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Encyclopedia > Paris Commune
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Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: "Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of a nephew!…")
This article refers to the government of Paris in 1871, for the one during the French Revolution see Paris Commune (French Revolution).

The term "Paris Commune" (French: La Commune de Paris) was the socialist government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally from 26 March) to 28 May 1871. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links PereDuchesneIllustre1_1_0_-_Vendome_column. ... Image File history File links PereDuchesneIllustre1_1_0_-_Vendome_column. ... Père Duchesne Le Père Duchesne (Old Man Duchesne or Father Duchesne) was an extreme radical newspaper during the French Revolution edited by Jacques Hébert, who brought out 385 issues, from September 1790 until eleven days before his death by guillotine, which took place on the 4th of... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Communards pose with the statue from the toppled Vendôme column, 1871 Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Floating not submerging) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


In a formal sense the Paris Commune of 1871 was simply the local authority (council of a town or district — French "commune") which exercised power in Paris for two months in the spring of 1871. But the conditions in which it was formed, its controversial decrees and tortured end make it one of the more important political episodes of the time.

Contents

Background

Destruction of the Vendôme Column during the Paris Commune (This and other pictures were later used to identify and execute Communards)
Destruction of the Vendôme Column during the Paris Commune (This and other pictures were later used to identify and execute Communards)

The Commune was the result of an uprising within Paris after the Franco-Prussian War ended with French defeat. This uprising had two root causes: on the one hand the disaster in the war, on the other the growing discontentment among French workers[1], which can be traced back to the 1830s, when the first worker uprisings took place in Lyon and Paris.[2] Description Destruction of the Vendôme Colonne during the Paris Commune Source http://www. ... Description Destruction of the Vendôme Colonne during the Paris Commune Source http://www. ... Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine. ... The Communards were also an 80s Britpop group Communard is an archaic term that is a synonym of communist. With respect to the history of France, the Communards were the supporters/members of the short-lived Paris Commune formed in the disturbed period immediately after the Franco-Prussian War. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics...


The war with Prussia, started by Napoleon III ("Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte") in July 1870, turned out disastrously for the French and by September Paris itself was under siege. The gap between rich and poor in the capital had widened in recent years and now food shortages, military failures, and finally a Prussian bombardment were adding to an already widespread discontent. Parisians, especially workers and the lower-middle classes, had long been supporters of a democratic republic. A specific demand was that Paris should be self-governing, with its own elected council, something enjoyed by smaller French towns, but denied to Paris by a government wary of the capital's unruly populace. An associated but more vague wish was for a fairer, if not necessarily socialist, way of managing the economy, summed up in the popular cry for "la république démocratique et sociale!" Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ...


In January, 1871, when the siege had lasted for four months, the moderate republican Government of National Defence sought an armistice with the newly-proclaimed German Empire. The Germans included a triumphal entry into Paris in the peace terms. Despite the hardships of the siege, many Parisians were bitterly resentful and were particularly angry that the Prussians (now at the head of the new Empire) should be allowed even a brief ceremonial occupation of their city. Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871...

A contemporary sketch of women and children helping take two National Guard cannons to Montmartre
A contemporary sketch of women and children helping take two National Guard cannons to Montmartre

By that time hundreds of thousands of Parisians were armed members of a citizens' militia known as the "National Guard", which had been greatly expanded to help defend the city. Guard units elected their own officers, who in working-class districts included radical and socialist leaders. Guards cannon dragged to Montmartre: contemporary sketch This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Guards cannon dragged to Montmartre: contemporary sketch This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... During the early years of the French Revolution, the National Guard (fr:Garde Nationale) was a military force separate from the regular army. ...


Steps were being taken to form a "Central Committee" of the Guard, including patriotic republicans and socialists, both to defend Paris against a possible German attack, and also to defend the republic against a possible royalist restoration, following the election of a monarchist majority in February 1871 to the new National Assembly.


The population of Paris was defiant in the face of defeat, and was prepared to fight if the entry of the German army into the city led to an armed clash. Before the Germans entered Paris, National Guards, helped by ordinary working people, managed to take large numbers of cannon (which they regarded as their own property, as they had been partly paid for by public subscription) away from the Germans' path and store them in "safe" districts. One of the chief "cannon parks" was on the heights of Montmartre. Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ...


Adolphe Thiers, head of the new provisional government, realised that in the present unstable situation the Central Committee formed an alternative centre of political and military power. In addition, he was concerned that the workers would arm themselves with the National Guard weapons and provoke the Germans. A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ...


The rise and nature of the commune

A barricade, March 18th, 1871.
A barricade, March 18th, 1871.

The Germans entered Paris briefly and left again without incident. But Paris continued to be in a state of high political excitement. The imperial and provisional governments had both left Paris for Versailles, a safer haven against the German armies, and during the time required to return there was a power vacuum in the capital of France. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


As the Central Committee of the National Guard was adopting an increasingly radical stance and steadily gaining in authority, the government felt that it could not indefinitely allow it to have four hundred cannons at its disposal. And so, as a first step, on 18 March Thiers ordered regular troops to seize the cannon stored on the Butte Montmartre and in other locations across the city. Instead of following instructions, however, the soldiers, whose morale was in any case not high, fraternised with National Guards and local residents. The general at Montmartre, Claude Martin Lecomte, who was later said to have ordered them to fire on the crowd of National Guards and civilians, was dragged from his horse and later shot, together with General Thomas, a veteran republican now hated as former commander of the National Guard, who was seized nearby. March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ...

Generals Lecomte and Thomas being shot in Montmartre after their troops join the rebellion: a photographic reconstruction, not an actual photograph
Generals Lecomte and Thomas being shot in Montmartre after their troops join the rebellion: a photographic reconstruction, not an actual photograph

Other army units joined in the rebellion which spread so rapidly that the head of the government, Thiers, ordered an immediate evacuation of Paris by as many of the regular forces as would obey, by the police, and by administrators and specialists of every kind. He himself fled, ahead of them, to Versailles. Thiers claimed he had thought about this strategy ("retreat from Paris to crush the people afterward") for a long time, while meditating on the example of the 1848 Revolution, but it is just as likely that he panicked. There is no evidence that the government had expected or planned for the crisis that had now begun. The Central Committee of the National Guard was now the only effective government in Paris: it arranged elections for a Commune, to be held on 26 March. Image File history File links Fusillade. ... Image File history File links Fusillade. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... Panthéon, Paris|Panthéon]] behind), Paris, June 1848. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (86th in leap years). ...


The 92 members of the Commune (or, more correctly, of the "Communal Council") included a high proportion of skilled workers and several professionals (such as doctors and journalists). Many of them were political activists, ranging from reformist republicans, through various types of socialists, to the Jacobins who tended to look back nostalgically to the Revolution of 1789. In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794), but even at that time, the term Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions: for example, Jacobin democracy is synonymous with totalitarian democracy. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...

Louis Auguste Blanqui
Louis Auguste Blanqui

One man, the veteran leader of the 'Blanquist' group of revolutionary socialists, Louis Auguste Blanqui, was elected President of the Council, but this was in his absence, for he had been arrested on 17 March and was held in a secret prison throughout the life of the Commune. The Commune unsuccessfully tried to exchange him first against Mgr Darboy, archbishop of Paris, then against all 74 hostages it detained, but that was flatly refused by Adolphe Thiers (see below). The Paris Commune was proclaimed on 28 March, although local districts often retained the organizations from the siege. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (470x640, 45 KB) Photo of french communist w:Louis Auguste Blanqui ; 19th centrury photo from [1] [2] File links The following pages link to this file: Louis Auguste Blanqui ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (470x640, 45 KB) Photo of french communist w:Louis Auguste Blanqui ; 19th centrury photo from [1] [2] File links The following pages link to this file: Louis Auguste Blanqui ... Louis Auguste Blanqui Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 - January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Georges Darboy (January 16, 1813 - May 27, 1871), archbishop of Paris, was born at Fayl-Billot in Haute-Marne. ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (88th in leap years). ...


Social measures

The commune adopted the previously discarded French Republican Calendar during its brief existence and used the socialist red flag rather than the republican tricolore — in 1848, during the Second Republic, radicals and socialists had already adopted the red flag to distinguish themselves from moderate Republicans similar to the moderate, liberal Girondists during the 1789 Revolution. Image File history File links Circle-contradict. ... A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Historically, and most generally, the red flag is an international symbol for the blood of angry workers. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 The national flag of France (Vexillological symbol: , known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Despite internal differences, the Council made a good start in maintaining the public services essential for a city of two million; it was also able to reach a consensus on certain policies whose content tended towards a progressive, secular and highly democratic social democracy rather than a social revolution. Lack of time (the Commune was able to meet on fewer than 60 days in all) meant that only a few decrees were actually implemented. These included: Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...

  • the separation of church and state
  • the right of vote for women
  • the remission of rents owed for the entire period of the siege (during which payment had been suspended)
  • the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries
  • the granting of pensions to the unmarried companions of National Guards killed on active service, as well as to the children if any
  • the free return, by the city pawnshops, of all workmen's tools and household items up to 20 francs in value, pledged during the siege as they were concerned that skilled workers had been forced to pawn their tools during the war
  • the postponement of commercial debt obligations, and abolition of interest on the debts
  • and, the right of employees to take over and run an enterprise if it were deserted by its owner, who was to receive compensation.
The Commune returns workmen's tools pawned during the siege
The Commune returns workmen's tools pawned during the siege

The decree separated the church from the state, made all church property public property, and excluded religion from schools — after the fall of the Commune, the Third Republic would have to wait until the 1880-81 Jules Ferry laws and the 1905 French law on the separation of Church and State to implement again these measures which founded French laïcité. The churches were allowed to continue their religious activity only if they kept their doors open to public political meetings during the evenings. Along with the streets and the cafés, this made the churches one of the main participatory political centres of the Commune — a reappropriation which the Situationist movement would not forget in its architectural propositions. Other projected legislation dealt with educational reforms which would make further education and technical training freely available to all. Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The movement for womens suffrage is a social, economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage—the right to vote—to women. ... It has been suggested that Work permit be merged into this article or section. ... Bakery foods A baker is someone who bakes and sells bread, cakes and similar foods. ... A pension is a steady income given to a person (usually after retirement). ... Modern pawnbroker storefront A Pawnbroker is a person who offers loans to individuals who use their personal property as collateral. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... Worker Self-Management is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Communepawnshop. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Communepawnshop. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... The Jules Ferry laws are a set of French laws which established first free education (1881) then mandatory and laic education (1882). ... The first page of the bill, as brought before the Chambre des Députés in 1905 1905 caricature depicting the separation of the church and state. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... Coffeehouse in Damascus A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ... Situationist, Situationism refers to a cultural praxis developed by the Situationist International (SI), a very small group of international, political and artistic agitators with roots in Marxism and the early twentieth century European artistic avant garde. ...


Some women organized a feminist movement, following on from earlier attempts in 1789 and 1848. Thus, Nathanie Le Mel, a socialist bookbinder, and Elisabeth Dmitrieff, a young Russian exile and associate of Karl Marx, created the Union des femmes pour la défense de Paris et les soins aux blessés ("Women's Union for the Defense of Paris and Care of the Injured") on 11 April 1871. Believing that their struggle against patriarchy could only be followed in the frame of a global struggle against capitalism, the association demanded gender-equality, wages' equality, right of divorce for women, right to laïque instruction (non-clerical) and for professional education for girls. They also demanded suppression of the distinction between married women and concubines, between legitimate and natural children, the abolition of prostitution — they obtained the closing of the maisons de tolérance (legal official brothels). The Women's Union also participated in several municipal commissions and organized cooperative workshops.[3] Famous figures such as Louise Michel, the "Red Virgin of Montmartre" who joined the National Guard and would later be sent to New Caledonia, symbolize the active participation of a small number of women in the insurrectionary events. A female battalion from the National Guard defended the Place Blanche during the repression. However, they didn't acquire or even ask for the right to vote[citation needed], and there were no female members of the Council. Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the liberation of women. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Definitions of capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... Gender often refers to the distinctions between males and females in common usage. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... A swampy marsh area ... Whore redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Louise Michel (1830-1905) was a French anarchist, school teacher and medical worker. ... Place Blanche in Paris, France is one of the small plazas along the boulevard de Clichy, which runs between the 9th and 18th arrondissements (Parisian districts) and leads into Montmartre. ...


The work-load of the leaders of the Commune was enormous. The Council members (who were not "representatives" but delegates, subject in theory to immediate recall by their electors) were expected to carry out many executive and military functions as well as their legislative ones. The numerous ad hoc organisations set up during the siege in the localities ("quartiers") to meet social needs (canteens, first aid stations) continued to thrive and cooperated with the Commune.


At the same time, these local assemblies pursued their own goals, usually under the direction of local workers. Despite the formal reformism of the Commune council, the composition of the Commune as a whole was much more revolutionist. Revolutionary trends present included Proudhonists - an early form of moderate anarchists - members of the International socialists, Blanquists, and more libertarian republicans. The Paris Commune has been celebrated by Anarchist and Marxist socialists continuously until the present day, partly due to the variety of tendencies, the high degree of workers' control and the remarkable cooperation among different revolutionists. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (pronounced Pruood-on, not prowd-hon) (January 15, 1809 - January 19, 1865) was a French anarchist of the 19th century. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (cf. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Louis Auguste Blanqui (February 8, 1805 _ January 1, 1881) was a French political activist. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (cf. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ...

Paris, 29 May 1871
Paris, 29 May 1871

In the IIIe arrondissement, for instance, school materials were provided free, three schools were "laicised" and an orphanage was established. In the XXe arrondissement, school children were provided with free clothing and food. There were many similar examples. But a vital ingredient in the Commune's relative success at this stage was the initiative shown by ordinary workers in the public domain, who managed to take on the responsibilities of the administrators and specialists removed by Thiers. After only a week, the Commune came under attack by elements of the new army (which eventually included former prisoners of war released by the Germans) being created at a furious pace in Versailles. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1172x970, 506 KB) Paris Commune. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1172x970, 506 KB) Paris Commune. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: France geography stubs | Arrondissements of Paris ... The 20th arrondissement (XXe arrondissement), located on the Right Bank, is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ...


The assault

The Commune forces, the National Guard, first began skirmishing with the regular Versailles Army on 2 April. Neither side really sought a major civil war, but neither was either side ever willing to negotiate. The Marquis de Galliffet, the fusilleur de la Commune who later took part as Minister of War in Waldeck-Rousseau's government at the turn of the century (alongside independent socialist Millerand), was one of the generals leading the counterassault headed by Thiers. April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Photo of the marquis de Galliffet by Nadar. ... The Minister of Defence (Ministre de la Défense) is the French government cabinet member charged with running the military of France. ... Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau (December 2, 1846 - August 20, 1904) was a French statesman. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... Alexandre Millerand, French statesman Alexandre Millerand (February 10, 1859 - April 7, 1943 at Versailles, France) was a French socialist and politician. ...


The nearby suburb of Courbevoie was occupied by the government forces on 2 April, and a delayed attempt by the Commune's own forces to march on Versailles on 3 April failed ignominiously. Defence and survival became overriding considerations, and a determined effort was made by the Commune leadership to turn the National Guard into an effective defence force. Bridge of Courbevoie, Georges Seurat, 1886-1887. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ...

Strong support came also from the large foreign community of political refugees and exiles in Paris: one of them, the Polish ex-officer and nationalist Jarosław Dąbrowski, was to be the Commune's best general. The Council was fully committed to internationalism, and it was in the name of brotherhood that the Vendôme Column, celebrating the victories of Napoleon I, and considered by the Commune to be a monument to Bonapartism and chauvinism, was pulled down. Image File history File links PereDuchesneIllustre4_1_0_-_Adolphe_Tiers_l'escargot. ... Image File history File links PereDuchesneIllustre4_1_0_-_Adolphe_Tiers_l'escargot. ... A caricature of Adolphe Thiers charging on the Paris Commune, published in Le Père Duchêne illustré Louis Adolphe Thiers (April 16, 1797–September 3, 1877) was a French statesman and historian. ... The Communards were also an 80s Britpop group Communard is an archaic term that is a synonym of communist. With respect to the history of France, the Communards were the supporters/members of the short-lived Paris Commune formed in the disturbed period immediately after the Franco-Prussian War. ... Père Duchesne Le Père Duchesne (Old Man Duchesne or Father Duchesne) was an extreme radical newspaper during the French Revolution edited by Jacques Hébert, who brought out 385 issues, from September 1790 until eleven days before his death by guillotine, which took place on the 4th of... JarosÅ‚aw DÄ…browski JarosÅ‚aw DÄ…browski (1836 - 1871) was a Polish general. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ...


Abroad, there were rallies and messages of goodwill sent by trade union and socialist organisations, including some in Germany. But any hopes of getting serious help from other French cities were soon dashed. Thiers and his ministers in Versailles managed to prevent almost all information from leaking out of Paris; and in provincial and rural France there had always been a skeptical attitude towards the activities of the metropolis. Movements in Narbonne, Limoges, and Marseille were rapidly crushed. A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... Narbonne (Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, commonly Narbo especially when referring to the Ancient Rome era) is a town and commune of southwestern France in the Languedoc-Roussillon région. ... Location within France Limoges (Limòtges in Occitan) is a city and commune in France, the préfecture of the Haute-Vienne département, and the administrative capital of the Limousin région. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of Marseille Provence...


As the situation deteriorated further, a section of the Council won a vote (opposed by bookbinder Eugène Varlin, a correspondent of Karl Marx, and by other moderates) for the creation of a "Committee of Public Safety", modelled on the Jacobin organ with the same title, formed in 1792. Its powers were extensive and ruthless in theory, but in practice it was ineffective. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793 - 1794) of the French Revolution. ...


Throughout April and May, government forces, constantly increasing in number - Prussia releasing French POWs to help the Thiers government -, carried out a siege of the city's powerful defences, and pushed the National Guards back. On 21 May a gate in the western part of the fortified city wall of Paris was forced and Versaillese troops began the reconquest of the city, first occupying the prosperous western districts where they were welcomed by those residents who had not left Paris after the armistice. It seems an engineer (who had spied regularly for the Thiers government) found the gate unmanned and signaled this to the Versaillais. May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ...


The strong local loyalties which had been a positive feature of the Commune now became something of a disadvantage: instead of an overall planned defence, each "quartier" fought desperately for its survival, and each was overcome in turn. The webs of narrow streets which made entire districts nearly impregnable in earlier Parisian revolutions had been largely replaced by wide boulevards during Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The Versaillese enjoyed a centralised command and had superior numbers. They had learned the tactics of street fighting, and simply tunnelled through the walls of houses to outflank the Communards' barricades. Ironically, only where Haussmann had made wide spaces and streets were they held up by the defenders' gunfire. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Boulevard Haussmann The Haussmann Renovations, or Haussmannization of Paris was a work led under the initiative of Napoléon III and the Seine préfet, Haussmann, from 1852 to 1870. ...

Map of the April-May assault on the Paris Commune
Map of the April-May assault on the Paris Commune

During the assault, the government troops were responsible for slaughtering National Guard troops and civilians: prisoners taken in possession of weapons, or who were suspected of having fought, were shot out of hand and summary executions were commonplace. Description Map of the Paris Commune Source marxists. ... Description Map of the Paris Commune Source marxists. ...


The Commune had taken a "decree on hostages" on April 5, 1871, according to which any accomplice with Versailles would be made the "hostage of the Parisian people," its article 5 stating furthermore that the execution by Versailles of any war prisoner or partisan of the regular government of the Paris Commune would be followed on the spot by the execution of the triple number of retained hostages. This decree, however, was not applied. The Commune tried several times to exchange Mgr Darboy, archbishop of Paris, against Auguste Blanqui, but that was flatly refused by Adolphe Thiers, whose personal secretary, Barthélemy Saint-Hilaire, declared: "The hostages! The hostages! too bad for them (tant pis pour eux!)". The Commune unsuccessfully made other negotiation attempts, proposing the exchange of all 74 hostages it detained against Blanqui. Finally, during the Bloody Week and the insuing executions carried out by Versaillese troups, Théophile Ferré signed the execution order for 6 hostages (including Mgr Darboy), who passed before a firing-squad on May 24 in the prison de la Roquette. This led Auguste Vermorel to ironically (and perhaps naively, since Thiers had refused any negotiation) to declare: "What a great job! Now we've lost our only chance to stop the blood shed." Théophile Ferré was himself executed in retaliation by Thiers' troops [4] [5]. A hostage is an entity which is held by a captor in order to compel another party to act or refrain from acting in a particular way. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Georges Darboy (January 16, 1813 - May 27, 1871), archbishop of Paris, was born at Fayl-Billot in Haute-Marne. ... Ferré,Théophile Charles Gilles (Paris, 1846 - Satory, 1871) was one of the first members of the Paris Commune -together with Louis Rossel and Bourgeois- to be executed (November 22, 1871) at Satory, the military base south-west of Versailles. ... August Jean-Marie Vermorel (June 21, 1841 _ June 20, 1871), French journalist, was born at Denice, France. ...


The Catholic Encyclopedia states that on 2426 May, more than 50 hostages were murdered. In some cases, certain leaders of the Commune gave the orders, in other cases they were killed by mobs. [1] Amongst the victims was the Archbishop of Paris, Georges Darboy. The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... (Redirected from 24 May) May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... Georges Darboy (January 16, 1813 - May 27, 1871), archbishop of Paris, was born at Fayl-Billot in Haute-Marne. ...


La Semaine sanglante

The toughest resistance came in the more working-class districts of the east, where fighting continued during the later stages of the week of vicious street fighting (La Semaine sanglante, the bloody week). By 27 May only a few pockets of resistance remained, notably the poorer eastern districts of Belleville and Ménilmontant. Fighting ended during the late afternoon or early evening of 28 May. According to legend, the last barricade was in the rue Ramponeau in Belleville. May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Belleville is a neighborhood of Paris, located in the 20th arrondissement. ... This article needs cleanup. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ...


Marshall MacMahon issued a proclamation: "To the inhabitants of Paris. The French army has come to save you. Paris is freed! At 4 o'clock our soldiers took the last insurgent position. Today the fight is over. Order, work and security will be reborn." Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta President of France, 1873-1879 Marie Edmé Patrice Maurice MacMahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (July 13, 1808 - October 16, 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ...

Commune prisoners being marched to Versailles: from a contemporary illustrated magazine
Commune prisoners being marched to Versailles: from a contemporary illustrated magazine

Reprisals now began in earnest. Having supported the Commune in any way was a political crime, of which thousands could be, and were, accused. Some of the Communards were shot against what is now known as the Communards' Wall in the Père Lachaise cemetery while thousands of others were tried by summary courts martial of doubtful legality, and thousands shot. Notorious sites of slaughter were the Luxembourg Gardens and the Lobau Barracks, behind the Hôtel de Ville. Nearly 40,000 others were marched to Versailles for trials. For many days endless columns of men, women and children made a painful way under military escort to temporary prison quarters in Versailles. Later 12,500 were tried, and about 10,000 were found guilty: 23 men were executed; many were condemned to prison; 4,000 were deported for life to New Caledonia. The number of killed during La Semaine Sanglante can never be established for certain, and estimates vary from about 10,000 to 50,000. According to Benedict Anderson, "7,500 were jailed or deported" and "roughly 20,000 executed" [6]. Commune prisoners being marched to Versailles This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Commune prisoners being marched to Versailles This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Communards Wall at the Père Lachaise cemetery The Communards’ Wall (F.: Mur des Fédérés) at the Père Lachaise cemetery is where, on May 28, 1871, one-hundred forty-seven fédérés, combatants of the Paris Commune, were shot and thrown in an... Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced pierre la-sh-ez) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... Benedict Richard OGorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) is professor emeritus of International Studies at Cornell University. ...

Communards killed in 1871.
Communards killed in 1871.

According to Alfred Cobban, 30,000 were killed, perhaps as many as 50,000 later executed or imprisoned and 7,000 were exiled to New Caledonia.[7] Thousands more - including most of the Commune leaders - succeeded in escaping to Belgium, Britain (a safe haven for 3-4,000 refugees), Italy, Spain and the United States. The final exiles and transportees were amnestied in 1880. Some became prominent in later politics, as Paris councillors, deputies or senators. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (942x738, 173 KB) Taken from A World History of Photography ISBN 0789203294 Communards in their Coffins, photograph taken by an unknown photographer in May 1871. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (942x738, 173 KB) Taken from A World History of Photography ISBN 0789203294 Communards in their Coffins, photograph taken by an unknown photographer in May 1871. ... Alfred Cobban, along with prominent French historian Francois Fouret held a minimalist view of the French Revolution. ...


In 1872, "stringent laws were passed that ruled out all possibilities of organizing on the left."[6] For the imprisoned there was a general amnesty in 1880, except for those convicted of assassination or arson. Paris remained under martial law for five years.


The commune in retrospect

A plaque honours the dead of the Commune in Père Lachaise cemetery.
A plaque honours the dead of the Commune in Père Lachaise cemetery.

Historians on the right generally share the view prevalent among the better-off citizens of Paris at the time, that the Commune was a classic example of mob rule, terrifying and often inexplicable.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 838 KB) Photograph by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Paris Commune ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 838 KB) Photograph by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Paris Commune ... Looking down the hill at the Père-Lachaise cemetery The cimetière du Père-Lachaise (pronounced pierre la-sh-ez) is the largest cemetery in the city of Paris (there are larger cemeteries in Paris suburbs). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a disorganized mass of people. ...


On the left, there have been many who criticise the Commune for showing a too great moderation, especially given the grave situation it was in. Karl Marx found it aggravating that the Communards "lost precious moments" organising democratic elections rather than instantly finishing off Versailles once and for all. France's national bank, located in Paris and storing billions of francs, was left untouched and unguarded by the Communards. Timidly they asked to borrow money from the bank (which of course they got without any hesitation). The Communards chose not to seize the bank's assets because they were afraid that the world would condemn them if they did. Thus large amounts of money were moved from Paris to Versailles, money that financed the army that crushed the Commune. “Leftism” redirects here. ...


Communists, left-wing socialists, anarchists and others have seen the Commune as a model for, or a prefiguration of, a liberated society, with a political system based on participatory democracy from the grass roots up. Marx and Engels, Bakunin, and later Lenin and Trotsky tried to draw major theoretical lessons (in particular as regards the "dictatorship of the proletariat" and the "withering away of the state") from the limited experience of the Commune. A more pragmatic lesson was drawn by the diarist Edmond de Goncourt, who wrote, three days after La Semaine sanglante, "…the bleeding has been done thoroughly, and a bleeding like that, by killing the rebellious part of a population, postpones the next revolution… The old society has twenty years of peace before it…" Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин), (May 30, 1814–June 13, 1876) was a well-known Russian anarchist contemporaneous to Karl Marx. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051... Edmond de Goncourt (May 26, 1822 – July 16, 1896), writer, critic, book publisher and the founder of the Académie Goncourt. ...


Karl Marx, in his important pamphlet The Civil War in France (1871), written during the Commune, touted the Commune's achievements, and described it as the prototype for a revolutionary government of the future, 'the form at last discovered' for the emancipation of the proletariat. Friedrich Engels echoed this idea, later maintaining that the absence of a standing army, the self-policing of the "quartiers", and other features meant that the Commune was no longer a "state" in the old, repressive sense of the term: it was a transitional form, moving towards the abolition of the state as such - he used the famous (or notorious) term later taken up by Lenin and the Bolsheviks: the Commune was, he said, the first 'dictatorship of the proletariat', meaning it was a state run by workers and in the interests of workers. Marx and Engels were not, however, entirely uncritical of the Commune. The split between the Marxists and Bakuninists at the 1872 Hague Congress of the First International (IWA) may in part be traced to Marx's stance that the Commune might have saved itself had it dealt more harshly with reactionaries, instituted conscription, etc. The other point of disagreement was the anti-authoritarian socialists' oppositions to the Communist conception of conquest of power and of a temporary transitional state (the anarchists were in favor of general strike and immediate dismantlement of the state through the constitution of decentralized workers' councils). Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... The Hague Congress of the International Workers Association (September 1872) marked the end of this organization as a unitarian alliance of all socialist factions (Anarchists and Marxists). ... The International Workingmens Association, sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations which were based on the working class. ... Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as concentration of power in a leader or an elite not constitutionally responsible to the people or the doctrine that advocates such absolutism in rule, as in autocracy, despotism, dictatorship, and totalitarianism. ...


The Paris Commune has been the subject of awe for many communist leaders. Mao would refer to it often. Lenin, along with Marx, judged the Commune a living example of the "dictatorship of the proletariat", though Lenin criticised the Communards for having 'stopped half way … led astray by dreams of … justice'; he thought their 'excessive magnanimity' had prevented them from 'destroying' the class enemy by 'ruthless extermination'.[8] At his funeral, his body was wrapped in the remains of a red and white flag preserved from the Commune[citation needed]. The Soviet spaceflight Voskhod 1 carried part of a communard banner from the Paris Commune. Also, the Bolsheviks renamed the dreadnought battleship Sevastopol to Parizhskaya Kommuna in honour of the Commune. “Mao” redirects here. ... Voskhod 1 (Russian: ) was the first spaceflight to carry more than one person into space and the first flight without space suits. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa. ...


Other Communes

Simultaneously with the Paris Commune, uprisings in Lyon, Grenoble and other cities established equally short-lived Communes. City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. ...


Around the world there have been, and continue to be, moments where state power is replaced with popular democratic control. Instances include:


The Kennedy Road Commune, in a shack settlement in South Africa


See also

Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... Georges Clemenceau (September 28, 1841 – November 24, 1929) was a French doctor, journalist and statesman. ... Gustave Paul Cluseret (1823-1900), French soldier and politician, was born at Paris. ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (June 10, 1819 – December 31, 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... Louis Charles Delescluze (October 2, 1809 - May, 1871) was a French journalist. ... Jules Claude Gabriel Favre (March 21, 1809 - January 20, 1880) was a French statesman. ... Ferré,Théophile Charles Gilles (Paris, 1846 - Satory, 1871) was one of the first members of the Paris Commune -together with Louis Rossel and Bourgeois- to be executed (November 22, 1871) at Satory, the military base south-west of Versailles. ... Gustave Flourens (August 4, 1838 – April 3, 1871) was a French Revolutionary leader and writer. ... Leó Frankel (Léo Fränkel) (February 25, 1844, Újlak, Óbuda – March 29, 1896, Paris) was a Communist revolutionary of Hungary. ... Self-portrait André Gill (October 17, 1840—May 1, 1885) was a French caricaturist. ... Jean François Paschal Grousset (1844 - 1909) was a French politician and journalist. ... Paul Lafargue Paul Lafargue (1842-1911) was a French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, political writer and activist; he was Karl Marxs son-in-law, having married his second daughter Laura. ... Not to be confused with Claude Monet, another painter of the same era. ... Defensive towers at San Gimignano, Tuscany, bear witness to the factional strife within communes. ... The Castilian War of the Communities is also known as the Revolt of the Comuneros, and in Spanish as la Guerra de los Comunidades de Castilla. ... Louise Michel (1830-1905) was a French anarchist, school teacher and medical worker. ... Nadar was the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (1820-1910), a photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist and balloonist. ... According to popular rumours at the time, the pétroleuses were female supporters of the Paris Commune, accused of burning down much of Paris during the last days of the Commune in May 1871. ... Eugène Edine Pottier (1816 - 1887) was a French Communist, songwriter and transport worker. ... Élisée Reclus (1878) Élisée Reclus (March 15, 1830 - July 4, 1905) was a French geographer and anarchist. ... Louis-Nathaniel Rossel was Minister of War (Delegate of War) in Paris Commune (1871). ... Jules Vallès (June 10, 1832- February 14, 1885) was a French journalist and author. ... Paul Verlaine illustrated in the frontispiece of , 1902 Paul Marie Verlaine (March 30, 1844 – January 8, 1896) is considered one of the greatest and most popular of French poets. ... August Jean-Marie Vermorel (June 21, 1841 _ June 20, 1871), French journalist, was born at Denice, France. ... Joseph Vinoy (1803 - 1880) was a French soldier. ...

Fictional treatments

  • As well as innumerable novels (mainly in French) set in the Commune, at least three plays have been written and performed: Nederlaget, by the Norwegian Nordahl Grieg; Die Tage der Commune by Bertolt Brecht; and Le Printemps 71 by Arthur Adamov.
  • There have been numerous films set in the Commune: particularly notable is La Commune (Paris, 1871), which runs for 5¾ hours and was directed by Peter Watkins. It was made in Montmartre in 2000, and as with most of Watkins' other films it uses ordinary people instead of actors in order to create a documentary effect.
  • The Italian composer, Luigi Nono, also wrote an opera "Al gran sole carico d'amore" ("In the Bright Sunshine, Heavy with Love") that is based on the Paris Commune.
  • The discovery of a body from the Paris Commune buried in the Opera, led Gaston Leroux to write the tale of The Phantom of the Opera.
  • The title character of Isak Dinesen's "Babette's Feast" was a Communard and political refugee, forced to flee France after her husband and sons were killed.
  • Terry Pratchett's Night Watch features a storyline based on the Paris Commune, in which a huge part of a city is slowly put behind barricades, at which point a brief civil war ensues.

Johan Nordahl Brun Grieg (1902-1943) was a Norwegian poet, novelist, dramatist, and journalist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arthur Adamov (1908 - 1970) was a playwright, one of the foremost exponents of the Theatre of the Absurd. ... La Commune (Paris, 1871) (2000) is a film by Peter Watkins about the Paris Commune. ... Peter Watkins (born October 29, 1935) is an English film and (once) television director. ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 - 8 May 1990) was an Italian composer of contemporary music. ... Gaston Leroux. ... This article is about the Gaston Leroux novel. ... Blixen in Kenya, 1918 Isak Dinesen (April 17, 1885-September 7, 1962) was a pen name for the Danish author Karen Blixen. ... Babettes Feast (Danish: Babettes gæstebud) is an Academy Award winning 1987 Danish movie. ... Terence David John Pratchett OBE (born April 28, 1948, in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England[1]) is an English fantasy author, best known for his Discworld series. ... Night Watch is the 29th novel in Terry Pratchetts Discworld series, published in 2002. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Haupt/Hausen 1979, pg. 74-75
  2. ^ Edwards 1971, pg. 1
  3. ^ Women and the Commune, in L'Humanité, 19 March 2005 (French)
  4. ^ Les otages de la Commune de Paris, L'Histoire par l'image, URL accessed on January 12, 2007 (French)
  5. ^ Extract from Maxime Vuillaume, Mes cahiers rouges au temps de la Commune, (1909) (French)
  6. ^ a b In Benedict Anderson. "In the World-Shadow of Bismarck and Nobel", New Left Review, July-August 2004.:

    "In March 1871 the Commune took power in the abandoned city and held it for two months. Then Versailles seized the moment to attack and, in one horrifying week, executed roughly 20,000 Communards or suspected sympathizers, a number higher than those killed in the recent war or during Robespierre’s ‘Terror’ of 1793–94. More than 7,500 were jailed or deported to places like New Caledonia. Thousands of others fled to Belgium, England, Italy, Spain and the United States. In 1872, stringent laws were passed that ruled out all possibilities of organizing on the left. Not till 1880 was there a general amnesty for exiled and imprisoned Communards. Meantime, the Third Republic found itself strong enough to renew and reinforce Louis Napoleon’s imperialist expansion—in Indochina, Africa, and Oceania. Many of France’s leading intellectuals and artists had participated in the Commune (Courbet was its quasi-minister of culture, Rimbaud and Pissarro were active propagandists) or were sympathetic to it. The ferocious repression of 1871 and after was probably the key factor in alienating these milieux from the Third Republic and stirring their sympathy for its victims at home and abroad." LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was the only French newspaper owned by a political party. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Benedict Richard OGorman Anderson (born August 26, 1936) is professor emeritus of International Studies at Cornell University. ... In 1960 in the UK, the editors of the New Reasoner and the Universities and Left Review merged their boards and formed the New Left Review. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ... The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794) or simply The Terror (French: la Terreur) was a period of about eleven months during the French Revolution when struggles between rival factions lead to mutual radicalization which took on a violent character with mass executions by guillotine. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... The garden at Pontoise, painted 1877. ...

  7. ^ Estimates come from Cobban, Alfred. A History of Modern France. Vol 3: 1871–1962. Penguin books, London: 1965. Pg. 23.
  8. ^ V.I. Lenin, "Lessons of the Commune", Marxists Internet Archive. Originally published: Zagranichnaya Gazeta, No. 2 March 23, 1908. Translated by Bernard Isaacs. Accessed 7 August 2006.

    But two mistakes destroyed the fruits of the splendid victory. The proletariat stopped half-way: instead of setting about “expropriating the expropriators”, it allowed itself to be led astray by dreams of establishing a higher justice in the country united by a common national task; such institutions as the banks, for example, were not taken over, and Proudhonist theories about a “just exchange”, etc., still prevailed among the socialists. The second mistake was excessive magnanimity on the part of the proletariat: instead of destroying its enemies it sought to exert moral influence on them; it underestimated the significance of direct military operations in civil war, and instead of launching a resolute offensive against Versailles that would have crowned its victory in Paris, it tarried and gave the Versailles government time to gather the dark forces and prepare for the blood-soaked week of May. Alfred Cobban, along with prominent French historian Francois Fouret held a minimalist view of the French Revolution. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ...

    …Mindful of the lessons of the Commune, it [the Russian proletariat] knew that the proletariat should not ignore peaceful methods of struggle—they serve its ordinary, day-to-day interests, they are necessary in periods of preparation for revolution—but it must never forget that in certain conditions the class struggle assumes the form of armed conflict and civil war; there are times when the interests of the proletariat call for ruthless extermination of its enemies in open armed clashes.

References

  • (German)Haupt, Gerhard; Hausen, Karin: Die Pariser Kommune: Erfolg und Scheitern einer Revolution. Frankfurt 1979. Campus Verlag. ISBN 3-593-32607-8.
  • Edwards, Stewart [1971]. The Paris Commune 1871. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. ISBN 0413281108. 
  • The two most important primary sources are:
    • The verbatim record of the sessions of the Commune (Procès-verbaux de la Commune. 2 vols., Paris, 1944-1945) — long out of print, though secondhand copies are to be found
    • The history of the Commune by Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray, a Communard journalist with socialist convictions who was present at or close to most of the events he describes, is vivid and partisan, but observant and factually reliable: (Histoire de la Commune de 1871. Most recent edition, 3 vols in 1, Paris, Maspero, 1969), which is available in English translation online).
  • Another online classic is Marx's own contemporary analysis, The Civil War in France, written during and immediately after the events. For Lenin's views, see V.I. Lenin on the Paris Commune (Moscow, 1970)
  • For anarchist analysis of the events, two important documents from the time are Mikhail Bakunin's The Paris Commune and the Idea of the State and Peter Kropotkin's The Commune of Paris
  • Also online is Agor@'s book-length site about the Commune (in French)
  • Returning to primary sources, there is an extremely hostile account in 4 volumes called Les Convulsions de Paris (Paris, 1878) by the journalist Maxime du Camp who takes a hard and rhetorical right-wing position. This is a fair guide to the contemporary views of the Versaillais. His book can be found in major libraries or through Galaxidion the main French online source for secondhand and antiquarian books.
  • The leading modern historian of the Commune is Jacques Rougerie, whose books Procès des Communards and Paris ville libre are unfortunately unpublished in English.
  • Two concise up-to-date histories in English, readily available , are:
    • Robert Tombs. The Paris Commune 1871 London, Longman, 1999
    • David A. Shafer. The Paris Commune London, Palgrave, 2005

Older works include: Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin — on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814–June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. // In the spring of 1814, Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was born... Peter Kropotkin Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin (In Russian Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society... Maxime Du Camp (February 8, 1822 - February 9, 1894) was a French writer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Left-Right politics. ...

  • Alistair Horne. The Fall of Paris. The Siege and the Commune 1870-71. London, Macmillan, 1965. (A much shorter but lavishly illustrated version was published in 1971 under the title, The Terrible Year). A very lively 'Anglo-Saxon' view.
  • Frank Jellinek. The Paris Commune of 1871. London, Gollancz, 1937. Also, N.Y., Grosset & Dunlap, 1965. Written from a socialist point of view.
  • The Revolutionary Idea in France 1789-1871 by Godfrey Elton (London, Edwin Arnold, 1923), available in many university libraries, is one of the few books which places the Commune in a longer-term historical perspective. It is conservative in tone.
  • Lenin, who deemed the Paris Commune an excellent example of the "Dictatorship of the Proletariat", also wrote about the Paris Commune in The Paris Commune (to be found in Lenin on the Paris Commune). It is less informative, however, than it is ideological.
  • The fullest bibliography of the Commune is that of Robert le Quillec: La Commune de Paris. Bibliographie Critique 1871-1997. Paris, La Boutique de l'Histoire, 1997. 2660 books, pamphlets and other materials are listed.
  • Barbara de Courson, Martyrs of the Paris Commune in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1908).

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989) was a journalist, and a prominent socialist theorist and writer. ... Northwestern University is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian research university, located in Evanston and Chicago, Illinois. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Paris Commune (4300 words)
The Commune was installed on the 28th of March and on the 2nd of April Thiers troops began to attack.
The commune heavily fortified as it was and with a substantial military force at its disposal was able to hold our against Thiers and the army for two months however on the 21st of May the government troops entered Paris.
Paris in flames was and still often is the most common picture presented of the Commune, the list of buildings destroyed is enormous, some buildings, understandably, like the Prefecture of Police and the Palace of Justice being fired by the Commune, some by the Versailles shells.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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