FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Parliament Act
The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament.
The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament.

The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949 respectively. They form part of the Constitution of the United Kingdom. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1084x768, 278 KB) The Palace of Westminster at night seen from the south bank of the River Thames. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1084x768, 278 KB) The Palace of Westminster at night seen from the south bank of the River Thames. ... The Palace of Westminster, known also as the Houses of Parliament, is where the two Houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) conduct their sittings. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Constitution of the United Kingdom is an area of uncodified law, consisting of both written and unwritten sources. ...


The first Act, the Parliament Act 1911, limited the powers of the House of Lords to block House of Commons legislation, asserting the supremacy of the Commons. It also altered the maximum time between general elections to be five instead of seven years (amending the Septennial Act). The Parliament Act 1911 was amended by the second Act, the Parliament Act 1949, which reduced the power of the Lords further by cutting the time they could delay bills from two years to one. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... The Septennial Act 1715 was an Act of the Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1715, to increase the maximum length of a Parliament (and hence between general elections) from 3 years to 7 years. ...


The Parliament Acts have been used to pass legislation against the wishes of the Lords on only 7 occasions since 1911, one instance being passing of the Parliament Act 1949. Doubts have been raised about the validity of the 1949 Act, and the members of the Countryside Alliance took a case to court to challenge the validity of the Hunting Act 2004. In October 2005, the House of Lords dismissed an appeal by the Countryside Alliance, with an unusually large panel of nine law lords holding that the 1949 Act was valid. The Countryside Alliance strongly opposes House of Commons plans to ban fox hunting. ... The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act in the United Kingdom passed in 2004. ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ...


A previous Parliament Act, the Parliament Act 1660, was repealed by the Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1969.

Contents


Parliament Act 1911

The long title of the Parliament Act 1911 is: The long title (properly, the title) is one of the parts, together with the short title, and the operative provisions (sections and Schedules), which comprise an Act of Parliament or Bill in the United Kingdom and certain other Commonwealth Realms. ...

An Act to make provision with respect to the powers of the House of Lords in relation to those of the House of Commons, and to limit the duration of Parliament.

Background to the 1911 Act

The Act was a reaction to the clash between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, culminating in the so-called "People's Budget" of the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, which proposed the introduction of a land tax based on the ideas of the American tax reformer Henry George. This would have had a major effect on large landowners and the Conservative opposition, which consisted mostly of large landowners, had a large majority in the Lords. Furthermore they believed that money should be raised through the introduction of tariffs on imports, thus helping British industry. The Lords voted down the new budget, but the Liberals built on the unpopularity of the Lords to make reducing the power of the Lords an important issue of the general election in January 1910. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (January 17, 1863 – March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Party was one of the two major British political parties from the early 19th century until the 1920s, and a third party of varying strength and importance up to 1988, when it merged with the Social Democratic Party (the SDP) to form a new party which would become... The Peoples Budget was proposed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, and was a key issue of contention between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, ultimately leading to two general elections in 1910 and the enactment of the Parliament Act 1911. ... The Rt. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (January 17, 1863 – March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Land Value Taxation (LVT) is the policy of raising state revenues by charging each landholder a portion of the assessed site-only value of the unimproved land. ... A tax (also known as a dutyor Zakat in islamic economics) is a charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the right-of-centre in the United Kingdom. ... A tariff is a tax on imported goods. ... United Kingdom general elections are the times when the Members of Parliament forming the House of Commons are elected. ... The UK general election of January 1910 was held from 15th January – 10th February 1910. ...


The Liberals formed a new minority government following the election, and the Lords subsequently accepted the Budget when the land tax proposal was dropped. However, as a result of the budget dispute, the government introduced the Parliament Bill 1910 to limit the power of the Lords. The Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, asked Edward VII to create sufficient new Liberal peers to pass the Bill if the Lords rejected it. The King assented, provided that Asquith went back to the polls to obtain an explicit mandate for the constitutional change. The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward) (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ...


The Lords voted this 1910 Bill down, so Asquith called a second general election in December 1910, and again formed a minority government. Edward VII had died in May 1910, but George V agreed that, if necessary, he would create 250 new Liberal peers to neutralise the Conservative majority in the Lords. The Conservative Lords then backed down, and on 10 August 1911, the House of Lords passed the Parliament Act by a narrow 131-114 vote, with the support of some two dozen Conservative peers and eleven of thirteen Lords Spiritual (who normally do not vote). The UK general election of December 1910 was the last held over several days, from 3rd – 19th December 1910. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House of Windsor in 1917. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. ...


The Parliament Act was intended as a temporary measure: its preamble recites:

whereas it is intended to substitute for the House of Lords as it at present exists a Second Chamber constituted on a popular instead of hereditary basis, but such substitution cannot be immediately brought into operation.

However, the Liberal government did not follow through with reform of the Lords, and the composition of the Lords remained much the same for another 50 years. Life peers were introduced in the 1960s, and the Labour government of 1997–2005 took the first steps to reform the Lords, reducing the number of hereditary peers entitled to attend and vote in the Lords, but as of 2005 the second chamber is still not elected. In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... The Labour Party has since its formation in the early 20th century been the principal left wing political party of the United Kingdom (see British politics). ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-06-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Provisions of the 1911 Act

The 1911 Act stopped the Lords from vetoing any public legislation that originated in and had been approved by the Commons, and restricted their ability to delay such legislation to one month for "money bills" (dealing with taxation) and two years for other bills. The Speaker certifies which bills are money bills. If a money bill is not passed by the Lords without amendment within one month after it is received, the bill can be presented for Royal Assent without being passed by the Lords. For other public bills, the 1911 Act originally provided that a rejected bill would become law without the consent of the Lords, if passed by the Commons in three successive sessions, providing two years elapsed between Second Reading and final passing in the Commons. A money bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending, as opposed to changes in public law. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, or the Sovereigns representative in Commonwealth Realms, completes the process of the enactment of legislation by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


The only bill the Lords could veto was one to prolong the lifetime of a parliament. The Act could only be used to force through a bill originating in the Commons and so the Lords also retained the power to veto any bill that it had itself initiated. In addition to curtailing the power of the Lords the 1911 Act also amended the Septennial Act 1715, reducing the maximum duration of any parliament from seven years to five, and provided for payment for MPs. The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The Septennial Act 1715 was an Act of the Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1715, to increase the maximum length of a Parliament (and hence between general elections) from 3 years to 7 years. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ...


Parliament Act 1949

The 1911 Act was amended in 1949 by the Labour government under Clement Attlee, in order to reduce the power of the Lords further by cutting the time they could delay bills from three sessions over two years to two sessions over one year. The government had embarked on a radical programme of nationalisation and was afraid that this would be blocked. The change was introduced as a Bill in 1947, but the Lords attempted to block this change. The Bill was reintroduced in 1948 and 1949 before the 1911 Act was used to force it through. Use of the 1911 Act required a delay over three "sessions", so a special short "session" of parliament was introduced into 1948, with a King's Speech on 14 September 1948, and prorogation on 25 October. In the end, the amended Parliament Act was never used for the intended purposes in the 1940s or 1950s, possibly because the mere threat of it was enough. The Salisbury convention that the Lords would not block government bills that were mentioned in the government's manifesto dates from this time. Clement Atlee File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Clement Atlee File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The Labour Party has since its formation in the early 20th century been the principal left wing political party of the United Kingdom (see British politics). ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... The Salisbury Convention is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom that means that the House of Lords will not oppose any government legislation promised by its election manifesto. ... A manifesto is a public declaration of principles and intentions, often political in nature. ...


Use of the Parliament Acts

The Parliament Acts have been used only a handful of times. The 1911 Act was used in its unamended form only three times between 1911 and 1949:

  1. Welsh Church Act 1914, under which the Welsh part of the Church of England was disestablished in 1920, becoming the Church in Wales
  2. Home Rule Act 1914, which would have established a Home Rule government in Ireland; its implementation was blocked due to the First World War
  3. Parliament Act 1949, which amended the Parliament Act 1911 (discussed above)

The amended form of the 1911 Act has been used four times in recent years. Since Tony Blair's Labour government came to power in 1997, there has been repeated speculation that the government would rely on the Parliament Acts to reverse a check from the Lords. In the event, the Parliament Acts were not required to enact, for example, the Criminal Justice (Mode of Trial) (No 2) Bill in 2000 (which originally proposed to give magistrates, not defendants, the choice of where an "either way" offence would be tried). The Parliament Acts cannot be used to force through legislation that starts the parliamentary process in the House of Lords, so they could not be used to enact laws such as the Civil Partnerships Act 2004 or the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. The Welsh Church Act 1914 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom under which the Welsh part of the Church of England was separated and disestablished. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... See also civil religion. ... Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... The Government of Ireland Act 1914, more generally known as the Third Home Rule Act (or Bill) or the (Irish) Home Rule Act 1914, was an Act of Parliament passed by the British House of Commons in May 1914 which granted Ireland national self-government within the United Kingdom of... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million World War I... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer with limited authority to administer and enforce the law. ... In English law an either way offence is one that can be heard in either a Magistrates Court or the Crown Court (with a jury), depending upon the choice of the defendant (who can demand a non-summary trial), or the magistrates (who can decline jurisdiction). ... The Civil Partnership Act 2004 is an Act of Parliament passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 2004. ... Bold textLodgey makes out with stephanie The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c. ...


Legislation has been made under the Parliament Acts on the following occasions:

  1. War Crimes Act 1991, which extended jurisdiction of UK courts to cover acts committed on behalf of Nazi Germany during the Second World War (the only time that the Parliament Acts had been used by a Conservative government)
  2. European Parliamentary Elections Act 1999, which changed the system of elections to the European Parliament from first past the post to a form of proportional representation
  3. Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000, which equalised the age of consent for male homosexual sexual activities with that for heterosexual and lesbian sexual activities at 16.
  4. Hunting Act 2004, which prohibited hare coursing and (subject to some exceptions) all hunting of wild mammals (particularly foxes) with dogs, taking effect in early 2005.

The first three measures were not mentioned in manifestos, and hence in trying to veto them the Lords was not breaking the Salisbury convention. The Hunting Bill was mentioned in the Labour Party manifesto for the 2001 general election and depending upon how the wording and the convention are interpreted the attempt to block it could be taken as a breach. The War Crimes Act is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed in 1991. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the right-of-centre in the United Kingdom. ... The European Parliamentary Elections Act 1999 is an Act of Parliament that amended the procedures on European elections in the United Kingdom. ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Proportional representation, also known as full representation, is an electoral system in which the overall votes are reflected in the overall outcome of the body or bodies of representatives. ... The Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. ... Worldwide age of consent laws. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... A lesbian is a homosexual woman who is aesthetically, sexually and romantically attracted to other women. ... The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act in the United Kingdom passed in 2004. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... A hunter on horseback shoots at deer or elk with a bow. ... A fox hunt Fox hunting is a form of hunting for foxes using a pack of scent hounds. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about the domestic dog. ... The Labour Party has since its formation in the early 20th century been the principal left wing political party of the United Kingdom (see British politics). ... The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ...


The threat of the Parliament Acts has been employed by British governments on a number of occasions to force the Lords to accept its legislation. In at least three cases, it was possible that the provisions of the Parliament Acts could have been employed, but the legislation was approved by the House of Lords as a result of the government making concessions:

  1. Temperance (Scotland) Act 1913, which allowed the voters in a district to hold a poll to vote on whether their district went "dry" or remained "wet"
  2. Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1976
  3. Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977

The Temperance (Scotland) Act 1913 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom under which voters in a district in Scotland were enabled to hold a poll to vote on whether their district remained wet or went dry (that is, whether alcoholic beverages should be permitted or prohibited). ... Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... The Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act 1977 nationalised large parts of the UK aerospace and shipbuilding industries and established two corporations, British Aerospace and British Shipbuilders. ...

Validity of the 1949 Act

Since the 1949 Act was passed, doubts had been raised by legal academics as to whether the use of the 1911 Act to pass the 1949 Act, amending the 1911 Act itself, was valid. Three main concerns were raised: Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...

  • The restriction on the 1911 Act being used to prolong the life of Parliament would not be entrenched if the 1911 Act could be used to amend itself first.
  • The 1949 Act could be considered to be secondary legislation, since it depended for its validity on another Act, the 1911 Act, and the principle that courts will respect an Act of Parliament without exploring its origins (as emanation of parliamentary sovereignty) would not apply.
  • Under 1911 Act, Parliament (that is, the Commons, the Lords and the Sovereign, acting together) could be considered to have delegated its ability to pass legislation to another body (the Commons and the Sovereign, without the Lords). Following legal principles established when the United Kingdom granted legislative powers to assemblies in its colonies in the late 1900s, a subordinate legislative body cannot use the Act under which legislative power was delegated to them to expand their competence without an express power to do so in the enabling Act.

To address these concerns, a Law Lord, Lord Donaldson of Lymington, presented a Private Member's Bill in House of Lords in the 2000-2001 session of Parliament (the Parliament Acts (Amendment) Bill), which would have had the effect of confirming the legitimacy of the 1949 Act, but prohibiting any further such uses of the Parliament Act to amend itself, or use of it to further modify or curtail the powers of the House of Lords. [1]. A similar Bill was introduced in the next session also. These Bills did not proceed to a Third Reading. Delegated legislation (sometimes referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by ministers under powers given to them by parliamentary acts (primary legislation) in order to implement and administer the requirements of the acts. ... Parliamentary sovereignty, parliamentary supremacy, or legislative supremacy is a concept in constitutional law that applies to some parliamentary democracies. ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... Lord Donaldson of Lymington (October 6, 1920 - September 1, 2005) is a former Law Lord. ... A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... A parliamentary procedure is the individual process used for decision making by a deliberative assembly. ...


The first legal challenge to the 1949 Act is believed to have been made during the first prosecution for war crimes under the War Crimes Act 1991, R. v. Serafinowicz, but this challenge was rejected. After this, the 1949 Act, and the validity of Acts made under it, remained unchallenged until after the Parliament Acts were used to force through the Hunting Act 2004, when the Countryside Alliance raised the question of the validity of the 1949 Act. A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Countryside Alliance strongly opposes House of Commons plans to ban fox hunting. ...


Members of the Alliance took this matter to the High Court and then the Court of Appeal in January and February 2005, but failed to get the 1949 Act overturned as being technically invalid. In the High Court (R. v. H.M. Attorney General, ex parte Jackson [2005] EWHC 94 (Admin), 28 January 2005), the wording of the 1911 Act was held not to imply any entrenchment. Support for this conclusion can be drawn from the parliamentary debates on the 1911 Act, in which an entrenchment clause was considered but rejected, the Government clearly displaying the intention to be able to make such amendments if necessary. (However, the 2005 decision was made on other grounds, so the question of whether the Courts may refer to Parliamentary debates in order to determine the meaning of an Act of Parliament did not need to be decided.) The 1949 Act was also held to be primary legislation, but of an unusual sort, since the Courts can rule on whether the provisions of the 1911 Act were complied with. This analysis also applies to the other Acts passed under the Parliament Acts. It was also held that the 1911 Act clearly permits the Parliament Act procedure to be used for "any Public Bill", and this was sufficient to dispose of the argument that the 1911 Act could not be used to amend itself. Her Majestys High Court of Justice (known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature in England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ... Her Majestys Court of Appeal is the second most senior court in the English legal system (with only the judges of the House of Lords above it). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Primary legislation is legislation made by the legislative branch of government. ...


The Court of Appeal ruling (R. v. H.M. Attorney General, ex parte Jackson [2005] EWCA Civ 126, 16 February 2005) agreed that the 1949 Act itself was valid, but left open the question of whether the Commons could use the Parliament Act to make significant changes to the constitution (for example, repealing the provision of itself prohibiting it being used to extend the lifespan of Parliament). The Court of Appeal refused permission to appeal their decision to the House of Lords; however, a petition for permission to appeal was submitted directly to the Law Lords and granted in July 2005. Argument in the case was heard by a committee of nine law lords on 13 July and 14 July 2005. Usually, five law lords sit to hear cases in the House of Lords: the increased size of the committee demonstrates the case's constitutional significance (previous examples of large panels include the seven law lords who heard an appeal in 2001 against an earlier decision in the extradition of General Pinochet, and nine law lords who heard the case in October 2001 challenging the indefinite detention of terrorism suspects under the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001). In a unanimous decision (Jackson v. H.M. Attorney General, [2005] UKHL 56, 13 October 2005), the House of Lords upheld the validity of the Parliament Act 1949. February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, has a judicial function as a court of last resort within the United Kingdom. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte1 (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... The Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 or ATCSA is a British Act of Parliament introduced as emergency legislation after the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York. ...


The Countryside Commission and various individuals also brought legal actions on human rights grounds, that the Hunting Act was a disproportionate, unnecessary and illegitimate interference with their rights, and under European Community law, that the Act infringed the rights to free movement of goods, workers and to provide and receive services.[2] These claims were dismissed by the Administrative Court (The Countryside Alliance and others v. H.M. Attorney General and others [2005] EWHC 1677 (Admin), 29 July 2005), but permission was granted for an appeal to the Court of Appeal, and an appeal is under way. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The European Union is unique among international organizations in having a complex and highly developed system of internal law which has direct effect within the legal systems of its member states. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The consequences are unclear if the 1949 Act were to be ruled invalid. Certainly, the Hunting Act 2004 and the War Crimes Act 1991 would be then invalid. The two other Acts passed under the 1949 Act have both since been replaced by other legislation, so the consequences of them being ruled invalid are unclear - it would not affect the law on the statute books today, but might result in past actions being deemed invalid or illegal.


In principle, the two Acts passed under the provisions of the 1911 Act before it was amended by the 1949 Act should not be affected; however, both changed the composition of Parliament (the Welsh Church Act 1914 removed Welsh bishops from the Lords, and the Government of Ireland Act would have removed Irish MPs from the Commons), and these measures could also be invalid on the basis that they are significant constitutional changes. A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ...


Enacting formula

Acts passed under the Parliament Act have the following enacting formula: An enacting formula is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by some legislatures. ...

BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Commons in this present Parliament assembled, in accordance with the provisions of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, and by the authority of the same, as follows

rather than the usual formula, which refers to the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal rather than the Parliament Acts. The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the twenty-six clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords. ... In the British system of government, Lords Temporal are those members of the House of Lords who are members of that body due to their secular status. ...


Future developments

In March 2006 it was reported that the Government is considering removing the ability of the Lords to delay legislation that arises as a result of manifesto commitments, and reducing their ability to delay other legislation to a period of 60 days [3]. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

The Salisbury Convention is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom that means that the House of Lords will not oppose any government legislation promised by its election manifesto. ... Constitutional law is the study of foundational laws that govern the scope of powers and authority of various bodies in relation to the creation and execution of other laws by a government. ...

References

September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Parliament Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2429 words)
The Act was a reaction to the clash between the Liberal government and the House of Lords, culminating in the so-called "People's Budget" of the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, which proposed the introduction of a land tax based on the ideas of the American tax reformer Henry George.
Since the 1949 Act was passed, doubts had been raised by legal academics as to whether the use of the 1911 Act to pass the 1949 Act, amending the 1911 Act itself, was valid.
After this, the 1949 Act, and the validity of Acts made under it, remained unchallenged until after the Parliament Acts were used to force through the Hunting Act 2004, when the Countryside Alliance raised the question of the validity of the 1949 Act.
Act of Parliament - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3449 words)
The genesis for an Act of Parliament is often a formal written proposal known as a White Paper, which if accepted will be prepared in the form of a proposed law known as a Bill.
The Parliament Acts: Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, which do not apply for bills seeking to extend Parliament's length to more than five years, if the Lords reject a bill originated in the House of Commons, then the Commons may pass that bill again in the next session.
All UK Acts of Parliament since 1497 are kept in the House of Lords Record Office, including the oldest Act: The "Taking of Apprentices for Worsteads in the County of Norfolk" Act 1497, a reference to the wool worsted manufacture at Worstead in Norfolk, England.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m