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Encyclopedia > Paris Peace Conference, 1919
Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey.
Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey.
Emir Faisal's party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. At the center, from left to right:Rustum Haidar, Nuri as-Said, Prince Feisal, Captain Pisani (behind Feisal), T.E. Lawrence, Feisal's slave (name unknown), Captain Tahsin Qadri
Emir Faisal's party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. At the center, from left to right:Rustum Haidar, Nuri as-Said, Prince Feisal, Captain Pisani (behind Feisal), T.E. Lawrence, Feisal's slave (name unknown), Captain Tahsin Qadri
Paris Peace Conference, Greek and French proposals
Paris Peace Conference, Greek and French proposals

The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. The conference opened in the Palace of Versailles on 18 January 1919, the anniversary of the day the German Empire had been declared there in 1871, and lasted until 21 January 1920 with a few intervals. The total list of participants and representatives can be found at list of participants to Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Paris 1919 usually refers to the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 41 KB) // Summary Map with the Participants in World War I: Green: Allies Orange: Central Powers Gray: Neutral Countries The boundary of China in the previous version is wrong. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 41 KB) // Summary Map with the Participants in World War I: Green: Allies Orange: Central Powers Gray: Neutral Countries The boundary of China in the previous version is wrong. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I European military alliances in 1914. ... ImageMetadata File history File links FeisalPartyAtVersaillesCopy. ... ImageMetadata File history File links FeisalPartyAtVersaillesCopy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ... Emir Faisals party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (972 × 727 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/png) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (972 × 727 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/png) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Council_of_Four_Versailles. ... Image File history File links Council_of_Four_Versailles. ... The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, negotiated the treaties ending World War I. The Paris Peace Conference, 1946, negotiated the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, with Germanys [[World War II allies and co-belligerents in Europe. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Vittorio Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 - December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. ... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I European military alliances in 1914. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ...

Contents

Overview

The following treaties were prepared at the Paris Peace Conference (in absence of the affected countries):

Also considered was the "holy grail" of Palestine, the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement (3 January 1919). The Paris peace treaties, together with the accords of the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922, laid the foundations for the so-called Versailles-Washington system of international relations. The remaking of the world map at these conferences gave birth to a number of critical conflict-prone international contradictions, which would become one of the causes of World War II.[1] For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Washington Naval Conference was a diplomatic conference, called by the administration of President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington, D.C. from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The decision to create the League of Nations and the approval of its Charter both took place during the conference. The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The 'Big Four' — Georges Clemenceau, Prime Minister of France; David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States; and Vittorio Orlando, Prime Minister of Italy — were the dominant diplomatic figures at the conference. The conclusions of their talks were imposed on the defeated countries. Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 - December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. ... In Italy, the President of the Council of Ministers (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the countrys prime minister or head of government, and occupies the fourth-most important state office. ...


Australian approach

The Australian delegates were Billy Hughes (Prime Minister), and Joseph Cook (Minister of the Navy), accompanied by Robert Garran (Solicitor-General). John Greig Latham later Sir, was also part of the delegation. Frederic Eggleston had been invited, but left in disgust at Hughes' behaviour. Indeed, Latham was to run successfully for the Federal seat of Kooyong on a policy of 'Get Rid of Hughes', so appalled was he at Hughes' behaviour. Their principal aims were war reparations, annexation of German New Guinea and rejection of the Japanese racial equality proposal (see below). Hughes had a profound interest in what he saw as an extension of the White Australia Policy. Despite causing a big scene, Hughes had to acquiesce to a class C mandate for New Guinea. For other persons named Billy Hughes, see Billy Hughes (disambiguation). ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... For the actor Joe Cook see Joe Cook (actor). ... In addition to his professional work, Garran was also an important figure in the development of the city of Canberra during its early years. ... The Solicitor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the Second Law Officer to the Attorney-General. ... Sir John Latham KBE (26 August 1877 – 25 July 1964), Australian judge and politician, was the fifth Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia. ... Kooyong is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... German New Guinea (Ger. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ...


French approach

Someone please edit this!


Japanese approach

The Japanese delegation was headed by Saionji Kimmochi, with Baron Makino Nobuaki, Viscount Chinda Sutemi (ambassador in London), Matsui Keishiro (ambassador in Paris) and Ijuin Hikokichi (ambassador in Rome) and others making a total of 64. Neither Hara Takashi (Prime Minister) nor Yasuya Uchida (Foreign Minister) felt able to leave Japan so shortly after their election. The delegation focused on two demands: (a) the inclusion of their racial equality proposal and (b) territorial claims for the former German colonies; Shandong (including Jiaozhou Bay)and the Pacific islands north of the Equator i.e., the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, the Mariana Islands, and the Carolines. Makino was de facto chief as Saionji's role was symbolic, limited by ill-health. The Japanese were unhappy with the conference because they got only one half of the rights of Germany, and walked out of the conference. Kinmochi Saionji Saionji Kinmochi (西園寺 公望 Saionji Kinmochi October 23, 1849–November 24, 1940) was a Japanese politician and the 12th (January 7, 1906–July 14, 1908) and 14th (August 30, 1911–December 21, 1912) Prime Minister of Japan. ... Count Nobuaki Makino ) (24 November 1861 – 25 January 1949) was a Japanese statesman, active from the Meiji period through the Pacific War. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Hara Takashi Hara Takashi (原敬 February 9, 1856–November 4, 1921) was a Japanese politician and the 19th Prime Minister of Japan from September 29, 1918 to November 4, 1921. ... Yasuya Uchida ,or Kōsai Uchida (内田 康哉 Uchida Yasuya, November 17, 1865 - March 12, 1936) was a Japanese diplomat. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Jiaozhou Bay (, ) was a 552km² German colonial Concession, which existed from 1898 to 1914. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels... The Caroline Islands should not be confused with Caroline Island, part of Kiribati (Southern Line Islands), also in the central Pacific. ...


The racial equality proposal

After the end of seclusion, Japan suffered unequal treaties and dreamed of obtaining equal status with the Powers. In this context, the Japanese delegation to the Paris peace conference proposed the racial equality proposal. The first draft was presented to the League of Nations Commission on 13 February as an amendment to Article 21: Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The equality of nations being a basic principle of the League of Nations, the High Contracting Parties agree to accord as soon as possible to all alien nationals of states, members of the League, equal and just treatment in every respect making no distinction, either in law or in fact, on account of their race or nationality.

It should be noted that the Japanese delegation did not realize the full ramifications of their proposal, and the challenge its adoption would have put to the established norms of the (Western dominated) international system of the day, involving as it did the colonial subjugation of non-white peoples. In the impression of the Japanese delegation, they were only asking for League of Nations to accept the equality of Japanese nationals; however, a universalist meaning and implication of the proposal became attached to it within the delegation, which drove its contentiousness at the conference.[2] For the ethnic group, see White people. ...


The proposal received a majority vote on 28 April 1919. 11 out of the 17 delegates present voted in favor to its amendment to the charter, and no negative vote was taken. The votes for the amendment tallied thus: is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

  • Japan (2) Yea
  • France (2) Yea
  • Italy (2) Yea
  • Brazil (1) Yea
  • China (1) Yea
  • Greece (1) Yea
  • Serbia (1) Yea
  • Czechoslovakia (1) Yea

Total: 11 Yea

  • British Empire - not registered
  • United States - not registered
  • Portugal - not registered
  • Romania - not registered
  • Belgium (2) - absent[3]

The chairman, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, overturned it saying that although the proposal had been approved by a clear majority, that in this particular matter, strong opposition had manifested itself, and that on this issue a unanimous vote would be required. This strong opposition came from the British delegation. Though in a diary entry by House it says that President Wilson was at least tacitly in favor of accepting the proposal, but in the end he felt that British support for the League of Nations was a more crucial goal. There is not much evidence to show that Wilson agreed strongly enough with the proposal to risk alienating the British delegation over it. It is said that behind the scenes Billy Hughes and Joseph Cook vigorously opposed it as it undermined the White Australia Policy. Later, as conflicts between Japan and the U.S. widened, the Japanese media reported the case widely — leading to a grudge toward the U.S. in Japanese public opinion and becoming one of the main pretexts of Pearl Harbor and World War II.[citation needed] Edward Mandell House (July 26, 1858 – March 28, 1938) was an American diplomat, politician and presidential advisor from the time of World War I until well into the 1930s. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


As such, this point could be listed among the many causes of conflict which lead to World War II, which were left unaddressed at the close of World War I. It is both ironic and indicative, of the scale of the changes in the mood of the international system, that this contentious point of racial equality would later be incorporated into the United Nations Charter in 1945 as the fundamental principle of international justice. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Territorial claims

The Japanese claim to Shandong was disputed by the Chinese. In 1914 at the outset of First World War Japan had seized the territory granted to Germany in 1897. They also seized the German islands in the Pacific north of the equator. In 1917, Japan had made secret agreements with Britain, France and Italy as regards their annexation of these territories. With Britain, there was a mutual agreement, Japan also agreeing to support British annexation of the Pacific islands south of the equator. Despite a generally pro-Chinese view on behalf of the American delegation, Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles transferred German concessions in Shandong, China to Japan rather than returning sovereign authority to China. The leader of the Chinese delegation, Lu Zhengxiang, demanded that a reservation be inserted before he would sign the treaty. The reservation was denied, and the treaty was signed by all the delegations except that of China. Chinese outrage over this provision led to demonstrations known as the May Fourth Movement. The Pacific islands north of the equator became a class C mandate administered by Japan. National motto: ? Official language English? Capital Saipan Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 78 (United States) 1,779 km² Negligible Population  - Total  - Density 132,929 (1980) N/Akm² GDP  - Total  - GDP/head N/A Currency US Dollar Time zone UTC: ? Independence UN trusteeship administered by the US Internet TLD none? Calling code... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... 陸征祥 or Lou Tseng-Tsiang (in the idiosyncratic Romanization that he used himself; Wade-Giles: Lu Cheng-Hsiang; Hanyu pinyin: Lu Zhengxiang) was a Chinese diplomat and a Roman Catholic monk. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ...


Italy's approach

Italy had been persuaded first to join the Triple Alliance and then to join the Allies in order to gain land. In the Treaty of London, 1915, they had been offered the Trentino and the Tyrol as far as Brenner, Trieste and Istria, all the Dalmatian coast except Fiume, full ownership of Albanian Valona and a protectorate over Albania, Antalya in Turkey and a share of Turkish and German Empires in Africa. There have been numerous alliances known as the Triple Alliance: Aztec Triple Alliance - Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopán. ... London Pact (Italian Patto di Londra) was a secret pact between Italy and Triple Entente, signed in London on April 26, 1915 by Italy, Great Britain, France and Russia. ... Trentino-Alto Adige or Trentino-South Tyrol (in German: Trentino-Südtirol, in Italian: Trentino-Alto Adige) is an autonomous region in northern Italy. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... Country Italy Region Trentino-Alto Adige Province Bolzano (BZ) Mayor Elevation m Area 114. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Rijeka (Fiume in Italian and Hungarian; Rijeka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on the Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ... Vlorë(Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora, (locally) Vlonë or Vlona, Italian: , Greek: , Turkish: ) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ... This article is mostly about the Antalya City; for the province, see Antalya Province. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Vittorio Orlando was sent as the Italian representative with the aim of gaining these and as much other territory as possible. The loss of 700,000 Italians and a budget deficit of 12,000,000,000 Lire during the war made the Italian government and people feel entitled to these territories. There was an especially strong opinion for control of Fiume, which they believed was rightly Italian due to the Italian population. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (May 19, 1860 - December 1, 1952) was an Italian diplomat and political figure. ...


Nevertheless, by the end of the war the allies had made contradictory agreements with other nations, especially in Central Europe and the Middle-East. In the meetings of the "Big Four" (in which his powers of diplomacy were inhibited by his lack of English) the Great powers were only willing to offer Trentino to the Brenner, the Dalmatian port of Zara, the Island of Lagosta and a couple of small German colonies. All other territories were promised to other nations and the great powers were worried about Italy's imperial ambitions. As a result of this Orlando left the conference in a rage. [Jackson, (1938)]


United Kingdom's approach

The British Air Section at the Conference

Maintenance of the British Empire's unity, holdings and interests were an overarching concern for the United Kingdom's delegates to the conference, but it entered the conference with the more specific goals of: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1444 × 1081 pixel, file size: 571 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photograph of the British Air Section at the Paris Peace Conference in Frebuary 1919. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1444 × 1081 pixel, file size: 571 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Photograph of the British Air Section at the Paris Peace Conference in Frebuary 1919. ...

  • Ensuring the security of France
  • Settling territorial contentions
  • Supporting the Wilsonian League of Nations

with that order of priority.


The Racial Equality Proposal put forth by the Japanese did not directly conflict with any of these core British interests. However, as the conference progressed the full implications of the Racial Equality Proposal, regarding immigration to the British Dominions (specifically Australia), would become a major point of contention within the delegation.


Ultimately, Britain did not see the Racial Equality proposal as being one of the fundamental aims of the conference. The delegation was therefore willing to sacrifice this proposal in order to placate the Australian delegation and thus help satisfy its overarching aim of preserving the unity of the British Empire. [Shimazu (1998), p. 14-15,117]


Britain also managed to rebuff attempts by the envoys of the Irish Republic to put its case to the Conference for self-determination, diplomatic recognition and membership of the proposed League of Nations. Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ...


United States' approach

Prior to Wilson's arrival in Europe, no American President had ever visited Europe while in office [MacMillan (2001) p.3]. Since Wilson had established the conditions for the armistices that had brought an end to World War I, Wilson felt it was his duty and obligation to the people of the world to be a prominent figure at the peace negotiations. In doing so, Wilson ultimately began to lead the foreign policy of the United States down the path of interventionalism, which it continues to this very day. Wilson's Fourteen Points had helped win the hearts and minds of Germans as the war ended, and high hopes and expectations were placed on him to deliver what he had promised. Once arrived, however, he found himself working diligently to try and sway the direction the French (Georges Clemenceau) and British (Lloyd George) delegations were taking towards Germany and its allies. Unlike France and Germany, who still aspired to be dominant colonial powers, the United States hoped to establish a more liberal and diplomatic world where democracy and sovereignty would be respected. However, Wilson's attempts to ensure that his Fourteen Points would lead to change ultimately failed, after France and Britain refused to adopt its core principles of liberty and self-determination, in part because of the control they wielded over their colonies around the world. The leaders of Europe were more interested in retaining glory for their empires, refusing to acknowledge that they were, in fact, in decline. France and Britain tried to appease the American President by consenting to the establishment of his League of Nations. However, because some of the articles in the League's charter conflicted with the United States Constitution, the United States never did ratify the Treaty of Versailles nor join the League of Nations [MacMillan (2001) p.83], an institution it had helped to create, to further peace through diplomacy rather than war. The United States sued for peace with Germany and its allies in 1920, because it believed the Treaty of Versailles was unfair and unjust. The United States did not encourage nor believe that the War Guilt Clause placed on Germany was fair or warranted [MacMillan (2001) p.6]. In fact, the United States was entirely against subjecting Germany to this clause because it did not believe it to be a good, liberal way of conducting diplomacy. Germany, under the Weimar Republic looked to the United States as a friend for guidance rather than the rocky and tumultuous relationship it would have with Great Britain and France. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


Because of the problems the United States Congress caused Wilson, his bargaining power was severely damaged and his position weakened. Although the United States had come out of the war relatively unscathed, its economy and infrastructure fully intact, the old colonial powers of Europe (mainly France and England), refused to take it or its liberal minded President seriously. The United States had proved itself to be a major world player and a dominant military and economic power, but it had still failed to win the peace at Paris.


It would not be until 1921, when the United States finally signed peace treaties with Germany, Austria and Hungary. The treaties reserved for the United States all reservations it might have had if it had joined the League of Nations, but accepted none of the obligations. By this time, Warren G, Harding was President of the United States, and these separate treaties broke the deadlock on the League of Nations. These separate treaties kept the United States out of the League.


World Zionist Organization's Statement

The World Zionist Organization issued a statement requesting a fulfillment of the Balfour Declaration, a national home for the Jewish people. The name Balfour Declaration is applied to two key British government policy statements associated with Conservative statesman and former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. ...


See also

German New Guinea (Ger. ... The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Minority Treaties[1] refer to the treaties regarding the protection of ethnic minorities signed during of shortly after the Treaty of Versailles and Paris Peace Conference between various minor states and the newly created League of Nations (primarily in the period between 1919 and 1921). ... Karl Max, Fürst von Lichnowsky, 6th Prince and 8th Count Lichnowsky. ...

Notes

  1. ^ First World War - Willmott, H.P., Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 292-307
  2. ^ Shimazu (1998), p. 115.
  3. ^ Shimazu (1998), p. 30-31.

References

  • Hampden Jackson (1938), The Post-War Wold: A Short Political History, Fourth edition, The Camelot Press Ltd,
  • Margaret MacMillan (2001), Peacemakers: Six months that changed the world, John Murray (Publishers) Ltd.. ISBN 0-7195-6237-6
  • Naoko Shimazu (1998), Japan, Race and Equality, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-17207-1
  • Emile Joseph Dillon, The Inside Story of the Peace Conference, Harper, New York, 1920

Margaret Olwen MacMillan OC (born 1943 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a historian and professor at the University of Toronto and is also Provost of Trinity College. ...

External links

World War I Portal
  • Charles T. Evans NVCC|Info
  • Excerpt and reviews of Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed The World by Margaret MacMillan ISBN 0-375-76052-0 (softcover), ISBN 0-375-50826-0 (hardcover)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Paris: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1721 words)
Though Paris was indeed born before nightfall, he was spared by Priam; Hecuba, too, was unable to kill the child, despite the urging of the priestess of Apollo, one Herophile.
Paris' noble birth was betrayed by his outstanding beauty and intelligence; while still a child he routed a gang of cattle-thieves and restored the animals they had stolen to the herd, thereby earning the surname Alexander ("protector of men")[1].
Paris gave the crown to Ares without hesitation; it was this apparent honesty in judgment that prompted the gods of Olympus to have Paris arbitrate the divine contest between Hera, Aphrodite and Athena (though it may be noted that Paris did not maintain the same level of disinterest here).
Paris Peace Conference, 1919 - definition of Paris Peace Conference, 1919 - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (296 words)
The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies.
Germany and its former allies were allowed to attend the conference only after the details of all the peace treaties had been elaborated and agreed upon.
The Paris peace treaties, together with the accords of the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922, laid the foundations for the so-called Versailles-Washington system of international relations.
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