowen House, the Beehive and Parliament Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Summary Bowen House, the Beehive and Parliament Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Beehive (left) and Parliament House (right), Wellington New Zealand Parliament Buildings houses the New Zealand Parliament and is situated on a 45,000 square metre site in and around the northern end of Lambton Quay, Wellington. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ...


The New Zealand Parliament's lower house is the New Zealand House of Representatives. The House of Representatives is democratically elected every three years. The House has eighteen select committees to scrutinise legislation.


Upper house

The New Zealand Parliament does not have an upper house — it is unicameral rather than bicameral. It did, however, have an upper house before 1951 (the Legislative Council), and there have been occasional attempts to create a new one. An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The bicameral legislature of the United States is housed in a capitol building with two wings. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...


Legislative Council

Main article: New Zealand Legislative Council. The Legislative Council of New Zealand was the upper house of the New Zealand Parliament from 1853 until 1951. ...


The Legislative Council was intended to scrutinize and amend bills passed by the House of Representatives, although it could not initiate legislation or amend money bills. Despite occasional proposals for an elected Council, Members of the Legislative Council (MLCs) were appointed by the Governor, generally on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. At first, MLCs were appointed for life, but a term of seven years was introduced in 1891. It was eventually decided that the Council was having no significant impact on New Zealand's legislative process, and it ceased to exist at the beginning of 1951. At the time of its abolition it had 54 members, including its own Speaker. 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...


Senate proposal

The National government of Jim Bolger proposed the establishment of an elected Senate when it came to power in 1990, thereby reinstating a bicameral system, and a Senate Bill was drafted. Senators would be elected by STV, with a number of seats being reserved for Māori, and would have powers similar to those of the old Legislative Council. The House of Representatives would continue to be elected by FPP. The intention was to include a question on a Senate in the second referendum on electoral reform. Voters would be asked, if they did not want a new voting system, whether or not they wanted a Senate. However, following objections from the Labour opposition, which derided it as a red herring, and other supporters of MMP, the Senate question was removed by the Select Committee on Electoral Reform, and the issue has not been pursued since. The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... The Right Honourable James Brendan Jim Bolger, ONZ, (born 31 May 1935) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1990 to 1997. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... This article is about the year. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and to their language. ... Look up red herring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Passage of legislation

The New Zealand Parliament's model for passing Acts of Parliament is similar (but not identical) to that of other Westminster System governments. In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... The Westminster system is a democratic system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


Laws are initially proposed in Parliament as bills. They become Acts after being approved three times by Parliamentary votes and then receiving Royal Assent from the Governor-General. The majority of bills are promulgated by the government of the day (that is, the party or parties that have a majority in Parliament). It is rare for government bills to be defeated, indeed the first to be defeated in the twentieth century was in 1998. It is also possible for individual MPs to promote their own bills, called member's bills — these are usually put forward by opposition parties, or by MPs who wish to deal with a matter that parties do not take positions on. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, or the Sovereigns representative in Commonwealth Realms, completes the process of the enactment of legislation by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... Flag of the Governor-General of New Zealand. ...


House of Representatives

See: New Zealand House of Representatives#Passage of legislation The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ...


Within the House of Representatives, bills must pass through three readings and be considered by both a Select Committee and the Committee of the Whole House.


Royal Assent

Further information: Royal Assent#New Zealand

If a bill passes its third reading, it is passed on to the Governor-General, who will (assuming constitutional conventions are followed) give it Royal Assent as a matter of course. The Governor-General does, legally at least, retain the power to reject bills passed by the House of Representatives, although this has never occurred. It then becomes law. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, or the Sovereigns representative in Commonwealth Realms, completes the process of the enactment of legislation by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


Terms of Parliament

Parliament is currently in its 48th term.

Term Elected in Government
1st Parliament 1853 election No Parties
2nd Parliament 1855 election No Parties
3rd Parliament 1860 election No Parties
4th Parliament 1866 election No Parties
5th Parliament 1871 election No Parties
6th Parliament 1875 election No Parties
7th Parliament 1879 election No Parties
8th Parliament 1881 election No Parties
9th Parliament 1884 election No Parties
10th Parliament 1887 election No Parties
11th Parliament 1890 election Liberal
12th Parliament 1893 election
13th Parliament 1896 election
14th Parliament 1899 election
15th Parliament 1902 election
16th Parliament 1905 election
17th Parliament 1908 election
18th Parliament 1911 election Reform
19th Parliament 1914 election
20th Parliament 1919 election
21st Parliament 1922 election
22nd Parliament 1925 election
23rd Parliament 1928 election United
24th Parliament 1931 election United/Reform Coalition
25th Parliament 1935 election First Labour
26th Parliament 1938 election
27th Parliament 1943 election
28th Parliament 1946 election
29th Parliament 1949 election First National
30th Parliament 1951 election
31st Parliament 1954 election
32nd Parliament 1957 election Second Labour
33rd Parliament 1960 election Second National
34th Parliament 1963 election
35th Parliament 1966 election
36th Parliament 1969 election
37th Parliament 1972 election Third Labour
38th Parliament 1975 election Third National
39th Parliament 1978 election
40th Parliament 1981 election
41st Parliament 1984 election Fourth Labour
42nd Parliament 1987 election
43rd Parliament 1990 election Fourth National
44th Parliament 1993 election
45th Parliament 1996 election Fourth National (in coalition)
46th Parliament 1999 election Fifth Labour (in coalition)
47th Parliament 2002 election
48th Parliament 2005 election

The 1st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1853 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 1st term. ... The 2nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1855 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 2nd term. ... The New Zealand general election of 1860 was held between December 12 and March 28 to elect a total of 53 MPs to the 3rd session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1866 was held between February 12 and April 6 to elect a total of 70 MPs to the 4th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1871 was held between January 14 and February 1 to elect a total of 78 MPs to the 5th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1875 was held between December 29 and January 4 (1876) to elect a total of 88 MPs to the 6th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1879 was held between August 15 and September 1 to elect a total of 88 MPs to the 7th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1881 was held December 9 to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 8th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1884 was held July 22 to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 9th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1887 was held July 22 to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 9th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1890 was held December 5 to elect a total of 74 MPs to the 11th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1893 was held November 28 to elect a total of 74 MPs to the 12th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1896 was held December 4 to elect a total of 74 MPs to the 13th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1899 was held December 6 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 14th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1902 was held November 25 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 15th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1905 was held December 6 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 16th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1908 was held November 17, November 24 and December 1 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 17th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1911 was held December 7 and December 14 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 18th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 19th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. ... The New Zealand general election of 1914 was held December 10 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 19th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1919 was held December 17 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 20h session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1922 was held December 7 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 21st session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1925 was held November 4 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 22nd session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1925 was held November 14 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 23rd session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 24th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. ... The 1931 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 24th term. ... The 25th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. ... The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 25th term. ... The 1938 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 26th term. ... The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 27th term. ... The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 28th term. ... The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 29th term. ... The 1951 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 30th term. ... The 1954 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 31st term. ... The 1957 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 32nd term. ... The 1960 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 33rd term. ... The 1963 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 34th term. ... The 1966 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 35th term. ... The final results of the New Zealand General Election 1969 were 45 seats won by the National Party, and 39 seats won by the Labour Party, with no minor parties winning any seats. ... The final results of the New Zealand General Election 1972 were 55 seats won by the Labour party (led by Norman Kirk) and 32 seats won by the National Party, with no minor parties winning any seats. ... The 1975 New Zealand general election was the first election in New Zealand where all permanent residents of New Zealand were eligible to vote, although only citizens were able to be elected. ... The 39th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand which began with the election of 1978 and finished with the election of 1981. ... The 1978 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to elect the 39th New Zealand Parliament. ... The 40th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1981 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 41st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 42nd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 43rd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 43rd term. ... The 44th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1993 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 45th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1996 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 46th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand. ... The 1999 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 46th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 47th New Zealand Parliament was the most recent term of the Parliament of New Zealand. ... The 2002 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. ... The 48th New Zealand Parliament will, when final results are confirmed and MPs are sworn in, be the next term of the Parliament of New Zealand. ... The 2005 New Zealand general election will be a nation-wide election for the New Zealand Parliament, and is to be held on 17 September 2005. ...

See also

The Treaty of Waitangi is an increasingly important source of constitutional law in New Zealand The constitution of New Zealand consists of a collection of statutes (Acts of Parliament), Treaties, Orders-in-Council, Letters patent, decisions of the Courts and unwritten constitutional conventions. ... The Beehive (left) and Parliament House (right), Wellington New Zealand Parliament Buildings houses the New Zealand Parliament and is situated on a 45,000 square metre site in and around the northern end of Lambton Quay, Wellington. ...

External links

  • Parliament of New Zealand
  • Images from around Parliament Buildings

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