FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Parliament of Lebanon
Lebanon

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Lebanon
Image File history File links Lebanon_coa. ... Lebanon has a unique form of parliamentary democracy in which the highest offices are reserved for certain ethnic groups. ...



Other countries • Politics Portal
view  talk  edit
Lebanese parliament building at Place d'Étoile in Beirut
Lebanese parliament building at Place d'Étoile in Beirut

The Parliament of Lebanon is the Lebanese national legislature. It is elected to a four-year term by universal adult suffrage in multi-member constituencies, apportioned among Lebanon's diverse Christian and Muslim denominations. Its major functions are to elect the President of the republic, to approve the government (although appointed by the President, the Prime Minister, along with the Cabinet, must retain the confidence of a majority in the Parliament), and to approve laws and expenditure. This page lists presidents of Lebanon. ... Émile Lahoud General Émile Geamil Lahoud (Arabic: اميل لحود, Armenian: Իմիլ Լահուտ) (born January 12, 1936) is the President of Lebanon. ... This page lists prime ministers of Lebanon. ... Fouad Siniora Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fuad Siniora, Fouad Seniora) is the Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he assumed on 19 July 2005, succeeding Najib Mikati. ... This is the list of the Lebanese government that was formed by Fouad Siniora on 19 July 2005. ... This page lists speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon. ... Political parties in Lebanon lists political parties in Lebanon. ... Elections in Lebanon gives information on election and election results in Lebanon. ... Lebanon is divided into 6 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah). ... The 6 Governorates of Lebanon are divided into 25 Districts (Aqdya, singular - qadaa) -- or 26, counting the Governorate of Beirut which is not subdivided into districts. ... The foreign policy of Lebanon reflects its geographic location, the composition of its population, and its reliance on commerce and trade. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 598 KB) en: Beirut, Lebanon - Lebanese parliament building at the Place dÉtoile sl: Bejrut, Libanon - zgradba libanonskega parlamenta na Place dÉtoile I took the photo myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 598 KB) en: Beirut, Lebanon - Lebanese parliament building at the Place dÉtoile sl: Bejrut, Libanon - zgradba libanonskega parlamenta na Place dÉtoile I took the photo myself File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this... This is a list of national legislatures, whether parliamentary or congressional, that act as a plenary general assembly of representatives with the power to legislate. ... This page lists presidents of Lebanon. ... This page lists prime ministers of Lebanon. ...


According to its official site, the French name of the Parliament of Lebanon is Assemblée Nationale (National Assembly), and the Arabic name is مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab (Chamber of Deputies). The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic and Aramaic. ... Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ...

Contents

Allocation of seats

A unique feature of the Lebanese system is the principle of "confessional distribution": each religious community has an allotted number of deputies in the Parliament. In elections held between 1932 and 1972 (the last till after the Lebanese Civil War), seats were apportioned between Christians and Muslims in a 6:5 ratio, with various denominations of the two faiths allocated representation roughly proportional to their size. By the 1960s, Muslims had become openly dissatisfied with this system, aware that their own higher birthrate and the higher emigration rate among Christians had by this time almost certainly produced a Muslim majority, which the parliamentary distribution did not reflect. Christian politicians were unwilling to abolish or alter the system, however, and it was one of the factors in the 1975-1990 civil war. The Taif Agreement of 1989, which ended the civil war, reapportioned the Parliament to provide for equal representation of Christians and Muslims, with each electing 64 of the 128 deputies. 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syrian Army LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The multi-sided Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire and was exacerbated by the nation... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... This article is about the year. ... The Taif Agreement was negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia by the surviving members of Lebanons 1972 parliament, presided by Speaker of the House President Hussein El-Husseini. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although distributed confessionally, all members, regardless of their religious faith, are elected by universal suffrage, forcing politicians to seek support from outside of their own religious communities, unless their co-religionists overwhelmingly dominate their particular constituency. (Uh... what? Could you please explain how a parliament in which seats are stricly allocated by confession, can at the same time be elected competitively and through cross-cutting appeal?).


The changes stipulated by the Taif Agreement are set out in the table below:

Parliament of Lebanon Seat Allocation
Confession Before Taif After Taif
Maronite 30 34
Greek Orthodox 11 14
Greek Catholic 6 8
Armenian Orthodox 4 5
Armenian Catholic 1 1
Protestant 1 1
Other Christians 1 1
Total Christians 54 64
Sunni 20 27
Shi'a 19 27
Druze 6 8
Alawite 0 2
Total Muslims 45 64
Total 99 128
Allocation of seats in the 2005 election for the Parliament of Lebanon (Majlis an-Nuwwab) Shi'a Sunni Druze Alawite Maronites Greek Orthodox Greek Catholic Armenian Orthodox Other Christians
Beirut 19 Beirut 1   2     1 1 1   1 (Protestant)
Beirut 2 1 2       1   1 1 (minor groups)
Beirut 3 1 2 1         2 1 (Arm. Catholics)
Bekaa 23 Bekaa+Hermel 6 2     1   1    
Zahlah 1 1     1 1 2 1  
Rashaya+West Bekaa 1 2 1   1 1      
Mount Lebanon 35 Jbeil+Kisrawan 1       7        
North Metn         4 2 1 1  
Baabda+Aley 2   3   5 1      
Chouf   2 2   3   1    
North Lebanon 28 Akkar, Dinniyeh, Bsharreh   5   1 3 2      
Tripoli, Zgharta, Batrun, Kurah   6   1 6 4      
South Lebanon 23 Saida, Tyre 9 2         1    
Hasbaya, Nabatiyeh, Jezzine 5 1 1   2 1 1    
Total 128 27 27 8 2 34 14 8 5 3

Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a religious organization which sees itself as the continuation of the original Christian body, founded by Jesus and his Twelve Apostles. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church is one of the original churches, having separated from the then-still-united Roman Catholic/Byzantine Orthodox church in 506, after the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy). ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzÄ« or durzÄ« درزي, pl. ... For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are an independant Middle Eastern sect of Islam[1] lead some to erroneously think that the Alawites were crypto-christians. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzÄ« or durzÄ« درزي, pl. ... For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are an independant Middle Eastern sect of Islam[1] lead some to erroneously think that the Alawites were crypto-christians. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a religious organization which sees itself as the continuation of the original Christian body, founded by Jesus and his Twelve Apostles. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Armenian Apostolic Church, sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church is one of the original churches, having separated from the then-still-united Roman Catholic/Byzantine Orthodox church in 506, after the Council of Chalcedon (see Oriental Orthodoxy). ... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. ...

Political parties

Numerous political parties exist in Lebanon. Many parties are little more than ad-hoc electoral lists, formed by negotiation among influential local figures representing the various confessional communities; these lists usually function only for the purpose of the election, and do not form identifiable groupings in the parliament subsequently. Other parties are personality-based, often comprising followers of a present or past political leader or warlord. Few parties are based, in practice, on any particular ideology, although in theory most claim to be. No single party has ever won more than 12.5 percent of the total number of seats in the Parliament, and until 2005 no coalition ever won more than a third of the total. The general election held in 2005, however, resulted in a clear majority (72 seats out of 128) being won by the alliance led by Saad Hariri (son of murdered former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri); half of these were held by Hariri's own Current for the Future. Political parties in Lebanon lists political parties in Lebanon. ... Political parties in Lebanon lists political parties in Lebanon. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saadeddine Rafik Hariri (Arabic: سعد الدين الحريري (short name) or سعد الدين رفيق الحريري (long name)); (born April 1970) is the younger son of Rafik Hariri, the assassinated former prime minister of Lebanon. ... The Current for the Future (Tayyar Al Mustaqbal) is a political movement in Lebanon, led by Saad Hariri, younger son of Rafik Hariri, the assassinated former prime minister of Lebanon. ...


Additionally, Hezbollah won 14 seats [1].


Electoral system

Main article: Elections in Lebanon

The system of multi-member constituencies has been criticized over the years by many politicians, who claim that it is easy for the government to gerrymander the boundaries. The Baabda-Aley constituency, established for the 2000 election, is a case in point: the predominantly Druze area of Aley (in the east of Beirut) were combined, in a single constituency, with the predominantly Christian area of Baabda. The same thing happens in the South, meaning that although several seats within the constituency are allocated to Christians, they have to appeal to an electorate which is predominantly Muslim. Many opposition politicians, mostly Christians, have claimed that the constituency boundaries were extensively gerrymandered in the elections of 1992, 1996, and 2000 to produce a pro-Syrian majority. There have also been calls for the creation of a single, country-wide constituency. Unless and until the myriad religious and political factions can agree on an alternative electoral system, the controversy is unlikely to be resolved. Elections in Lebanon gives information on election and election results in Lebanon. ... Redrawing electoral districts in this example creates a guaranteed 3-to-1 advantage for Party 1. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


Results

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 29 May-20 June 2005 Lebanese National Assembly election results
Alliances Seats Parties Votes % Seats
Rafik Hariri Martyr List 72 Current for the Future (Tayyar Al Mustaqbal)   36
Progressive Socialist Party (Hizb al-Taqadummi al-Ishtiraki)   16
Lebanese Forces   5
Qornet Shehwan Gathering   6
Independents (Tripoli Bloc)   3
Democratic Renewal (Tripoli Bloc)   1
Democratic Left (Tripoli Bloc)   1
Independents   4
Resistance and Development Bloc 35 Amal Movement (Harakat Amal)   15
Party of God (Hezbollah)   14
Syrian Social Nationalist Party (al-Hizb al-Qawmi al-souri al ijtima'i)   2
Others   4
Aoun Alliance 21 Free Patriotic Movement (Tayyar Al-Watani Al-Horr)   14
Skaff Bloc   5
Murr Bloc   2
Total 128

The Rafik Hariri Martyr List is an alliance of political parties and independents in Lebanon, led by Saad Hariri, younger son of Rafik Hariri, the assassinated former prime minister of Lebanon. ... The Current for the Future (Tayyar Al Mustaqbal) is a political movement in Lebanon, led by Saad Hariri, younger son of Rafik Hariri, the assassinated former prime minister of Lebanon. ... The Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) (Arabic al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon. ... The Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية ) is a Lebanese party and a former militia, which played a major role in the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 till 1990. ... The Qornet Shehwan Gathering is a Lebanese political organization, comprising politicians, intellectuals, and businessmen, mostly Christian and ranging in ideology from the centre-right to the center-left. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... The Tripoli Bloc is one of the blocs presents in the Lebanese Parliament. ... The Democratic Renewal is a political party in Lebanon. ... The Tripoli Bloc is one of the blocs presents in the Lebanese Parliament. ... The Democratic Left is a political party in Lebanon. ... The Tripoli Bloc is one of the blocs presents in the Lebanese Parliament. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... BLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST BASTARDSBLOODY TERRORIST... SSNP flag The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) is a nationalist political party in Syria and Lebanon. ... FPM logo The Free Patriotic Movement FPM (Tayyar Al-Watani Al-Horr), also known as the Aounist Current (Tayyar Al-Aouni), is a Lebanese political party, led by General Michel Aoun, a former commander of the Lebanese army who served as Prime Minister of one of two governments that contended... The 2005 Lebanese General Elections were the first elections in thirty years without a Syrian military or intelligence presence in Lebanon. ...

Speaker

The Speaker of the Parliament, who must be a Shi'a Muslim, is elected to a four-year term. He forms part of a "troika" together with the President (required to be a Maronite Christian) and the Prime Minister (a Sunni Muslim). The privileges of the Speaker are unusually powerful, relative to other democratic systems; for example, the Speaker is able to veto any legislation passed by a majority of parliament. The current speaker is the leader of the Amal Party, Nabih Berri. This page lists speakers of the Parliament of Lebanon. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... Nabih Berri Nabih Berri (born January 28, 1938) is the speaker of the Lebanese National Assembly. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lebanon: Map, History and Much More from Answers.com (7330 words)
Lebanon was established in 1920 from remnants of the Ottoman Empire.
Lebanon is bordered by Syria to the north and east, and Israel to the south.
A Middle Eastern country, Lebanon is bordered by the Mediterranean to the east with a 225 km coastline, by Syria to the east and north, and by Israel to the south.
Lebanon, Lebanese, Maronites, Beirut - The Peace Encyclopedia (6179 words)
Lebanon was divided between a pro-Arab, mostly Islamic camp, which supported the Palestinians, and a Lebanese nationalist, Christian inspired camp, opposed to the dilution of the country's historic identity.
Lebanon continues to labor under the burden of Syrian occupation of its national territory resulting in control of its political and economic life and continued conflict in southern Lebanon.
Lebanon is such a valuable prize, and an Israeli withdrawal may ring the bells for a Syrian withdrawal long overdue under the Taif terms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m