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Encyclopedia > Parliament
The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra.
The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra.
Legislature

This series is part of
the Politics series Parliament can mean: Parliament - a title used for certain legislatures. ... House of Reps, Parliament House, Canberra File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... House of Reps, Parliament House, Canberra File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...

Politics Portal · edit

parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. The name is derived from the French parlement, the action of parler (to speak): a parlement is a talk, a discussion, hence a meeting (an assembly, a court) where people discuss matters. A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... This is a list of legislatures by country, whether parliamentary or congressional, that act as a plenary general assembly of representatives with the power to legislate. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Parliamentary group and parliamentary party are terms used to refer to the representation of a political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or in a city council. ... The leader or chairperson of a parliamentary group holds an influential political post in a parliamentary system with strong party discipline. ... Look up Congress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... Tricameralism is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other parts of the Commonwealth. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ...

Contents

Parliamentary government

Legislatures called parliaments typically operate under a parliamentary system of government in which the executive is constitutionally answerable to the parliament. This can be contrasted with a presidential system, on the model of the United States' congressional system, which operate under a stricter separation of powers whereby the executive does not form part of, nor is appointed by, the parliamentary or legislative body. Typically, congresses do not select or dismiss heads of governments, and governments cannot request an early dissolution as may be the case for parliaments. Some states have a semi-presidential system which combines a powerful president with an executive responsible to parliament. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ...

     Nations with bicameral legislatures.     Nations with unicameral legislatures.     No legislature.
     Nations with bicameral legislatures.     Nations with unicameral legislatures.     No legislature.

Parliaments may consist of chambers or houses, and are usually either bicameral or unicameral—although more complex models exist, or have existed (see Tricameralism). Download high resolution version (1262x628, 26 KB)Map of unicameral and bicameral parliaments around the world. ... Download high resolution version (1262x628, 26 KB)Map of unicameral and bicameral parliaments around the world. ... Many parliaments or other legislatures consist of two chambers: an elected lower house, and an upper house or Senate which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower house. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ... Tricameralism is the practice of having three legislative or parliamentary chambers. ...


The lower house is almost always the originator of legislation, and the upper house is usually the body that offers the "second look" and decides whether to veto or approve the bills. A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A parliament's lower house is usually composed of at least 200 members in countries with populations of over 3 million. A notable exception is Australia, which has only 150 members in the lower house despite having a population of over 20 million. Type Lower house Speaker of the House David Hawker, Liberal since November 16, 2004 Members 150 Political groups ALP (85) Liberal Party (53) National Party (10) Last elections 24 November 2007 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site House of Representatives Entrance to the House of Representatives Judicial High...


The number of seats may exceed 400 in very large countries, especially in the case of unitary states. The upper house customarily has 20, 50, or 100 seats, almost always significantly fewer than the lower house (the British House of Lords is an exception). A map showing the unitary states. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


A nation's prime minister ("PM") is almost always the leader of the majority party in the lower house of parliament, but only holds his or her office as long as the "confidence of the house" is maintained. If members of parliament lose faith in the leader for whatever reason, they can often call a vote of no confidence and force the PM to resign. This can be particularly dangerous to a government when the distribution of seats is relatively even, in which case a new election is often called shortly thereafter. A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Origins of parliamentary government

See History of Parliamentarism

For a definition of Parliamentarism see: Parliamentary system of government. ...

England

Main article: Parliament of England

The Curia Regis in England was a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics that advised the King of England on legislative matters. It replaced its Anglo-Saxon predecessor, the Witenagemot, a popular assembly that developed into a sort of crown council, after the Norman invasion of 1066. The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Curia Regis is a Latin term meaning Royal Council or Kings court. The Curia Regis in England was a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics that advised the king of England on legislative matters. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ...


Parliament originated in the 1200's, during the reign of John's grandson Edward I. As previous kings, Edward called leading nobles and church leaders to converse government ailments. A meeting in 1295 became known as the Model Parliament because it set the pattern for later Parliaments. In 1207, Edward I agreed not to collect certain taxes without consent of the realm. He also enlarged the court system. Edward I; illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902. ... The Model Parliament is the term used for the 1295 parliament of King Edward I. This assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs. ... Alternative meanings: Parliamentary system, Parliament (band), Parliament (cigarette). ... Edward I; illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902. ... -1...


William of Normandy brought to England the feudal system of his native Normandy, and sought the advice of the curia regis, before making laws. This body is the germ from which Parliament, the higher courts of law, and the Privy Council and Cabinet have sprung. Of these, the legislature is formally the High Court of Parliament; judges sit in the Supreme Court of Judicature; and only the executive government is no longer conducted in a royal court. William I of England (1027[1] – 9 September 1087), also known as William the Conqueror (French: ), was Duke of Normandy from 1035 and King of England from 1066 to his death. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Curia Regis is a Latin term meaning Royal Council or Kings court. The Curia Regis in England was a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics that advised the king of England on legislative matters. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... This article concerns the Courts of England and Wales. ...


The tenants-in-chief often struggled with their spiritual counterparts (Christian Humphreys) and with the King for power. In 1215, they secured from John the Magna Carta, which established that the King may not levy or collect any taxes (except the feudal taxes to which they were hitherto accustomed), save with the consent of a council. It was also established that the most important tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics be summoned to the council by personal writs from the Sovereign, and that all others be summoned to the council by general writs from the sheriffs of their counties. Modern government has its origins in the Curia Regis; parliament descends from the Great Council later known as the parliamentum established by Magna Carta. This article is about the King of England. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the English charter issued in 1215. ...


The first English Parliament was formed during the reign of King Henry III in the 13th century. In 1265, Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, who was in rebellion against Henry III, summoned a parliament of his supporters without any or prior royal authorisation. The archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls and barons were summoned, as were two knights from each shire and two burgesses from each borough. Knights had been summoned to previous councils, but the representation of the boroughs was unprecedented. De Montfort's scheme was formally adopted by Edward I in the so-called "Model Parliament" of 1295. At first, each estate debated independently; by the reign of Edward III, however, Parliament had been separated into two Houses and was assuming recognisably its modern form. The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For other uses, see Abbot (disambiguation). ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... For other uses, see Baron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Burgess originally meant a freeman of a borough or burgh. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Model Parliament is the term used for the 1295 parliament of King Edward I. This assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs. ... Cleric, Knight, and Workman: the three estates in medieval illumination The estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners recognized in the Middle Ages, and also later, in some parts of Europe. ... This article is about the King of England. ...


France

Originally, there was only the Parlement of Paris, born out of the Curia Regis in 1307, and located inside the medieval royal palace, now the Paris Hall of Justice. The jurisdiction of the Parlement of Paris covered the entire kingdom. In the thirteenth century, judicial functions were added. In 1443, following the turmoil of the Hundred Years' War, King Charles VII of France granted Languedoc its own parlement by establishing the Parlement of Toulouse, the first parlement outside of Paris, whose jurisdiction extended over the most part of southern France. From 1443 until the French Revolution several other parlements were created in some provinces of France. This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Paris Hall of Justice (Palais de Justice de Paris) is located in the Île de la Cité in central Paris, France. ... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


All the parlements could issue regulatory decrees for the application of royal edicts or of customary practices; they could also refuse to register laws that they judged contrary to fundamental law or simply as being untimely. Parliamentary power in France was suppressed more so than in England as a result of absolutism, and parliaments were eventually overshadowed by the larger Estates General, up until the French Revolution, when the National Assembly became the lower house of France's bicameral legislature. (The Sénat being the upper house) Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... The word States-General, or Estates-General, refers in English to : the Etats-G raux of France before the French Revolution the Staten-Generaal of the Netherlands. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (French: ) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ...


Scotland

From the 10th century the Kingdom of Alba was ruled by chiefs (toisechs) and subkings (mormaers) under the suzerainty, real or nominal, of a High King. Popular assemblies, as in Ireland, were involved in law-making, and sometimes in king-making, although the introduction of tanistry—naming a successor in the lifetime of a king—made the second less than common. These early assemblies cannot be considered "parliaments" in the later sense of the word, and were entirely separate from the later, Norman-influenced, institution. The Kingdom of Alba (Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba) for the purposes of this article pertains to the Kingdom of Scotland between the death of Domnall II in 900, and the death of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... The title of Mormaer designates a regional or provincial ruler in the medieval Kingdom of the Scots. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Parlement of Scotland evolved during the Middle Ages from the King's Council of Bishops and Earls. The unicameral parliament is first found on record, referred to as a colloquium, in 1235 at Kirkliston (a village now in Edinburgh). The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A colloquium is a type of expository lecture. ... Kirkliston is a small village in the unitary authority area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ...


By the early fourteenth century the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, and from 1326 burgh commissioners attended. Consisting of the Three Estates; of clerics, lay tenants-in-chief and burgh commissioners sitting in a single chamber, the Scottish parliament acquired significant powers over particular issues. Most obviously it was needed for consent for taxation (although taxation was only raised irregularly in Scotland in the medieval period), but it also had a strong influence over justice, foreign policy, war, and all manner of other legislation, whether political, ecclesiastical, social or economic. Parliamentary business was also carried out by "sister" institutions, before c. 1500 by General Council and thereafter by the Convention of Estates. These could carry out much business also dealt with by Parliament — taxation, legislation and policy-making — but lacked the ultimate authority of a full parliament. Freehold is a term used in real estate or real property law, land held in fee simple, as opposed to leasehold, which is land which is leased. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... A cleric is: A member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals; or A member of a character class in Dungeons & Dragons and similar fantasy role-playing games. ... A tenant (from the Latin tenere, to hold), in legal contexts, holds real property by some form of title from a landlord. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a state, or to functional equivalents of a state, including tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... -1... Parliament House in Edinburgh, the home of the Estates of Parliament between its completion in 1639 and the Union of 1707. ... See also State (disambiguation) The States signifies, in different countries, the assembly of the (feudalistic) representatives of the estates of the realm, called together for purposes of legislation or deliberation. ...


The parliament, which is also referred to as the Estates of Scotland, the Three Estates, the Scots Parliament or the auld Scots Parliament (Eng: old), met until the Acts of Union merged the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England, creating the new Parliament of Great Britain in 1707. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


Poland

Chamber of the Sejm showing semicircle seating pattern.
Chamber of the Sejm showing semicircle seating pattern.

According to the Chronicles of Gallus Anonymus, the first legendary Polish ruler, Siemowit, who began the Piast Dynasty, was chosen by a wiec. The veche (Russian: вече, Polish: wiec) was a popular assembly in medieval Slavic countries, and in late medieval period, a parliament. The idea of the wiec led in 1182 to the development of the Polish parliament, the Sejm. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 852 KB) Sejm RP, sala plenarna, zdjÄ™cie wykonane 24 stycznia 2007 roku, autor: Piotr VaGla Waglowski, http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 852 KB) Sejm RP, sala plenarna, zdjÄ™cie wykonane 24 stycznia 2007 roku, autor: Piotr VaGla Waglowski, http://www. ... A semicircle of radius r. ... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... Gallus Anonymus (Polish: Gall Anonim) living in 11th and 12th century was the first Polish historian, author of Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum (c. ... Siemowit (also Ziemowit) was, according to the chronicles of Gallus Anonymus, the son of Piast and Rzepicha. ... Piast the Wheelwright Piast seal Piast coat of arms This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


The term "sejm" comes from an old Polish expression denoting a meeting of the populace. The power of early sejms grew between 1146–1295, when the power of individual rulers waned and various councils and wiece grew stronger. The history of the national Sejm dates back to 1182. Since the 14th century irregular sejms (described in various Latin sources as contentio generalis, conventio magna, conventio solemna, parlamentum, parlamentum generale, dieta or Polish sejm walny) have been called by Polish kings. From 1374, the king had to receive sejm permission to raise taxes. The General Sejm (Polish Sejm Generalny or Sejm Walny), first convoked by the king John I Olbracht in 1493 near Piotrków, evolved from earlier regional and provincial meetings (sejmiks. It followed most closely the sejmik generally, which arose from the 1454 Nieszawa Statutes, granted to the szlachta (nobles) by King Casimir IV the Jagiellonian. From 1493 forward, indirect elections were repeated every two years. With the development of the unique Polish Golden Liberty the Sejm's powers increased. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Taxes redirects here. ... Reign From September 23, 1492 until June 17, 1501 Coronation On September 23, 1492 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk Elżbieta Rakuszanka Consorts None Children None Date of Birth December 27, 1459 Place of Birth Kraków, Poland Date of Death June 17, 1501... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Łódź Powiat City county Gmina Piotrków Trybunalski Estabilished before 1217 City Rights 13th century Government  - Mayor Krzysztof Chojniak Area  - City 67. ... A sejmik (diminutive of the Polish sejm, or parliament) was a regional sejm in the pre-partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and earlier in the Kingdom of Poland. ... The Nieszawa Statutes (Polish: statuty nieszawskie) were a set of laws enacted in the Kingdom of Poland in 1454, in the town of Nieszawa. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Reign From 1446 until June 7, 1492 Coronation On June 25, 1447 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Jagiellon Parents Władyslaw II Jagiełło Zofia Holszańska Consorts Elżbieta Rakuszanka Children with Elżbieta Rakuszanka Władysław II Jagiellończyk Jadwiga Jagiellonka Kazimierz Swięty Jan I Olbracht Aleksander Jagiellończyk Zofia Elżbieta Zygmunt I... Golden Liberty (latin: Aurea Libertas, Polish: Złota Wolność, sometimes used in plural form; this phenomena can be also reffered to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles Democracy or Nobles Commonwealth, Polish: Rzeczpospolita Szlachecka) refers to a unique democratic political system in the Kingdom of Poland and later, after the Union of Lublin...


The Commonwealth's general parliament consisted of three estates: the King of Poland (who also acted as the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Russia/Ruthenia, Prussia, Mazovia, etc.), the Senat (consisting of Ministers, Palatines, Castellans and Bishops) and the Chamber of Envoys—circa 170 nobles (szlachta) acting on behalf of their Lands and sent by Land Parliaments. Also representatives of selected cities but without any voting powers. Since 1573 at a royal election all peers of the Commonwealth could participate in the Parliament and become the King's electors. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... StanisÅ‚aw Antoni Szczuka, a Polish nobleman Szlachta ( ) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the two countries that later jointly formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Nordic and Germanic development

Iceland's parliament House, at Austurvöllur in Reykjavík, built in 1880–1881. Home of one of the oldest still-acting parliaments in the world.
Iceland's parliament House, at Austurvöllur in Reykjavík, built in 1880–1881. Home of one of the oldest still-acting parliaments in the world.

A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. Today the term lives on in the official names of national legislatures, political and judicial institutions in the North-Germanic countries. In the Yorkshire and former Danelaw areas of England, which were subject to much Norse invasion and settlement, the wapentake was another name for the same institution. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... A Lawspeaker (Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Norwegian: lagmand, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maðr) was a unique Scandinavian legal office. ... For other uses, see Yorkshire (disambiguation). ... Gold: Danelaw The Danelaw, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles also known as the Danelagh, (Old English: Dena lagu; Danish: Danelagen), is a name given to a part of Great Britain, now northern and eastern England, in which the laws of the Danes[1] held predominance over those of the Anglo... A wapentake is a term derived from the Old Norse, the rough equivalent of an Anglo-Saxon hundred. ...


The thing was the assembly of the free men of a country, province or a hundred (hundare/härad/herred). There were consequently, hierarchies of things, so that the local things were represented at the thing for a larger area, for a province or land. At the thing, disputes were solved and political decisions were made. The place for the thing was often also the place for public religious rites and for commerce. A hundred is an administrative division, frequently used in Europe and New England, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller geographical units. ...


The thing met at regular intervals, legislated, elected chieftains and kings, and judged according to the law, which was memorized and recited by the "law speaker" (the judge). In heathen times chieftains were both political and religious leaders, tasked to use their luck to secure the people fred (translated good times - nowadays actually the word for peace). ... The Germanic king originally had three main functions. ... A Lawspeaker (Swedish: lagman, Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Norwegian: lagmand, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maðr) is a unique Scandinavian legal office. ...


Later national diets with chambers for different estates developed, e.g. in Sweden and in Finland (which was part of Sweden until 1809), each with a House of Knights for the nobility. In both these countries, the national parliaments are now called riksdag (in Finland also eduskunta), a word used since the Middle Ages and equivalent of the German word Reichstag. External link Riddarhuset - Official site Categories: Stub | Swedish history | Stockholm buildings ... The parliament building from outside. ... Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which...


Russia

The name of the parliament of Russian Federation is the Federal Assembly of Russia. The term for its lower house, Duma (which is better known than the Federal Assembly itself, and is often mistaken for the entirety of the parliament) comes from the Russian word думать (dumat), "to think". The Boyar Duma was an advisory council to the grand princes and tsars of Muscovy. The Duma was discontinued by Peter the Great, who transferred its functions to the Governing Senate in 1711. Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km... Federal Assembly of Russia (Федеральное Собрание) is the name of the parliament of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation, 1993. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... The Governing Senate (Правительствующий сенат) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of Russian Monarchs, instated by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma and lasted until the very end of the Empire. ...


Novgorod and Pskov

The veche was the highest legislature and judicial authority in the republic of Novgorod until 1478. In its sister state, Pskov, a separate veche operated until 1510. Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Pskov Feudal Republic (Псковская феодальная республика in Russian) was a Russian medieval state between the second half of the 13th century and early 16th century. ...


Since the Novgorod revolution of 1137 ousted the ruling grand prince, the veche became the supreme state authority. After the reforms of 1410, the veche was restructured on a model similar to that of Venice, becoming the Commons chamber of the parliament. Аn upper Senate-like Council of Lords was also created, with title membership for all former city magistrates. Some sources indicate that veche membership may have became full-time, and parliament deputies were now called vechniks. It is recounted that the Novgorod assembly could be summoned by anyone who rung the veche bell, although it is more likely that the common procedure was more complex. This bell was a symbol of republican sovereignty and independence. The whole population of the city—boyars, merchants, and common citizens—then gathered at Yaroslav's Court. Separate assemblies could be held in the districts of Novgorod. In Pskov the veche assembled in the court of the Trinity cathedral. The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... In England and Wales, a common is a piece of land over which other people -- often neighbouring landowners -- could exercise one of a number of traditional rights, such as allowing their cattle to graze upon it. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... Yaroslavs Court (Yaroslavovo Dvorishche [Ярославово Дворище] in Russian) was the princely compound in the city of Novgorod the Great. ...


India

Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India
Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India

In very ancient India, during the Vedic civilization, there are mentions of two Parliament-like gatherings of the Indo-Aryan kingdoms called the Sabha and the Samiti. During the time of the Buddha, many states were even tribal republics, called the Sanghas. The Sabha has been interpreted by the historians as a representative assembly of the elect—the important men of the clan, which ran day-to-day business with the king. The Samiti seems to be a gathering of all the male members of the kingdom, and probably convened only for the ratification/election of a new king. The two largely democratic institutions, which kept a check on the absolutism of the king, were given a sacred position, and have been called the daughters of the deity Prajapati in the Vedas, the holiest of all Hindu scriptures and the earliest Indo-European literature. However, these democratic institutions became weaker as republics became larger and elected chieftainship moved towards hereditary and absolute monarchy. The Sabha and the Samiti bear almost no mention in later literature. After this, India would not have any democratic legislature till the British times, culminating in its modern democratic Parliament (whose two Houses still bear the name of Sabha). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Siddhartha and Gautama redirect here. ... Sangha (संघ saṃgha) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly or community. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... In Hinduism, Prajapati is Lord of Creatures, thought to be depicted on ancient Harappan seals, sitting in yogic posture, with an erection and what appear to be bison horns. ...


Spain

Corgreso de los Diputados, Parliament of Spain
Corgreso de los Diputados, Parliament of Spain
Main article Cortes Generales

Although there are documented councils held in 873, 1020, 1050 and 1063, there was no representation of commoners. What is considered to be the first Spanish Parliament (with the presence of commoners), Cortes - was held in the Kingdom of Leon in 1118. Prelates, nobles and commoners met separately in the three estates of the Cortes. In this meeting new laws were approved to protect commoners against the arbitrarities of nobles, prelates and the king. This important set of laws is known as the "Carta Magna Leonesa" Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixels, file size: 295 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: Epaminondas Pantulis from Alcorcón, Spain Title: ¿Daoíz o Velarde? Taken on: 2004-11-09 13:31:26 Original source: Flickr. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixels, file size: 295 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: Epaminondas Pantulis from Alcorcón, Spain Title: ¿Daoíz o Velarde? Taken on: 2004-11-09 13:31:26 Original source: Flickr. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senado de España Congreso de los Diputados President of the Senate Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 President of the Congress José Bono Martínez, PSOE since 2008 Members 609 259 senators 350 deputies Political groups Senado: PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU... Type Bicameral Houses Senado de España Congreso de los Diputados President of the Senate Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 President of the Congress José Bono Martínez, PSOE since 2008 Members 609 259 senators 350 deputies Political groups Senado: PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina, or twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las Médulas nearby. ...


Following this event, new Cortes will appear in the other different kingdoms: Catalonia in 1218, the Kingdom of Castile in 1250, Kingdom of Aragon in 1274, Kingdom of Valencia in 1283 and Kingdom of Navarre in 1300. This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... Coat of arms The Kingdom of Aragon at its greatest extent, c. ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Aragonese Empire was the regime... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ...


After the union of the Kingdoms of Leon and Castile under the Crown of Castile, their Cortes will be united as well in 1258. The Castilian Cortes had representatives from Burgos, Toledo, León, Seville, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, Zamora, Segovia, Ávila, Salamanca, Cuenca, Toro, Valladolid, Soria, Madrid, Guadalajara and Granada (after 1492). The Cortes had powers to control the king spending and taxing. But, after the defeat of the communities (Castilian War of the Communities) against the newly arrived Habsburg emperor Charles V in 1521, the Castilian Cortes lost its power and was reduced to a mere consultative entity. The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... The Castilian War of the Communities is also known as the Revolt of the Comuneros, and in Spanish as la Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...


The Cortes of the Crown of Aragon kingdoms remained with their power to control the king spending regarding to the finances of those kingdoms. But after the War of the Spanish Succession and the arrival of another royal house - the Bourbons - in 1714 with Philip V, their Cortes were suppressed (as were those of Aragon and Valencia in 1707, Catalonia and Balearic islands in 1714). Coat of arms of Aragon, 15th century The Crown of Aragon is a term used to refer to the permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ...


Parliaments of the United Kingdom

The British Parliament is often referred to as the Mother of Parliaments (in fact a misquotation of John Bright, who remarked in 1865 that "England is the Mother of Parliaments") because the British Parliament has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, and its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have similarly organized parliaments with a largely ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house and a smaller, upper house. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1351, 713 KB) The Houses of Parliament, seen across Westminster Bridge. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1351, 713 KB) The Houses of Parliament, seen across Westminster Bridge. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... John Bright John Bright (November 16, 1811–March 27, 1889), was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


The Parliament of the United Kingdom was originally formed in 1707 by the Acts of Union that replaced the former parliaments of England and Scotland—the Irish Parliament was subsumed into the Imperial Parliament in 1801. The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


In the United Kingdom, Parliament consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the Monarch. The House of Commons is composed of 646 members who are directly elected by British citizens to represent single-member constituencies. The leader of a Party that wins more than half the seats or less than half but can count on support of smaller parties to achieve enough support to pass law is invited by the Queen to form a government. Legally the Queen is the head of government and no business in Parliament can be taken without her authority. The House of Lords is a body of long-serving, unelected members: 92 of whom inherit their seats and 574 of whom have been appointed to lifetime seats. Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ...


Legislation can originate from either the Lords or the Commons. It is voted on in several distinct stages, called readings, in each house. First reading is merely a formality. Second reading is where the bill as a whole is considered. Third reading is detailed consideration of clauses of the bill. Reading is a mechanism by which a bill is introduced to, and approved by a legislature. ...


In addition to the three readings a bill also goes through a committee stage where it is considered in great detail. Once the bill has been passed by one house it goes to the other and essentially repeats the process. If after the two sets of readings there are disagreements between the versions that the two houses passed it is returned to the first house for consideration of the amendments made by the second. If it passes through the amendment stage Royal Assent is granted and the bill becomes law as an Act of Parliament. // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ...


The House of Lords is the less powerful of the two houses as a result of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949. These Acts removed the veto power of the Lords over a great deal of legislation. If a bill is certified by the Speaker of the House of Commons as a money bill (i.e. acts raising taxes and similar) then the Lords can only block it for a month. If an ordinary bill originates in the Commons the Lords can only block it for a maximum of one session of Parliament. The exceptions to this rule are things like bills to prolong the life of a Parliament beyond five years. If a bill originates in the Lords then the Lords can block it for as long as they like. Passing of the Parliament Bill, 1911, from the drawing by S. Begg The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... A money bill is a bill that solely concerns taxation or government spending, as opposed to changes in public law. ... A parliamentary session is a period of time where the legislature in a parliamentary government is sitting. ...


In addition to functioning as the second chamber of Parliament, the House of Lords is also still the final court of appeal for much of the law of the United Kingdom—a combination of judicial and legislative function that recalls its origin in the Curia Regis. This will change in October 2009 when the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom opens. In law, an appeal is a process for making a formal challenge to an official decision. ... The future Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was established in law by Part III of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. ...


Since 1999, there is a Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh, which is a national, unicameral legislature for Scotland. For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... This article is about the country. ...


List of parliaments

The centre block of the Canadian Parliament Building in Ottawa.
The centre block of the Canadian Parliament Building in Ottawa.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 438 KB) Summary Скупштина, SkupÅ¡tina, das Parlamentsgebäude in Belgrad, Serbien. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 438 KB) Summary Скупштина, SkupÅ¡tina, das Parlamentsgebäude in Belgrad, Serbien. ... The unicameral parliament of Serbia is known as the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Народна скупштина Републике Србије / Narodna skupÅ¡tina Republike Srbije). ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2269x1338, 700 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2269x1338, 700 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bucharest Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Palace of the Parliament Night view of the Palace of the Parliament Night view from the Union Boulevard Palace from Union Boulevard Inside the palace Inside the palace View from the building towards the Union Boulevard The Palace of the Parliament from above The Palace of the Parliament (Romanian: Palatul... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2498x1093, 670 KB) de Beschreibung: Reichstagsgebäude in Berlin mit Wiese Quelle: selbst fotografiert von Johann H. Addicks Lizenz: unter PD gestellt von Johann H. Addicks Entstehungsdatum: Juni 2005 en Source: Taken by de:Benutzer:-jha- Date: June 2005 image moved... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2498x1093, 670 KB) de Beschreibung: Reichstagsgebäude in Berlin mit Wiese Quelle: selbst fotografiert von Johann H. Addicks Lizenz: unter PD gestellt von Johann H. Addicks Entstehungsdatum: Juni 2005 en Source: Taken by de:Benutzer:-jha- Date: June 2005 image moved... The Reichstag building. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2358 KB) Summary Description: Parliament building, Budapest Source: self-made Date: 2005-09-28 Author: Dirk Beyer Permission: GFDL and cc-by-sa-2. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2358 KB) Summary Description: Parliament building, Budapest Source: self-made Date: 2005-09-28 Author: Dirk Beyer Permission: GFDL and cc-by-sa-2. ... Hungarian Parliament The Parliament from above Grand Stairwell Conference Hall The Hungarian Parliament Building (Hungarian: ) is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, one of the Europes oldest legislative buildings, a notable landmark of Hungary and a popular tourist destination of Budapest. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1153x863, 478 KB) This is a cropped and brightened version of Image:DenglerSW-Parliament-Ottawa-20050730-1280x960. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1153x863, 478 KB) This is a cropped and brightened version of Image:DenglerSW-Parliament-Ottawa-20050730-1280x960. ... The Parliament of Canada (in French: le Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... -1...

Contemporary national parliaments

List is not exhaustive
See also: list of national legislatures

This is a list of national legislatures, whether parliamentary or congressional, that act as a plenary general assembly of representatives with the power to legislate. ...

Parliaments of the European Union Member States

Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Type Bicameral Houses Bundesrat Nationalrat Members 245 Meeting place In the Parliament of Austria (Österreichisches Parlament) is vested the legislative power of the Republic of Austria. ... The Belgian Federal Parliament is a bicameral parliament. ... The National Assembly of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Народното събрание, transliterated: Narodno Sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... The House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosópon/Temsilciler Meclisi) is the parliament of Cyprus. ... The Parliament of the Czech Republic (in Czech Parlament ÄŒeské republiky) is the legislative body of the Czech Republic. ... The Folketing [], or Folketinget, is the national parliament of Denmark. ... The Chamber of Deputies (French: Chambre des Députés) is the unicameral legislative branch of the government of Luxembourg. ... The Parliament of Malta, the House of Representatives (Il-Kamra tar-Raprezentanti), has 65 members, elected for a five year term in 13 5-seat constituencies with a possibility of rewarding bonus members for the popular largest party which doesnt succeed in getting absolute majority in parliament. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the parliament of Estonia. ... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... The Hellenic Parliament (Greek: Βουλή των Ελλήνων; transliterated Vouli ton Ellinon; literally Council of the Greeks) is the parliament of Greece, located in Syntagma Square in Athens. ... The National Assembly of Hungary (Országgyűlés) is the national parliament of Hungary. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Parliament of Italy (Italian: Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. ... The Saeima Plenary Chamber The Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. ... Seimas is the Lithuanian parliament. ... The Estates-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ... São Bento Palace, home of the Portuguese Parliament. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senatul Camera DeputaÅ£ilor President of the Senate Nicolae Văcăroiu, PSD since 2004 President of the Chamber of Deputies Bogdan Olteanu, PNL since 2006 Members 469 137 senators 332 deputies Political groups (as of 2004 elections) Senate: PSD, PNL, PD,PRM, UDMR, PC, Independents Chamber... Type Lower house President (Speaker) Bogdan Olteanu, PNL, since 2006 Number of members 332 Political groups (as of 2006 elections) PSD, PNL, PD, PRM, UDMR, PC, National minorities, Independents Meeting place Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest Web site www. ... Coat of Arms of The Senate of Romania The Senate of Romania (Romanian: Senat) is the upper house in Romanias bicameral parliament. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... Building of the National Council of the Slovak Republic next to the Bratislava Castle The National Council of the Slovak Republic (in Slovak: Národná rada Slovenskej republiky, often just: Národná rada, abbr. ... The Slovenian Parliament (Slovenian: ) is the legislative body of Slovenia. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senado de España Congreso de los Diputados President of the Senate Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 President of the Congress José Bono Martínez, PSOE since 2008 Members 609 259 senators 350 deputies Political groups Senado: PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU... This article is about the Parliament of Sweden. ...

Others

  • The federal government of Canada has a bicameral parliament, and each of Canada's 10 provinces has a unicameral parliament.

The parliament of Croatia is called Hrvatski Sabor in Croatian - the word sabor means an assembly, a gathering, a congress. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... Jatiyo Sangshad (Bangla: জাতীয় সংসদ) or National Assembly is the national parliament of Bangladesh. ... The Parliament of Barbados is composed of three elements: the Sovereign (currently Queen Elizabeth II, represented by Governor-General Sir Clifford Husbands), the Senate, and the House of Assembly. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Løgting house in Thorshavn, built in 1856. ... Fijis Parliament is bicameral. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... Þingvellir in autumn Þingvellir (Icelandic Þing: parliament, vellir: plains) is a place in the southwest of Iceland near the peninsula of Reykjanes and the Hengill volcanic area. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... The Lok Sabhha (alternatively titled, the House of the People, by the Constitution of India) is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ... Executive President Vice-President Prime Minister Dy. ... The Council of Representatives of Iraq (Arabic: ) is the main elected body of representatives in Iraq. ... Tynwald (Tinvaal in Manx) is the bicameral legislature of the Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin). ... Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... The Parliament of the Republic of Montenegro (Serbian: SkupÅ¡tina Republike Crne Gore) is the legislature of Montenegro. ... The Parliament of Morocco is located in Rabat, the capital of Morocco. ... The Parliament of Nauru has 18 members, elected for a three year term in multi-seat constituencies. ... The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council. ... The Storting (Stortinget, literally The Big Thing) is the Norwegian Parliament, and is located in the capital city Oslo. ... Bold text Majlis-e-Shoora (Urdu: مجلس شوری) (Council of Advisors in Urdu, although referred to as Parliament) is the bicameral federal legislature of Pakistan that consists of the Senate (upper house) and the National Assembly (lower house). ... The unicameral parliament of Serbia is known as the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Народна скупштина Републике Србије / Narodna skupÅ¡tina Republike Srbije). ... The unicameral Parliament of Singapore is the legislature of Singapore with the President as its head [1]. It currently consists of 94 Members of Parliament. ... The Parliament of South Africa is South Africas legislature and is composed of the National Assembly of South Africa and the National Council of Provinces. ... The Spanish Congress of Deputies (Spanish: Congreso de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spains legislative branch. ... The Parliament of Sri Lanka is a Unicameral 225-member legislature elected by universal suffrage and proportional representation for a six-year term. ... The Bundeshaus (Swiss parliament building) The Federal Assembly (in German, Bundesversammlung; in French, Assemblée fédérale; in Italian language, Assemblea federale), is Switzerlands federal parliament. ... The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Parliament (Sansad) of Nepal has two chambers: The House of Representatives (Pratinidhi Sabha) has 205 members elected for five year term in single-seat constituencies. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAfW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) is a devolved assembly (not a full legislature) with power to make regulations in Wales, and also is responsible for most UK government departments in Wales. ...

Contemporary supranational parliaments

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2824 × 1882 pixel, file size: 530 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2824 × 1882 pixel, file size: 530 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... The Pan-African Parliament is the legislative body of the African Union; at present it exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers. ... The Central American Parliament, also know by the abbreviation Parlacen (from the Spanish Parlamento Centroamericano) is a political institution devoted to the integration of the Central American countries. ... The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino), is a regional, permanent and unicameral organism, integrated from the national Parliaments of Latin America, elected democratically by means of universal suffrage in countries that ratified the corresponding Treaty of Institutionalization signed on the 16 November 1987 in Lima, Peru, and those whose States adhered...

Equivalent national legislatures

Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... The House of the People, also known natively as the The Wolesi Jirga is the lower house of the bicameral national assembly of Afghanistan. ... The House of Elders, also natively known as the Meshrano Jirga is the upper house of the bicameral national assembly of Afghanistan. ... A loya jirga that was held in Kabul, Afghanistan. ...

Defunct

This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... The Parliament of Southern Ireland was set up under the Government of Ireland Act to legislate for Southern Ireland. ... This article is about the pre-1972 Parliament of Northern Ireland. ... The so-called Peoples Parliament (Liaudies Seimas) was a tool for legitimising the annexation of Lithuania legally by Soviet Union in 1940. ... The Silesian Parliament in Katowice. ...

Subnational parliaments

Australia

See Parliaments of the Australian states and territories

The Parliaments of the Australian states and territories are legislative bodies within the federal framework of the Commonwealth of Australia. ...

Belgium

In the federal (bicameral) kingdom of Belgium, there is a curious asymmetrical constellation serving as directly elected legislatures for three "territorial" regionsFlanders (Dutch), Brussels (bilingual, certain peculiarities of competence, also the only region not comprising any of the 10 provinces) and Wallonia (French)—and three cultural communities—Flemish (Dutch, competent in Flanders and for the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels), Francophone (French, for Wallonia and for Francophones in Brussels) and German (for speakers of that language in a few designated municipalities in the east of the Walloon Region, living alongside Francophones but under two different regimes) For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... This article is about the settlement itself. ... Wallonia (French: Wallonie, German: Wallonien, Walloon: Walonreye, Dutch: Wallonië) or the Walloon Region (French: Région Wallonne, Dutch: Waals Gewest) is the predominantly French-speaking region that constitutes one of the three federal regions of Belgium, with its capital at Namur. ...

within the capital's regional assembly however, there also exist two so-called Community Commissions (fixed numbers, not an automatic repartition of the regional assembly), a Dutch-speaking one and a Francophone one, for various matters split up by linguistic community but under Brussels' regional competence, and even 'joint community commissions' consisting of both for certain institutions that could be split up but are not.

The Flemish Parliament (Dutch: Vlaams Parlement, and formerly called Flemish Council or Vlaamse Raad) constitutes the legislative power in Flanders, for matters which fall within the competence of Flanders, both as a geographic region and a cultural and linguistic community of Belgium. ... The Parliament of the German-speaking Community (German: or PDG) is the legislative assembly of the German-speaking community of Belgium based in Eupen. ... The Walloon Parliament, or Walloon Regional Parliament (French: Parlement wallon or Parlement régional wallon; formerly Walloon Regional Council or Conseil régional wallon), is the parliament of Wallonia, the southern region of Belgium. ... The Council of the Region of Brussels-Capital, or Brussels Regional Parliament (French: Conseil de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale or Parlement Bruxellois, Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Parlement or Brusselse Hoofdstedelijke Raad), is the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Vlaamse Gemeenschapscommissie (or VGC, or, in English, the Flemish Community Commission) is the local representative of the Flemish authorities in the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Commission communautaire française (or COCOF, or, in English, the French Community Commission) is the local representative of the French-speaking authorities in the Brussels-Capital Region, one of the three regions of Belgium. ...

Canada

See Legislative Assemblies of Canada's provinces and territories

This is a list of the Legislative Assemblies of Canadas provinces and territories. ...

Denmark

The Parliament of Greenland is the legislature (in this case, a parliament) in the government of Greenland, an autonomous province of Denmark. ... The Løgting, or Løgtingið is the parliament of the Faroe Islands, a self ruling dependency of Denmark. ...

The Netherlands

  • States-General of the Netherlands

The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ...

Finland

The Lagting, or Lagtinget, is the parliament of Ã…land, an autonomous, demilitarised and unilingually Swedish territory of Finland. ...

Spain

See: List of Spanish regional legislatures

Andalucia - Parlamento de Andalucia Aragon - Cortes de Aragón Asturias - Junta del Principado Basque Country - Basque Parliament Canary Islands - Parlamento de Canarias Cantabria - Parlamento de Cantabria Castilla y León - Cortes de Castilla y León Castilla La Mancha - Cortes de Castilla La Mancha Catalonia - Parlament de Catalunya Extremadura - Asamblea...

United Kingdom

For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ...

See also

// The oldest recorded parliament still in existence is the Althing, the ruling legislative body of Iceland. ... Delegated legislation (sometimes referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by an executive authority under powers given to them by primary legislation in order to implement and administer the requirements of the acts. ... Democratic globalization is a movement towards an institutional system that expands globalization by giving world citizens a say in world organizations. ... Democracy is a political system in which all the members of the society have equal access to power. ... The Inter-Parliamentary Union is an international organization established in 1889 by William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom) and Frédéric Passy (France). ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Parliamentary procedure is the name given to the set of rules governing the decision-making process used by a deliberative assembly. ... The Witenagemot (or Witan) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.tynwald.org.im The Parliament of the Isle of Man


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