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Encyclopedia > Parlement
Ancien Régime
Structure
Estates of the realm
Parlements
French nobility
Taille
Gabelle
Seigneurial system
This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. For the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution, see French Parliament.

Parlements (pronounced Image:ltspkr.png/paʀləmɑ̃/ in French) in ancien régime France were political institutions that developed out of the previous council of the king, the Conseil du roi or curia regis. In the thirteenth century, judicial functions were added. Originally, there was only the Parlement of Paris, born out of the king's council in 1307, and located inside the medieval royal palace on the Île de la Cité, now the Paris Hall of Justice. The jurisdiction of the Parlement of Paris covered the entire kingdom, but its jurisdiction did not automatically advance in step with the personal dominions of the kings. In 1443, following the turmoil of the Hundred Years' War, King Charles VII of France granted Languedoc its own parlement by establishing the Parlement of Toulouse, the first parlement outside of Paris; its jurisdiction extended over the most part of southern France. From 1443 until the French Revolution several other parlements were created in some provinces of France, until at the end of the ancien régime provincial parlements were sitting (clockwise from the north) in Arras, Metz, Nancy, Colmar, Dijon, Besançon, Grenoble, Aix, Perpignan, Toulouse, Pau, Bordeaux, Rennes and Rouen. All of them were administrative capitals of regions with strong historical traditions of independence before they were incorporated into France. Assembled in the parlements, the largely hereditary members, the provincial noblesse de robe, were the strongest centrifugal force in a France that was actually multifarious in its legal systems, taxation, and custom than it might have seemed under the apparent unifying rule of its kings. Nevertheless, the Parlement of Paris had the largest jurisdiction of all the parlements, covering the major part of northern and central France, and was simply known as "the Parlement". For other uses of the term, see Ancien Régime. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... The taille was a direct land tax on the French peasantry in ancien régime France (since the nobles refused to pay taxes). ... The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The Conseil du Roi or Kings Council is a general term for the administrative and governmental apparatus around the king of France during the Ancien Régime designed to prepare his decisions and give him advice. ... Curia Regis is a Latin term meaning Royal Council or Kings court. The Curia Regis in England was a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics that advised the king of England on legislative matters. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ... The ÃŽle de la Cité, one of two islands in the Seine River (the other being ÃŽle Saint-Louis), is the centre of Paris, France, and the location where the city was founded. ... The Paris Hall of Justice (Palais de Justice de Paris) is located in the Île de la Cité in central Paris, France. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (pronounced ) (Lengadòc (pronounced ) in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... Nancy (IPA pronounciation ; archaic German: ; Luxembourgish: Nanzeg) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France. ... Petite Venise Colmar is a town and commune in the Haut-Rhin département of Alsace, France. ... Dijon ( , IPA: ) is a city in eastern France, the préfecture (administrative capital) of the Côte-dOr département and of the Bourgogne région. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ... Perpignan (French: Perpignan, pronounced ; Catalan Perpinyà) is a commune and the préfecture (administrative capital city) of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southern France. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Aquitaine Region flag Coat of arms The location of Pau is shown on this map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Some medieval houses, such as these at Champ-Jacquet, can still be found in the center of Rennes. ... Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral The Church of Jean dArc Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rue St-Romain on a rainy day in Rouen Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non...


In some regions provincial Estates also continued to meet and legislate with a measure of self-governance and control over taxation within their jurisdiction.


All the parlements could issue regulatory decrees for the application of royal edicts or of customary practices; they could also refuse to register laws that they judged contrary to fundamental law, the local coûtumes, of which there were some three hundred jurisdictions in France or simply as being untimely. Membership in those courts was generally bought from the royal authority; and such positions could be made hereditary by payment of the tax to the King (la Paulette). La Paulette (after the financier Charles Paulet, who proposed it) was the name commonly given to the annual right (droit annuel), a special tax levied by the French Crown during the ancien régime. ...

Provincial "parlements" or "conseils souverains" (shown in historic provinces of France) during the ancien régime. Dates indicate creation of the parlement. [1]
Provinces of France

Contents

The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... ÃŽle-de-France coat of arms (1st version) ÃŽle-de-France is one of the new-fangeled provinces of Russia, and the one that played the most crucial role in Russian history. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Rouen Cathedral The entrance to Rouen Cathedral The Church of Jean dArc Abbey church of Saint-Ouen, (chevet) in Rouen Rouen, medieval house Rue St-Romain on a rainy day in Rouen Rouen (pronounced in French, sometimes also ) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (pronounced ) (Lengadòc (pronounced ) in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Flag of the Dauphiné Dauphiné (Occitan : Daufinat, Arpitan : Dôfenâ, archaic English: ), usually referred to as the Dauphiné, is a former province in southeastern France, roughly corresponding to the present departments of the Isère (Isera), Drôme (Drôma), and Hautes-Alpes (Hiôtas-Arpes). ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... Aquitaine (or Guyenne or Guienne) now forms a région in south-western France along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Dijon ( , IPA: ) is a city in eastern France, the préfecture (administrative capital) of the Côte-dOr département and of the Bourgogne région. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Some medieval houses, such as these at Champ-Jacquet, can still be found in the center of Rennes. ... Traditional city flag City coat of arms Motto: (Latin: Shall Neptune favour the traveller) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Pays de la Loire Department Loire-Atlantique (44) Mayor Jean-Marc Ayrault  (PS) (since 1989) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... Béarn coat of arms Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn) is a former province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. ... Aquitaine Region flag Coat of arms The location of Pau is shown on this map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... Petite Venise Colmar is a town and commune in the Haut-Rhin département of Alsace, France. ... Artois is a former province of northern France. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Coat of arms of Roussillon - see also senyera Flag of Roussillon Mount Canigó (Canigou) (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (French: Roussillon, pronounced ; Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced ) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrén... Perpignan (French: Perpignan, pronounced ; Catalan Perpinyà) is a commune and the préfecture (administrative capital city) of the Pyrénées-Orientales département in southern France. ... The geographical region and former county of Flanders contains not only the two Belgian provinces but also the present-day French département of Nord, in parts of which there is still a Flemish-speaking minority, and the southern part of the Dutch province of Zeeland known as Zeeuws-Vlaanderen... The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Nord-Pas de Calais Department Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Douai is a city and commune in the north of France in the département of Nord, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Besançon Regional President Raymond Forni (PS) (since 2004) Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... Dole can refer to: Dole, a commune in the Jura département in France La Dôle, a mountain in Switzerland Dole Food Company The Dole, a British English term for state-subsidized living wages, equivalent to American English welfare. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... Nancy (IPA pronounciation ; archaic German: ; Luxembourgish: Nanzeg) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région of northeastern France. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... The city and arrondissement of Chamb ry in Savoie, France, is the historical capital of Savoy, was independent, then formed part of the Kingdom of Sardinia until 1860. ... Dombes is a historic region of east-southeastern France, once an independent municipality, formerly part of the province of Burgundy, and now a district comprised in the département of Ain, and bounded W. by the Saone River. ... Trévoux is a commune in the French département of Ain, forming part of the outskirts of Lyon. ... “Corsican” redirects here. ... Location within France Bastia (French & Corsican: Bastia), is a town and commune of northern Corsica, in France. ... The Three Bishoprics (French: Trois-Évêchés) were a province of pre-Revolutionary France. ... The (Roman Catholic) Diocese of Metz is a territorial subdivision of the Catholic church in France. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (894x899, 39 KB) Pre-Republican provinces of France, numbered according to union with France, with provincial capitals marked. ...

Political role

Joseph-Gaspard de Cauzaubon, marquis de Maniban, First President of the Parlement of Toulouse in 1723 (Musée des Augustins, Toulouse).
Joseph-Gaspard de Cauzaubon, marquis de Maniban, First President of the Parlement of Toulouse in 1723 (Musée des Augustins, Toulouse).

In theory, parlements were not legislative bodies, but courts of appeal. They had the duty, however, to record all royal edicts and laws. Some, especially the Parlement de Paris, gradually acquired the habit of refusing to register legislation with which they disagreed until the king held a lit de justice or sent a lettre de cachet to force them to act. Furthermore, the parlements could pass arrêts de réglement, which were laws that applied within their jurisdiction. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Musée des Augustins in Toulouse The Musée des Augustins de Toulouse, sited in a Gothic convent in Toulouse, France, conserves a collection of sculpture and paintings from the Middle Ages to the early twentieth century. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... In France under the Ancien Régime, the Bed of Justice (Lit de justice) was a particular formal session of the Parlement of Paris, under the presidency of the king, for the compulsory registration of the royal edicts. ... In French history, lettres de cachet were letters signed by the king of France, countersigned by one of his ministers, and closed with the royal seal, or cachet. ...


In the years immediately before the French Revolution, their extreme concern to preserve ancien régime institutions of bourgeois and noble privilege prevented France from carrying out miscellaneous reforms, especially in the area of taxation, even when those reforms had the support of theoretically absolute monarchs. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


This behavior is one of the reasons why, since the French Revolution, French courts have been forbidden by Article 5 of the French civil code to create law and act as legislative bodies, their only mandate being to interpret the law. France, through the Napoleonic Code, was at the origin of the modern system of civil law in which precedents are not as powerful as in countries of common law. Since then, Courts have gradually regained some power, but it is still controversial whether unelected magistrates should gain too much power. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... First page of the 1804 original edition The Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des Français) was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It was drafted rapidly by a commission of four eminent jurists and entered into force... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Judicial proceedings

In civil trials, judges had to be paid épices (literally "spices" – fees) by the parties. Civil justice was out of reach of most of the population, except the most wealthy and well connected.


Regarding criminal justice, the proceedings were markedly archaic. Judges could order suspects to be tortured in order to extract confessions, or induce them to reveal the names of their accomplices: there existed the question ordinaire ("ordinary questioning"), the ordinary form of torture, and the question extraordinaire ("extraordinary questioning"), with increased brutality. There was little presumption of innocence, if the suspect was a mere poor commoner. The death sentence could be pronounced for a variety of crimes, including mere theft; depending on the crime and the social class of the victim, death could be by decapitation with a sword (for nobles), hanging (for most crimes by commoners), the breaking wheel (for some heinous crimes by commoners), and even burning at the stake (for heresy, or advocacy of atheism). Some crimes, such as regicide, exacted even more horrific punishment. Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... At law, an accomplice is a person who actively participates in the commission of a crime, even though they take no part in the actual criminal offence. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... A commoner, in British law, is someone who is neither the Sovereign nor a noble. ... Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared. ... Mike the Headless Chicken struts. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... The breaking wheel (also known as the Catherine wheel; originally, the whele) was a torturous capital punishment device used in the Middle Ages and early modern times for public execution by cudgeling to death. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake (execution of individuals by fire. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ...


Judicial torture and cruel methods of executions were abolished in 1788 by King Louis XVI.[2] Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ...


Parlement of Toulouse

Modeled on the Parlement of Paris, the Parlement of Toulouse was first created in 1420, but definitely established by edicts in 1437 and 1443 by Charles VII as an appellate court of justice on civil, criminal and ecclesiastic affairs for the Languedoc region, including Quercy, the County of Foix and Armagnac. It was the first parlement in the south of France, and it gained in prestige both by its distance from Paris and from the differences between southern France's legal system (based on Roman law) and northern France's. New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... // Events foundation of All Souls College, University of Oxford. ... Events Albanians, under Skanderbeg, defeat the Turks John Hunyadi defeats Turks at the Battle of Nis Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II. Births January 27 - Albert, Duke of Saxony (died 1500) February 23 - Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (died 1490) May 17 - Edmund... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (pronounced ) (Lengadòc (pronounced ) in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions... Coat of arms of the lordship of Quercy Quercy (pronounced in French;  ) (Occitan: Carcin, pronounced , locally ) is a former province of France located in the southwest of France, bounded on the north by Limousin, on the west by Périgord and Agenais, on the south by Gascony and Languedoc, and... County of Foix in 1328 (Béarn is outside of the map) The independent counts of Foix, with their castle overlooking the town of Foix, now in southernmost France, governed their county of Foix, which corresponded roughly to the eastern part of the modern département of Ariège (the... The hilly Armagnac region in the foothills of the Pyrenées, between the Adour and Garonne rivers is a historic comté of the Duchy of Gascony (Gascogne), established in 601 in the southwest of Aquitaine (now France). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ...


After the Parlement of Paris, the Parlement of Toulouse had the largest jurisdiction in France. Its purview extended from the Rhône to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Pyrénées to the Massif Central, but the creation of the Parlement of Bordeaux in 1462 removed from its jurisdiction Guyenne, Gascony, Landes, Agenais, Béarn and Périgord. The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (French: Pyrénées; Spanish: Pirineos; Occitan: Pirenèus or Pirenèas; Catalan Pirineus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... France, viewed from the NASA Shuttle Topography Radar Mission. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aquitaine (or Guyenne or Guienne) now forms a région in south-western France along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... Landes is a département in southern France. ... Agenais, or Agenois, a former province of France. ... Béarn coat of arms Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn) is a former province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. ... Périgord (   pronunciation?) is a former province of France, corresponding to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. ...


On 4 June 1444, the new parlement of Toulouse moved into a chamber of Toulouse's château narbonnais; its official opening occurred on 11 November of that year.


In 1590, during the French Wars of Religion, Henri IV created the rival parlement of Carcassonne, attended by parlementarians faithful to the king. The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... By Frans Pourbus the younger. ... Carcassonne (Carcassona in Occitan) is a fortified French town, in the Aude département of which it is the préfecture, in the former province of Languedoc. ...


The most famous trial of the parlement of Toulouse was the Calas affair. On 9 March 1762, Jean Calas was condemned to death by the parlement. Jean Calas (1698 - 1762) was a merchant living in Toulouse, France, famous for having been the victim of a biased trial due to his being a Protestant. ... Jean Calas (1698 - 1762) was a merchant living in Toulouse, France, famous for having been the victim of a biased trial due to his being a Protestant. ...


With the French Revolution, the parlement of Toulouse, as too the municipal Capitoul of Toulouse, was suppressed. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Capitole de Toulouse is the seat of the municipal administration of the French city of Toulouse. ...


Current usage

In current French language usage, parlement means parliament. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


See also

The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The Belgian Federal Parliament is a bicameral parliament. ... The Walloon Parliament, or Walloon Regional Parliament (French: Parlement wallon or Parlement régional wallon; formerly Walloon Regional Council or Conseil régional wallon), is the parliament of Wallonia, the southern region of Belgium. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ...

References and Notes

  • The section on the Parlement of Toulouse is based on a translation of the article Parlement de Toulouse from the French Wikipedia, retrieved on 19 March 2007.

Books The French Wikipedia is the French language edition of Wikipedia, spelled Wikipédia. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

  • (French) Bluche, François. L'Ancien régime: Institutions et société. Collection: Livre de poche. Paris: Fallois, 1993. ISBN 2-253-06423-8
  • (French) Jouanna, Arlette and Jacqueline Boucher, Dominique Biloghi, Guy Thiec. Histoire et dictionnaire des Guerres de religion. Collection: Bouquins. Paris: Laffont, 1998. ISBN 2-221-07425-4
  • (French) Pillorget, René and Suzanne Pillorget. France Baroque, France Classique 1589-1715. Collection: Bouquins. Paris: Laffont, 1995. ISBN 2-221-08110-2

Notes

  1. ^ Dates and list based on Pillorget, vol 2, p. 894 and Jouanna p. 1183.
  2. ^ Abstract of dissertation "'Pour savoir la verité de sa bouche': The Practice and Abolition of Judicial Torture in the Parlement of Toulouse, 1600-1788" by Lisa Silverman.

  Results from FactBites:
 
parlement. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (577 words)
At first the duties of the parlement were strictly judicial, but it gradually gained considerable political power through its function of registering all royal edicts and letters patent before they became law.
Originally there was only the Parlement of Paris, which grew out of the feudal Curia Regis [king’s court] and may be said to have had a separate existence from the reign of Louis IX (1226–70).
In 1787 and 1788 the Parlement of Paris and the provincial parlements successfully opposed the fiscal reforms proposed by Archbishop Loménie de Brienne to save France from bankruptcy; they claimed that only the three estates of the kingdom gathered in the States-General possessed the authority to pass on new taxes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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