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Encyclopedia > Parliament of England
The English parliament in front of the King, c.1300.
The English parliament in front of the King, c.1300.

The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England. Its roots can be traced back to the early medieval period. In a series of developments, it came increasingly to constrain the power of the monarch, and went on after the Act of Union 1707 to form the main basis of the Parliament of Great Britain, and later the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (437x668, 354 KB) Summary Image source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (437x668, 354 KB) Summary Image source: http://www. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats...

Contents

History

The Parliament of England is not an institution which has an exact birth date. It is an institution that evolved out of the governmental structures that advised monarchs in order for them to govern effectively.


Under a monarchical system of government, every monarch needs to seek consultation on the decisions they take, otherwise nobody will obey them. Enough people must agree with what the monarch is doing in order for their laws to be obeyed and enforced. Therefore, monarchs form advisory councils consisting of the most powerful men in their realm.


In England, these advisory councils developved into the Parliament of England. This institution evolved into the central governmental organ of the English state, gradually taking power away from the monarch and sowing the seeds of modern day democracy in the process. It is for this reason that the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, which is a descendant of the Parliament of England, is sometimes referred to as the "Mother of all Parliaments".


Origins

The origins of Parliament lie in Anglo-Saxon times. Anglo-Saxon kings were advised by a royal council known as the Witenagemot, loosely translated to mean "meetings of wise men", whose foremost members were the King's sons and brothers. The Ealdormen, or executive heads of the shires, also attended the Witenagemot, as did the senior clergymen of the state. The King possessed ultimate authority, but laws were made only after seeking the advice (and later the consent) of the Witenagemot. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The foremost of the kings of Anglo-Saxon England was Ælle of Sussex in 477, who was much later followed by Alfred the Great (who took the place of Ethelred) in 871. ... Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... An Ealdorman, or Alderman, was the prior magistrate of a British shire in AD 900 to 1100. ... A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain and Australia. ...


The Anglo-Saxon body politic was reformed when Duke William of Normandy ("William the Conquerer") conquered England in 1066. William brought to England the feudal system he was accustomed to in France. Thus, he granted land to his most important military supporters, who in turn granted land to their supporters, thus creating a feudal hierarchy. Those who held lands directly from the King were known as the tenants-in-chief, and the territories they held were called manors. William I of England (c. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic...


With regard to the government of his new kingdom, William's reforms were largely adaptations of the Anglo-Saxon model. The tenants-in-chief were hugely powerful in their localities. But they were not nearly as powerful as their equivalents on the continent, specifically the Dukes and Princes in the medieval kingdoms of Europe who ran their territories as fiefdoms. This meant that William's England was a largely centralised kingdom supported by the tenants-in-chief who in effect did not hold much more power than the Ealdormen had exercised in the Anglo-Saxon state. However William realised that effective government could only occur with consultation and consent. He thus adapted the Witengamot into the Great Council, or curia regis, which gathered at Christmas, Easter and Whitsun each year and consisted primarily of the King, his tenants-in-chief and leading clergymen (or ecclesiastics). These were occasions for William to wear his crown (highly significant as before he had been merely a Duke), gather information and exert his authority through his satellites in the localities. Notable meetings include the Great Council of Christmas 1085 held at Gloucester, where the Domesday survey was planned and initiated. Curia Regis is a Latin term meaning Royal Council or Kings court. The Curia Regis in England was a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics that advised the king of England on legislative matters. ... This article is about the 11th century census. ...


To emphasise the continuity in his system of government William adopted Anglo-Saxon law as Common Law, uniting England and ending all uprising by 1072. Although he initially retained the Ealdormen personnel of his Anglo-Saxon predecessor, Harold Godwinson, by 1072 he had replaced all of them with his own Norman kinsmen and thus the Great Council developed into a hugely important Anglo-Norman institution. Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson; c. ...


The tenants-in-chief often struggled with their spiritual counterparts and with the King for power. In 1215, they secured from King John the Magna Carta, which established that the King may not levy or collect any taxes (except the feudal taxes to which they were hitherto accustomed), save with the consent of his council. It was also established that the most important tenants-in-chief (the earls and the barons), as well as the ecclesiastics (archbishops, bishops and abbots) be summoned to the council by personal writs from the Sovereign, and that all others be summoned to the council by general writs from the sheriffs of their counties. John later repealed the Magna Carta, but his son and successor, Henry III, was forced to reinstate it as a child, albeit in a watered down form. A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... This article is about the King of England. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... For other uses, see Earl (disambiguation). ... Baron is a specific title of nobility or a more generic feudal qualification. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ...


The Great Council slowly evolved into the Parliament. The word itself derived from the French word "parlement" (translated as "speaking" in English) and the Latin word "parliamentum" (meaning "discussion"), terms which highlight the origin of the concept of Parliament as a royal institution which quite literally spoke at the pleasure of the sovereign. One French account of the 1164 Great Council of Northampton referred to the gathering as a "parlement". However, the first time the word Parliament appears in official documents was during Henry III's reign. Specifically, in 1236 the Rolls of the Court of the King's Bench outline the case of a subdean of the chapter of Salisbury named Adam, who could not attend the hearing in question although he "pledged his faith" to appear at the Octave of Hilary Westminster Parliament, which was held on 20 January 1237. The case was thus adjourned to this meeting of Parliament, an event that gives credence to the theories H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles that Parliament was initially developed as a judicial institution - a thesis further enforced by the fact that the trial of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester in 1252 was held in Parliament. It is perhaps no coincidence that meetings of the law courts and the Great Council came to coincide more and more during the reign of Henry III. From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ...


Simon De Montfort and the Parliament of 1265

In 1264, Montfort, who was in rebellion against Henry III, summoned the first elected parliament without any prior royal authorisation. In Montfort's system, the right to vote in Parliamentary elections for county constituencies was uniform throughout the country, granting a vote to all those who owned the freehold of land to an annual rent of 40 shillings (Forty-shilling Freeholders). In the boroughs, the franchise varied and individual boroughs had varying arrangements. The archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls and barons were summoned, as were two knights from each shire and two burgesses from each borough. Knights had been summoned to previous councils, but the representation of the boroughs was unprecedented. This was a move to consolidate Montfort's position as the legitimate governor of the kingdom, seeing as he had captured Henry and his son Prince Edward (later Edward I) at the Battle of Lewes in 1264 and since then his support among the nobility had dwindled. A Parliament consisting of representatives of the realm was the logical way to establish his authority. In calling this Parliament he exploited the fact that most of the nobility had abandoned his movement by summoning knights and burgesses of the gentry class in a bid to garner their support. This Parliament was summoned on 14 December 1264. It first met on 20 January 1265 in Leicester and was dissolved on 15 February 1265. It is not certain as to who actually turned up to this Parliament. Nonetheless, Montfort's scheme was formally adopted by Edward I in the so-called "Model Parliament" of 1295. A contemporary monument to the Battle of Lewes, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons War in England. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Freehold is a term used in real estate or real property law, land held in fee simple, as opposed to leasehold, which is land which is leased. ... In Ireland before 1829 the franchise was restricted to Forty Shilling Freeholders. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Burgess originally meant a freeman of a borough or burgh. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Battle of Lewes was a battle fought at Lewes in Sussex, from May 12 to May 14, 1264. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Model Parliament is the term used for the 1295 parliament of King Edward I. This assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs. ... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ...


One of the moments that marked Parliament's emergence as a true institution in England was the deposition of Edward II. Even though it is debatable as to whether Edward II was deposed in Parliament or by Parliament, this remarkable sequence of events consolidated the importance of Parliament in the English unwritten constitution. Parliament was also crucial in establishing the legitimacy of the king who replaced Edward II: his son Edward III. Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September? 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


Although the Parliament of England was always a royal institution, these events showed that Parliament could act both with and against the king, and this was a development of which monarchs became increasingly aware.


The composition of Parliaments in this period varied depending on the decisions that needed to be taken in them. From 1265 onwards, when the monarch needed to raise money through taxes, it was usual for tenants-in-chief, ecclesiastics, knights and burgesses to be summoned. However when the king was merely seeking advice he often only summoned the tenants-in-chief and the ecclesiastics, sometimes with and sometimes without the knights of the shires. It was not until the mid-fourteenth century that summoning representatives of the shires and boroughs became the norm.


In 1341 the nobility and clergy were summoned separately for the first time, creating what was effectively an Upper Chamber and a Lower Chamber, with the knights and burgesses sitting in the latter. This Upper Chamber became known as the House of Lords from 1544 and the Lower Chamber became known as the House of Commons, collectively known as the Houses of Parliament. The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... This may refer to the: British Houses of Parliament. ...


The authority of Parliament grew under Edward III; it was established that no law could be made, nor any tax levied, without the consent of both Houses and the Sovereign. This was a development during the reign of Edward III; he was involved in the Hundred Years' War and needed finances. Edward tried to circumvent Parliament as much as possible, which caused this edict to be passed. Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire Hundred Years War Edwardian â€“ Breton Succession â€“ Castilian â€“ Two Peters â€“ Caroline â€“ Lancastrian The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337...


King, Lords and Commons: 1485-1603 (including the annexation of Wales)

The growing influence of Parliament was restrained by numerous civil wars. By the end of the Wars of the Roses, royal supremacy had been restored. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII. The numbers of the Lords Spiritual diminished under Henry, who commanded the Dissolution of the Monasteries, thereby depriving the abbots and priors of their seats in the Upper House. For the first time, the Lords Temporal were more numerous than the Lords Spiritual. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ... dissolution see Dissolution. ... In the British system of government, Lords Temporal are those members of the House of Lords who are members of that body due to their secular status. ...


However, it was during the reign of the Tudor monarchs that the modern structure of the English Parliament began to assert itself. Although Henry VII was powerful enough to act in breach of Magna Carta several times when levying taxes, he was astute enough to realise that he needed Parliament to legitimise many of his decisions. His successors abided by the same principles, mostly out of a need to raise money through taxation legitimately without causing discontent. Thus they consolidated the state of affairs whereby monarchs would call and close Parliament as and when they needed it.


By the reign of Henry VII the monarch was a member of neither the Upper Chamber nor the Lower Chamber. Instead, monarchs inplemented their will through their supporters in either House, who would introduce "bills", and proceedings were regulated by the presiding officer in either chamber. From the 1540s the presiding officer in the House of Commons became formally known as the "Speaker", having previously been referred to as the "prolocutor" or "parlour" (a semi-official position that had existed ever since Peter de Montfort had acted as the presiding officer of the Parliament of 1259). The presiding officer in the House of Lords was the Lord Chancellor. Once a bill was accepted by a majority in the Lower Chamber it became an "Act of Parliament". Once an Act was accepted by a majority in the Upper Chamber it became an "Ordinace". And once an Ordinance was accepted by the monarch it became law, the latter process becoming known as the royal assent. A member of either Chamber could introduce a bill, although a majority in both Houses would have to accept it before it passed to the monarch for royal assent. In theory, this gave the bill the approval of each estate of the realm: the King, Lords and Commons. In reality this was not accurate. The Parliament of England was far from being an independent institution in this period. Although it was possible to assemble the entire nobility and senior clergy of the realm in one place to form the estate of the Upper Chamber, the voting franchise for the House of Commons was still very small and elections to this Chamber were usually controlled by local grandees. Therefore the Tudor monarchs held huge influence over the composition and agenda of both Houses of Parliament and there would often be gaps of several years between the gathering of Parliaments. Sometimes the monarch's consent to a bill was not given, a circumstance known as the royal veto. It is still the right of the monarch of the United Kingodm to veto legislation today, although it has not been exercised used since 1706. Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Peter de Montfort (died 1265) is said to have presided over a meeting of the British House of Commons at a Parliament held in Oxford in 1258 (dubbed by the supporters of Henry III as the Mad Parliament). He is the earliest person recorded as the presiding officer of the... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


It was in this period that the Palace of Westminster was established as the seat of the English Parliament. In 1548 the House of Commons was granted a regular meeting place by the Crown, St Stephen's Chapel. This had been a royal chapel. It was made into a debating chamber after Henry VIII became the last monarch to use the Palace of Westminster as a place of residence and following the suppression of the college there. This room became the home of the House of Commons until it was destroyed by fire in 1834, although the interior was altered several times up until then. The structure of this room was incredibly important in the development of the Parliament of England. Whilst most modern Parliaments sit in a circlular chamber, the benches of the British Houses of Parliament are laid out in the form of choir stalls in a chapel, simply because this is the part of the original chapel that the members of the House of Commons utilised when they were granted use of the chamber. This structure took on a new significance with the emergence of political parties in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, as the tradition began whereby the members of the governing party would sit on the benches to the right of the Speaker and the opposition members on the benches to the left. “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... St. ...


The Laws in Wales Acts of 153542 annexed Wales as part of England and brought Welsh representatives to the Parliament of England. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... This article is about the country. ...


The early Stuart monarchs and the Commonwealth of England: 1603-1660

Parliaments continued to behave submissively under the Tudor monarchs who followed Henry, but began to display an unusual sense of independence under Elizabeth I. As England evolved into a world power, members of both Houses actively discussed succession to the Crown (the Queen never married) and condemned various royal policies. Their new-found boldness proved intolerable to Elizabeth's Scottish successor, James I (who was simultaneously King in Scotland as James VI). The great struggle between the Crown and Parliament occurred under James I's successor, Charles I. Alarmed by the arbitrary exercise of royal power, the House of Commons submitted to Charles the Petition of Right, demanding the restoration of their liberties, in 1628. Though he accepted the petition, Charles later dissolved Parliament and ruled without them for eleven years. It was only after the financial disaster of the Scottish Bishops' Wars (16391640) that he was forced to recall Parliament in order that they could authorise new taxes. The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: ) was a series of five monarchs who ruled England and Ireland from 1485 until 1603. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Petition of Right The Petition of Right is a document produced by the English Parliament in the run-up to the English Civil War. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ...


This resulted in the calling of the assemblies known historically as the Short Parliament of 1640 and the Long Parliament, which sat with several breaks and in various forms between 1640 and 1660. Tensions between a group of rebel Members of Parliament in the Long Parliament, led by John Pym, and the King reached boiling point when Charles unsuccessfully entered the House of Commons to try to arrest Pym and his supportes. Pym and his allies had been tipped off about this and when Charles entered the chamber with a group of soliders they had disappeared. From then on relations between Crown and Parliament deteriorated further. When trouble started to brew in Ireland, both Charles and the Parliament raised armies to quell the uprisings by native Catholics there. It was not long before it was clear that these forces would end up fighting each other, leading to the English Civil War which began with the Battle of Edgehill in October 1642: those supporting the cause of Parliament were called Parliamentarians (or Roundheads). The Short Parliament (April-May, 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to the supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War. ...


The final victory of the Parliamentary forces in 1649 was a turning point in the history of the Parliament of England. This marked the point when Parliament replaced the monarchy as the supreme source of power in England. Battles between Crown and Parliament would continue throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, but Parliament was no longer subservient to the English monarchy. This change was symbolised with the execution of Charles I in January 1649. It is somewhat ironic that this event was not instigated by the elected representatives of the realm. In Pride's Purge of December 1648, the New Model Army (which by then had emerged as the leading force in the Parliamentary alliance) purged Parliament of members that did not support them. The remaining "Rump Parliament", as it was later referred to by critics, enacted legislation to put the King on trial for treason, on the grounds that he had severed the contract with his subjects by starting a war with their representatives in Parliament. This trial, the outcome of which was a foregone conclusion, led to the execution of the king and the start of an 11 year republic, known as the Commonwealth of England. The House of Lords was abolished and the purged House of Commons governed England until 1653, when army chief Oliver Cromwell dissolved it following disagreements over policy and how to carry out elections to Parliament. Cromwell later convened a Parliament of religious radicals in 1653, commonly known as the Barebone's Parliament, followed by a unicameral Parliament that sat in 1655 and a two chamber Parliament that sat in 1658, all for relatively short periods of time. Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... Barebones Parliament, also known as the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on July 4, 1653, and was the last attempt of the English Commonwealth to find a stable political form before the installation of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. ...


Parliament from the Restoration to the Glorious Revolution: 1660-1688

The revolutionary events that occurred between 1640 and 1660 all took place in the name of Parliament, even though its composition was not always true to its origins - almost as if the name of the institution itself had taken on a significance beyond its original concept. This new status of Parliament as the central organ of the English state was consolidated during the events surrounding the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. Following the death of Cromwell in September 1658, his son Richard unsuccessfully tried to continue his father's Protectorate system of government, by calling the Third Protectorate Parliament in 1658. When this Parliament was dissolved following pressure from the army in 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled at the insistence of the surviving army grandees. This in turn was dissolved in a coup led by army general John Lambert, leading to the formation of the Committee of Public Safety, dominated by Lambert and his supporters. When the breakaway forces of George Monck invaded England from Scotland where they had been stationed, without Lambert's supporters putting up a fight, Monck temporarily recalled the Rump Parliament and reversed Pride's Purge by recalling the entireity of the Long Parliament in 1660. They then voted to dissolve themselves and call new elections, which were arguably the most democractic for 20 years although the franchise was still very small. This led to the calling of the Covention Parliament which was dominated by royalists. This Parliament voted to reinstate the monarchy and the House of Lords. Charles II returned to England as its King in May 1660. in art, returning something to a better state, see art conservation and restoration In criminal justice, restoration is another term for restorative justice. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... See: John Lambert, Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


Every single regime from 1649 onwards looked to a form of Parliament for legitimacy. Significantly, it was a full Parliament that restored the monarchy, thus ensuring that the monarchy would forever be subservient to it.


From this point on, monarchs regularly summoned Parliament, but there was no explicit guarantee of Parliamentary liberties until James II, an unpopular Catholic ruler, was forced to flee the country in 1688. Parliament "deemed" that he had abdicated, but it offered the Crown to his Protestant daughter Mary, instead of his Roman Catholic son (James Francis Edward Stuart). Mary II ruled jointly with her husband, William III. James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28...


Union: the Parliament of Great Britain

Following the Treaty of Union in 1707, Acts of Parliament passed in the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland created a new Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved both parliaments, replacing them with a new Parliament of Great Britain based in the former home of the English parliament. The Parliament of Great Britain would later become the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1801 when the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was formed through the Act of Union 1800. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Walter Thomas Monningtons 1925 painting called Parliamentary Union of England and Scotland 1707 hangs in the Palace of Westminster depicting the official presentation of the law that formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English² Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ...


Future

The reestablishment of a devolved English parliament, giving separate decision-making powers to representatives for voters in England similar to the representation given by the Welsh Assembly, Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly, is an issue in British politics, due to the anomaly of Scottish MPs having a say in English issues, whereas English MPs are unable to vote on issues that affect Scotland exclusively. The question of a devolved English parliament was considered a minor issue until the Conservative Party announced policy proposals to ban Scottish MPs from voting on English issues, thus raising the profile of the issue. The only political party actively campaigning for an English Parliament is the English Democrats. A devolved English Parliament, giving separate decision-making powers to representatives for voters in England similar to the representation given by the Welsh Assembly, Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly, is currently an issue in British politics. ... The West Lothian question was a question posed on 14 November 1977 by Tam Dalyell, Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for the Scottish constituency of West Lothian, during a British House of Commons debate over Scottish and Welsh devolution (see Scotland Act 1978 and Wales Act 1978): For how long... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The English Democrats Party, previously the English National Party, is a political party in England, which seeks the establishment of a new Parliament for England with at least the same powers as those granted to the Scottish Parliament. ...


Places where Parliament has been held other than London

The Parliament of Bats was a Parliament of England that was held in 1426 in Leicester. ...

See also

The history of democracy traces back from its origins in ancient world to its re-emergence and rise from the 17th century to the present day. ... List of Parliaments of England is a list of the sittings of the Parliament of England, from the reign of Edward IV to 1707 with some earlier named parliaments. ... This is a list of Acts of Parliament of the English Parliament during that bodys existence prior to the Act of Union of 1707. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...

References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Parliament. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (2067 words)
Parliament consists, technically, of the monarch, the House of Commons, and the House of Lords, but the word in common usage refers to the members of the two houses or, more specifically to Commons alone.
From Parliament’s judicial authority (derived, through the Lords, from the judicial powers of the great council) to consider petitions for the redress of grievances and to submit such petitions to the king, developed the practice of withholding financial supplies until the king accepted and acted on the petitions.
Yet throughout the Tudor period Parliament’s legislative supremacy was challenged by the crown’s legislative authority through the privy council, a descendant of part of the old feudal council.
UK Parliament - Parliament (1036 words)
The present two-chamber system began in the 14th Century in England: the House of Lords (the upper house) and the House of Commons (the lower house) sit separately and are constituted on entirely different principles.
Following the restoration of the Monarchy in 1660, the role of parliament was enhanced by the events of 1688-89 (the 'Glorious Revolution') and the passage of the Bill of Rights which established the authority of Parliament over the King, and enshrined in law the principle of freedom of speech in parliamentary debates.
The result was the Parliament Act of 1911, which removed from the House of Lords the power to veto a bill, except one to prolong the lifetime of a parliament.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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