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Encyclopedia > Paris

Coordinates: 48°52′0″N, 2°19′59″E // Paris is the capital of France. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Ville de Paris
Flag of Paris
City flag City coat of arms

Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur
(Latin: "Tossed by the waves, she does not sink")
Nickname: La Ville lumière ("The City of Light"[1]) Image File history File links Flag_of_Paris. ... Image File history File links Paris_coa. ... Fluctuat nec mergitur is a Latin phrase meaning she is rocked by the waves but does not sink. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ...

The Eiffel Tower (foreground) and the skyscrapers of La Défense business district (background) dominate the Paris skyline.
Location
Map highlighting the commune of Paris
Time Zone CET (UTC +1)
Coordinates 48°52′0″N, 2°19′59″E
Administration
Country France
Region Île-de-France
Department Paris (75)
Subdivisions 20 arrondissements
Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS)
(2008-2014)
City Statistics
Land area¹ 86.9[2] km²
Population²
(Jan. 2006 estimate)
2,167,994
 - Ranking 1st in France
 - Density 24,948/km² (2006[2])
Urban Spread
Urban Area 2 723 km² (1999)
 - Population 9,644,507 (1999)
Metro Area 14,518.3 km² (1999)
 - Population 12,067,000 (2007)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
2 Population sans doubles comptes: residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel) only counted once.
France

Paris (pronounced /ˈpærɨs/ in English;[3] [paʁi] in French) is the capital city of France. It is situated on the Seine river, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region (also known as the "Paris Region"; French: Région parisienne). The city of Paris within its administrative limits (largely unchanged since 1860) has an estimated population of 2,167,994 (January 2006)[4]. The Paris unité urbaine (or urban area) extends well beyond the administrative city limits and has an estimated population of 9.93 million (in 2005).[5] The Paris aire urbaine (or metropolitan area) has a population of nearly 12 million[6], and is one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe.[7] The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... Image File history File links Paris_plan_pointer_b_jms. ... Image File history File links France_jms. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the French administrative region. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The city of Paris is divided into 20 arrondissements municipaux (“municipal boroughs,” approximately, in English), more simply referred to as arrondissements (pronounced ). These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Bertrand Delanoë at a Socialist rally in May 2007 Bertrand Delanoë (born May 30, 1950) ( ) is a French politician, and has been the mayor of Paris since 2001. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is the largest left-wing political party in France. ... This is a list of communes in France with a population over 20,000 at the 1999 census. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... In France an unité urbaine (literally: urban unit) is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office, for the measurement of contiguously built-up areas. ... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... This page lists English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations, such as and . ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Paris1. ... This article is about the river in France. ... This article is about the French administrative region. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In France an unité urbaine (literally: urban unit) is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office, for the measurement of contiguously built-up areas. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... The aire urbaine (or metropolitan area) of Paris is a statistical area defined by INSEE which is made up of the unité urbaine (or urban area) of Paris, an area of contiguously built-up urbanization centered around central Paris, and a couronne périurbaine (or commuter belt) that surrounds the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas of Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


An important settlement for more than two millennia, Paris is today one of the world's leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities.[8] The Paris Region (Île-de-France) is Europe's biggest city economy, and is fifth in the World's list of cities by GDP. With €500.8 billion (US$628.9 billion), it produced more than a quarter of the gross domestic product (GDP) of France in 2006.[9] The Paris Region hosts 36 of the Fortune Global 500 companies[10] in several business districts, notably La Défense, the largest purpose-built business district in Europe.[11] Paris also hosts many international organizations such as UNESCO, the OECD, the ICC and the informal Paris Club. In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... For other uses, see Fashion (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... “World city” redirects here. ... This article is about the French administrative region. ... Here is a list of urban areas by GDP as to 2005, measuring the economic power of a given urban area (the wealth of a given city being measured by the GDP per capita). ... GDP redirects here. ... The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... The Paris Club is an informal group of financial officials from 19 of the worlds richest countries, which provides financial services such as debt restructuring, debt relief, and debt cancellation to indebted countries and their creditors. ...


Paris is the most popular tourist destination in the world, with over 30 million foreign visitors per year.[12] There are numerous iconic landmarks among its many attractions, along with world famous institutions and popular parks.

Etymology

The name Paris pronounced [ˈpaɹɪs] in English and [paʁi] in French, derives from that of its pre-Roman-era inhabitants, the Gaulish tribe known as the Parisii. The city was called Lutetia (/lutetja/) (more fully, Lutetia Parisiorum, "Lutetia of the Parisii"), during the first- to sixth-century Roman occupation, but, during the reign of Julian the Apostate (361–363), the city was renamed as Paris.[13] Paris is pronounced (RP) or in English, and in French. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Image File history File links Paris1. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Gold coins of the Parisii, 1st century BC, (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris) Coin of the Parisii: obverse with horse, 1st century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris) This article is about Celtic-Gallic people called the Parisii. ... Lutetia (sometimes Lutetia Parisiorum or Lucotecia, in French Lutèce) was a town in pre-Roman and Roman Gaul. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ...


Paris has many nicknames, but its most famous is "The City of Light" (La Ville-lumière), a name it owes both to its fame as a centre of education and ideas and its early adoption of street lighting. Paris since the early 20th century has also been known in Parisian slang as Paname ([panam]; Moi j'suis d'Paname , i.e. "I'm from Paname"). A high pressure sodium vapor street lamp from Australia. ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Fr-moi-jsuis-dPaname. ...


Paris' inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians" ([pʰəˈɹɪzɪənz] or [pʰəˈɹiːʒn̩z]) and in French as Parisiens ([paʁizjɛ̃] ). Parisians are often pejoratively called Parigots ([paʁigo] ) by those living outside the Paris region, but the term may be considered endearing by Parisians themselves. Image File history File links Parisien2. ... Image File history File links Parigot. ...

See Wiktionary for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French.

History

Main article: History of Paris

The History of Paris spans over 2,500 years, during which time the city grew from a small Celtic settlement to the multicultural capital of a modern European state and one of the worlds major global cities. ...

Beginnings

Roman bath beneath Paris

The earliest archaeological signs of permanent habitation in the Paris area date from around 4200 BC.[14] The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, known as boatsmen and traders[citation needed], inhabited the area near the river Seine from around 250 BC[citation needed]. The Romans conquered the Paris basin in 52 BC,[14] with a permanent settlement by the end of the same century on the Left Bank Sainte Geneviève Hill and the Île de la Cité island. The Gallo-Roman town was originally called Lutetia, but later Gallicised to Lutèce. It expanded greatly over the following centuries, becoming a prosperous city with a forum, palaces, baths, temples, theatres and an amphitheatre.[15] The collapse of the Roman empire and the third-century Germanic invasions sent the city into a period of decline. By 400 AD Lutèce, by then largely abandoned by its inhabitants, was little more than a garrison town entrenched into the hastily fortified central island.[14] The city reclaimed its original appellation of "Paris" towards the end of the Roman occupation. BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... Gold coins of the Parisii, 1st century BC, (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris) Coin of the Parisii: obverse with horse, 1st century BC (Cabinet des Médailles, Paris) This article is about Celtic-Gallic people called the Parisii. ... This article is about the European people. ... The Senones were a Celtic people of Gallia Celtica, who in the time of Julius Caesar inhabited the district which now includes the departments of Seine-et-Marne, Loiret and Yonne. ... This article is about the river in France. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For the musical group, see Left Banke. ... The Montagne Sainte-Geneviève is a hill on the left Bank of the Seine in Paris. ... Notre Dame de Paris on ÃŽle de la Cité from upstream (the east) The ÃŽle de la Cité, one of two islands in the Seine (the other being ÃŽle Saint-Louis), in the centre of Paris and the location where the medieval city was refounded. ... This article covers the culture of Romanized areas of Gaul. ... Lutetia (sometimes Lutetia Parisiorum or Lucotecia, in French Lutèce) was a town in pre-Roman and Roman Gaul. ...


Middle ages

The Louvre castle from the 15th century Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
The Louvre castle from the 15th century Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry

Around AD 500, Paris was the seat of Frankish king Clovis I, who commissioned the first cathedral and its first abbey dedicated to his contemporary, later patron saint of the city, Sainte Geneviève[citation needed]. On the death of Clovis, the Frankish kingdom was divided, and Paris became the capital of a much smaller sovereign state[citation needed]. By the time of the Carolingian dynasty (9th century), Paris was little more than a feudal county stronghold[citation needed]. The Counts of Paris gradually rose to prominence and eventually wielded greater power than the Kings of Francia occidentalis. Odo, Count of Paris was elected king in place of the incumbent Charles the Fat, namely for the fame he gained in his defense of Paris during the Viking siege (Siege of Paris (885-886)). Although the Cité island had survived the Viking attacks, most of the unprotected Left Bank city was destroyed; rather than rebuild there, after drying marshlands to the north of the island, Paris began to expand onto the Right Bank[citation needed]. In 987 AD, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, was elected King of France, founding the Capetian dynasty which would raise Paris to become France's capital[citation needed]. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1140x1900, 407 KB) Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, Octobre the Musée Condé, Chantilly. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1140x1900, 407 KB) Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, Octobre the Musée Condé, Chantilly. ... This article is about the museum. ... An illuminated page from the Très Riches Heures showing the day for exchanging gifts from the month of January The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (or simply the Très Riches Heures) is probably the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century, le roi des... AD redirects here. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Saint-Étienne-du-Mont church in Paris, located nearby Panthéon. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... In Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism, Saint Geneviève (Nanterre near Paris, ca 419/422 - Paris 512) is the patron of Paris. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Western Francia was the land under the control of Charles the Bald after the Treaty of Verdun of 843, which divided the Carolingian Empire of the Franks into an East, West, and Middle. ... Odo (or Eudes) (c. ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Combatants Franks Danes Commanders Odo, Count of Paris Sigfred and Rollo Strength 200 men-at-arms 30,000 The Siege of Paris of 885 to 886 was a Viking siege of Paris, then capital of the kingdom of the West Franks. ... Notre Dame de Paris on ÃŽle de la Cité from upstream (the east) The ÃŽle de la Cité, one of two islands in the Seine (the other being ÃŽle Saint-Louis), in the centre of Paris and the location where the medieval city was refounded. ... For the musical group, see Left Banke. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with House of Capet. ...


From 1190, King Philip Augustus enclosed Paris on both banks with a wall that had the Louvre as its western fortress and in 1200 chartered the University of Paris which brought visitors from across Europe[citation needed]. It was during this period that the city developed a spatial distribution of activities that can still be seen: the central island housed government and ecclesiastical institutions, the left bank became a scholastic centre with the University and colleges, while the right bank developed as the centre of commerce and trade around the central Les Halles marketplace[citation needed]. Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... This article is about the museum. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... The outside of the Forum des Halles today Les Halles is an area of Paris, France, located in the 1er arrondissement. ...


Paris lost its position as seat of the French realm while occupied by the English-allied Burgundians during the Hundred Years' War, but regained its title when Charles VII reclaimed the city in 1437. Although Paris was capital once again, the Crown preferred to remain in its Loire Valley castles[citation needed]. During the French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic party, culminating in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (1572). King Henry IV re-established the royal court in Paris in 1594 after he converted to Roman Catholicism (with this historic sentence: Paris is well worth a Mass). During the Fronde, Parisians rose in rebellion and the royal family fled the city (1648). King Louis XIV then moved the royal court permanently to Versailles in 1682. A century later, Paris was the centre stage for the French Revolution, with the Storming of the Bastille in 1789 and the overthrow of the monarchy in 1792[citation needed]. Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... For the wine region, see Loire Valley (wine). ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... Painting by François Dubois (born about 1529, Amiens, Picardy) The St. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... For other uses, see Fronde (disambiguation). ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Belligerents French government Parisian militia (predecessor of Frances National Guard) Commanders Bernard-René de Launay â€  Prince de Lambesc Camille Desmoulins Strength 114 soldiers, 30 artillery pieces 600 - 1,000 insurgents Casualties and losses 1 (6 or possibly 8 killed after surrender. ... On August 10, 1792, during the French Revolution, a mob – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the insurrectionary Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries palace. ...


Nineteenth century

Gare du Nord, a symbol of the Industrial Revolution. - Train stations have often been called the cathedrals of the 19th century.
Gare du Nord, a symbol of the Industrial Revolution. - Train stations have often been called the cathedrals of the 19th century.

The Industrial Revolution, the French Second Empire, and the Belle Époque brought Paris the greatest development in its history. From the 1840s, rail transport allowed an unprecedented flow of migrants into Paris attracted by employment in the new industries in the suburbs. The city underwent a massive renovation under Napoleon III and his préfet Haussmann, who levelled entire districts of narrow, winding medieval streets to create the network of wide avenues and neo-classical façades of modern Paris. This programme of "Haussmannization" was designed to make the city both more beautiful and more sanitary for its inhabitants, although it did have the added benefit that in case of future revolts or revolutions, cavalry charges and rifle fire could be used to deal with the insurrection while the rebel tactic of barricading so often used during the Revolution would become obsolete.[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Main entrance to the Gare du Nord The Gare du Nord (English: North Station) is one of the six large terminus stations of the SNCFs main line network in Paris. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. ... The Belle Époque (French for Beautiful Era) was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until World War I. Occurring during the time of the French Third Republic and the German Empire, the Belle Époque was considered a golden age as peace prevailed... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... In France and many other French-speaking countries, a préfet (English: prefect) is the States representative in a département or région (in the later case, he is called a préfet de région). ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... Boulevard Haussmann The Haussmann Renovations, or Haussmannization of Paris was a work led under the initiative of Napoléon III and the Seine préfet, Haussmann, from 1852 to 1870. ...


Cholera epidemics in 1832 and 1849 affected the population of Paris—the 1832 epidemic alone claimed 20,000 of the then population of 650,000.[17] Paris also suffered greatly from the siege which ended the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871): in the chaos caused by the fall of Napoleon III's government, the Commune of Paris (1871) sent many of Paris's administrative centres (and city archives) up in flames while 20,000 Parisians were killed by fighting between Commune and Government forces in what became known as the semaine sanglante (Bloody Week)[18]. Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Destruction of the Vendôme Column during the Paris Commune The term Paris Commune originally referred to the government of Paris during the French Revolution. ...


Paris recovered rapidly from these events to host the famous Universal Expositions of the late nineteenth century.[19] The Eiffel Tower was built for the French Revolution centennial 1889 Universal Exposition, as a "temporary" display of architectural engineering prowess but remained the world's tallest building until 1930, and is the city's best-known landmark, while the 1900 Universal Exposition saw the opening of the first Paris Métro line. Paris's World's Fairs also consolidated its position in the tourist industry and as an attractive setting for international technology and trade shows.[19] For a listing of World Fairs, see List of worlds fairs. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France from May 5, to October 31, 1889. ... The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a worlds fair held in Paris, France, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. ... Métro redirects here. ...


Twentieth century

The skyscraper business district of La Défense.

During World War I, Paris was at the forefront of the war effort, having been spared a German invasion by the French and British victory at the First Battle of the Marne in 1914. In 1918-1919, it was the scene of Allied victory parades and peace negotiations. In the inter-war period Paris was famed for its cultural and artistic communities and its nightlife. The city became a gathering place of artists from around the world, from exiled Russian composer Stravinsky and Spanish painters Picasso and Dalí to American writer Hemingway.[20] In June 1940, five weeks after the start of the Battle of France, Paris fell to German occupation forces who remained there until the city was liberated in August 1944, two months after the Normandy invasion.[21] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 399 KB) La Tour CBX à La Défense surplombe le boulevard circulaire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 399 KB) La Tour CBX à La Défense surplombe le boulevard circulaire. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Interbellum redirects here. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... Belligerents Free French Forces Germany Commanders Philippe Leclerc Raymond Dronne Henri Rol-Tanguy Jacques Chaban-Delmas Dietrich von Choltitz # Strength 2nd Armoured Division, French resistance 5,000 Inside Paris, 15,000 At outskirts Casualties and losses 1,500 dead French resistance 71 dead, 225 wounded Free French Forces[1] 3...


Central Paris endured World War II practically unscathed, as there were no strategic targets for Allied bombers (train stations in central Paris are terminal stations; major factories were located in the suburbs), and also because of its cultural significance. German General von Choltitz did not destroy all Parisian monuments before any German retreat, as ordered by Adolf Hitler, who had visited the city in 1940.[22] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Terminal Station was also the name of a railway station in Chattanooga, Tennessee; see Chattanooga Choo Choo. ... General der Infanterie Dietrich von Choltitz (November 9, 1894, Schloss Wiese, Silesia - November 4, 1966, Baden-Baden) was the German military governor of Paris during the closing days of the German occupation of that city during World War II. In World War I, von Choltitz served at the Western frontier... Hitler redirects here. ...


In the post-war era, Paris experienced its largest development since the end of the Belle Époque in 1914. The suburbs began to expand considerably, with the construction of large social estates known as cités and the beginning of the business district La Défense. A comprehensive express subway network, the RER, was built to complement the Métro and serve the distant suburbs, while a network of freeways was developed in the suburbs, centred on the Périphérique expressway circling around the city[citation needed]. The Belle Époque (French for Beautiful Era) was a period in European history that began during the late 19th century and lasted until World War I. Occurring during the time of the French Third Republic and the German Empire, the Belle Époque was considered a golden age as peace prevailed... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... For other uses, see RER (disambiguation). ... Périphérique is the French term for a ring road (U.S.: Beltway), a motorway or freeway encircling or orbiting a large city. ...


Since the 1970s, many inner suburbs of Paris (especially the north and eastern ones) have experienced deindustrialization, and the once-thriving cités have gradually become ghettos for immigrants and oases of unemployment[citation needed]. At the same time, the city of Paris (within its Périphérique ring) and the western and southern suburbs have successfully shifted their economic base from traditional manufacturing to high value-added services and high-tech manufacturing, generating great wealth for their residents whose per capita income is among the highest in Europe[citation needed]. The resulting widening social gap between these two areas has led to periodic unrest since the mid-1980s, such as the 2005 riots which largely concentrated in the northeastern suburbs.[23] Deindustrialization is the process by which the manufacturing-based economy of a country or region declines. ... French riots and French civil unrest redirect here. ...


Twenty-first century

In order to address social tensions in the inner suburbs and revitalise the metropolitan economy of Paris, several plans are currently under way. The office of Secretary of State for the Development of the Capital Region was created in March 2008 within the French government. Its office holder, Christian Blanc, is in charge of overseeing President Nicolas Sarkozy's plans for the creation of an integrated Grand Paris ("Greater Paris") metropolitan authority (see Administration section below), as well as the extension of the subway network to cope with the renewed growth of population in Paris and its surbubs, and various economic development projects to boost the metropolitan economy such as the creation of a world-class technology and scientific cluster and university campus on the Saclay plateau in the southern suburbs. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Christian Blanc Christian Blanc (b. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... Saclay is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ...


In parallel, President Sarkozy also launched in 2008 an international urban and architectural competition for the future development of metropolitan Paris. Ten teams gathering architects, urban planners, geographers, landscape architects will offer their vision for building a Paris metropolis of the 21st century in the post-Kyoto era and make a prospective diagnosis for Paris and its suburbs that will define future developments in Greater Paris for the next 40 years. The goal is not only to build an environmentally sustainable metropolis but also to integrate the inner suburbs with the central City of Paris through large scale urban planning operations and iconic architectural projects. The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ...


Meanwhile, in an effort to boost the image of metropolitan Paris in the global competition, several supertall skyscrapers (300 m / 1,000 ft and higher) have been approved since 2006 in the business district of La Défense, to the west of the city proper, and are scheduled to be completed by the early 2010s. The City of Paris authorities also made public they are planning to authorize the construction of skyscrapers within the city proper by relaxing the cap on building height for the first time since the construction of the Tour Montparnasse in the early 1970s. La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... Tour Maine-Montparnasse (Maine-Montparnasse Tower), also commonly named Tour Montparnasse is a 210-metre (689-foot) tall office skyscraper located in Paris, France, in the area of Montparnasse. ...


Geography

Main article: Topography of Paris
View of Paris from the Eiffel Tower
View of Paris from the Eiffel Tower
View of the Grand Palais
View of the Grand Palais

Paris is located in the north-bending arc of the river Seine and includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest elevation is 35 metres (114 ft) above sea level. Paris has several prominent hills, of which the highest is Montmartre at 130 m (426 ft).[citation needed] The topography, or physical lay of the land, of Paris, the capital of France, is generally fairly flat but contains a number of hills. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 201 KB) Photo by Ben Godfrey source File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paris Portal:Paris Portal:Paris/introduction Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 201 KB) Photo by Ben Godfrey source File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paris Portal:Paris Portal:Paris/introduction Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Vue depuis la Tour Eiffel, le Grand Palais, Paris, (France). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 713 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Vue depuis la Tour Eiffel, le Grand Palais, Paris, (France). ... Grand Palais in 2004 The Grand Palais (Grand Palace) is a large glass exhibition hall that was built for the Paris Exhibition of 1900. ... This article is about the river in France. ... The south end of the ÃŽle Saint-Louis, seen from the Pont de la Tournelle . The ÃŽle Saint-Louis is one of two islands (the other being ÃŽle de la Cité) in the Seine river, in Paris, France. ... Notre Dame de Paris on ÃŽle de la Cité from upstream (the east) The ÃŽle de la Cité, one of two islands in the Seine (the other being ÃŽle Saint-Louis), in the centre of Paris and the location where the medieval city was refounded. ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ...


Paris, excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, covers an oval measuring 86.928 square kilometres (33.56 square miles) in area.[citation needed] The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form, but created the twenty clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of 78 km² (30.1 sq mi), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km² (34 sq mi) in the 1920s. In 1929 the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to the present 105.397 km² (40.69 sq mi).[citation needed] The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... The lake Hippodrome de Vincennes The Bois de Vincennes is a park in the English landscape manner to the east of Paris. ... The city of Paris is divided into 20 arrondissements municipaux (“municipal boroughs,” approximately, in English), more simply referred to as arrondissements (pronounced ). These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... The lake Hippodrome de Vincennes The Bois de Vincennes is a park in the English landscape manner to the east of Paris. ...


Paris' real demographic size, or unité urbaine, extends well beyond the city limits, forming an irregular oval with arms of urban growth extending along the Seine and Marne rivers from the city's southeast and east, and along the Seine and Oise rivers to the city's northwest and north.[citation needed] Beyond the main suburbs, population density drops sharply; a mix of forest and agriculture dotted with a network of relatively evenly dispersed éparpillement of satellite towns, this couronne périurbaine commuter belt, when combined with the Paris agglomeration, completes the Paris aire urbaine (or Paris urban area, a sort of metropolitan area) that covers an oval 14,518 km² (5,605.5 sq mi) in area, or about 138 times that of Paris itself.[citation needed] In France an unité urbaine (literally: urban unit) is a statistical area defined by INSEE, the French national statistics office, for the measurement of contiguously built-up areas. ... Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the Marne River which flows through the department. ... Oise is a département in the north of France named after the Oise River. ... A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or hubs. ... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... The Paris urban area (today covering an area similar to the ÃŽle-de-France région) is a statistical area encompassing the administrative city (commune) of Paris, the Paris urban unit (unité urbaine, an area of built-up demographic growth) and a commuter belt (couronne périurbaine) surrounding these; these... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Climate

Paris has an oceanic climate and is affected by the North Atlantic Current, so the city has a temperate climate that rarely sees extremely high or low temperatures. The average yearly high temperature is about 15 °C (59 °F), and yearly lows tend to remain around an average of 7 °C (45 °F). The highest temperature ever, recorded on 28 July 1948, was 40.4 °C (104.7 °F), and the lowest was a −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) temperature reached on 10 December 1879.[24] The Paris region has recently seen temperatures reaching both extremes, with the heat wave of 2003 and the cold wave of 2006. World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ... Schematic of the worlds ocean currents. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The 2003 European heat wave was one of the hottest summers on record in Europe. ... During the 2006 European cold wave many people died, especially among the homeless. ...


Rainfall can occur at any time of the year, and Paris is known for its sudden showers. The city sees an average yearly precipitation of 641.6 mm (25.2 inches).[24] Snowfall is a rare occurrence, usually appearing in the coldest months of January or February (but has been recorded as late as April), and almost never accumulates enough to make a covering that will last more than a day.[citation needed]

Weather averages for Paris
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.9 (44) 8.2 (47) 11.8 (53) 14.7 (58) 19.0 (66) 21.8 (71) 24.4 (76) 24.6 (76) 20.8 (69) 15.8 (60) 10.4 (51) 7.8 (46) 15.5 (60)
Average low °C (°F) 2.5 (37) 2.8 (37) 5.1 (41) 6.8 (44) 10.5 (51) 13.3 (56) 15.5 (60) 15.4 (60) 12.5 (55) 9.2 (49) 5.3 (42) 3.6 (38) 8.5 (47)
Precipitation mm (inches) 53.7 (2.1) 43.7 (1.7) 48.5 (1.9) 53.0 (2.1) 65.0 (2.6) 54.6 (2.1) 63.1 (2.5) 43.0 (1.7) 54.7 (2.2) 59.7 (2.4) 51.9 (2) 58.7 (2.3) 649.6 (25.6)
Source: World Weather Information Service [25] 2008-04-14

Cityscape

Panoramic view over Paris, at dusk, from the top of the Tour Montparnasse.
Panoramic view over Paris, at dusk, from the top of the Tour Montparnasse.

Tour Maine-Montparnasse (Maine-Montparnasse Tower), also commonly named Tour Montparnasse is a 210-metre (689-foot) tall office skyscraper located in Paris, France, in the area of Montparnasse. ...

Architecture

"Modern" Paris is the result of a vast mid-19th century urban remodelling[citation needed]. For centuries the city had been a labyrinth of narrow streets and half-timber houses, but beginning in 1852, the Baron Haussmann's vast urbanisation levelled entire quarters to make way for wide avenues lined with neo-classical stone buildings of bourgeoise standing; most of this 'new' Paris is the Paris we see today. These Second Empire plans are in many cases still applied today, as the city of Paris is still imposing the then-defined "alignement" law (building facades placed according to a pre-defined street width) on many new constructions. A building's height was also defined according to the width of the street it lines, and Paris's building code has seen few changes since the mid-19th century to allow for higher constructions. It is for this reason that Paris is mainly a "flat" city[citation needed]. Image File history File linksMetadata Arc_De_Triumph_Flag. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Arc_De_Triumph_Flag. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... Boulevard Haussmann The Haussmann Renovations, or Haussmannization of Paris was a work led under the initiative of Napoléon III and the Seine préfet, Haussmann, from 1852 to 1870. ... Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. ...


Paris's unchanging borders, strict building codes and lack of developable land have together contributed in creating a phenomenon called muséification (or "museumification") as, at the same time as they strive to preserve Paris's historical past, existing laws make it difficult to build within the city limits the larger buildings and utilities needed for a growing population[citation needed]. Many of Paris's institutions and economic infrastructure are already located in, or are planning on moving to, the suburbs[citation needed]. The financial (La Défense) business district, the main food wholesale market (Rungis), major renowned schools (École Polytechnique, HEC, ESSEC, INSEAD, etc.), world famous research laboratories (in Saclay or Évry), the largest sport stadium (Stade de France), and some ministries (namely the Ministry of Transportation) are located outside of the city of Paris. The National Archives of France are due to relocate to the northern suburbs before 2010[citation needed]. The need for a larger Paris is largely acknowledged by the French government. As of November 2007, discussions for such a larger Paris have begun, though which suburbs should be included in this larger Paris is unresolved. In any case, such an extension will not occur before the French city-hall elections, scheduled in the spring of 2008. La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... View of the Rungis International Market The Marché dIntérêt National de Rungis (or International market of Rungis) is the central market of Paris, located in the commune of Rungis, in the southern suburbs. ... For other Écoles Polytechniques, see École Polytechnique de Montréal and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. ... École des Hautes Études Commerciales de Paris For other schools named Hautes Études Commerciales, see Hautes Études Commerciales. ... INSEAD is a graduate business school and research institution with campuses in Fontainebleau (near Paris), France and in Singapore. ... Saclay is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. ... The Stade de France is a stadium in Saint-Denis, France in the inner suburbs of Paris. ...


Districts and historical centres

Main article: Paris districts
Paris Bourse in the financial district
Paris Bourse in the financial district

Paris has many different districts that are not necessarily reflected in any administrative plan. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

City of Paris

  • Place de la Bastille (4th, 11th and 12th arrondissements, right bank) a district of great historical significance, not only for Paris, but for the whole of France. Because of its historical value the square is often used for political demonstrations, including the massive anti-CPE demonstration of March 2006.
  • Champs-Élysées (8th arrondissement, right bank) is a seventeenth century garden-promenade turned avenue connecting the Concorde and Arc de Triomphe.It is one of the many tourist attractions and a major shopping street of Paris. This avenue has been called la plus belle avenue du monde ("the most beautiful avenue in the world").
Churchill and Le Petit Palais near Les Champs-Élysées
  • Place de la Concorde (8th arrondissement, right bank) is at the foot of the Champs-Élysées, built as the "Place Louis XV", site of the infamous guillotine. The Egyptian obelisk is Paris' "oldest monument". On this place, on either side of the Rue Royale there are two identical stone buildings: the eastern one houses the French Naval Ministry, the western the luxurious Hôtel de Crillon. Nearby Place Vendôme is famous for its fashionable and deluxe hotels (Hotel Ritz and Hôtel de Vendôme) and its jewellers. Many famous fashion designers have had their salons in the square.
  • Les Halles (1st arrondissement, right bank) was formerly Paris' central meat and produce market, since the late 1970s a major shopping centre around an important metro connection station (Châtelet-Les Halles, the biggest in Europe). The past Les Halles was destroyed in 1971 and replaced by the Forum des Halles. The central market of Paris, the biggest wholesale food market in the world, was transferred to Rungis, in the southern suburbs.
  • Le Marais (3rd and 4th arrondissements) is a trendy Right Bank district. It is a very culturally open place.
  • Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement), next to the Champs-Élysées, is home to luxury brand labels such as Chanel, Louis Vuitton (LVMH), Dior and Givenchy.
  • Montmartre (18th arrondissement, right bank) is a historic area on the Butte, home to the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur. Montmartre has always had a history with artists and has many studios and cafés of many great artists in that area.
  • Montparnasse (14th arrondissement) is a historic Left Bank area famous for artists studios, music halls, and café life. The large Montparnasse - Bienvenüe métro station and the lone Tour Montparnasse skyscraper are located there.
  • L'Opéra (9th arrondissement, right bank) is the area around the Opéra Garnier is a home to the capital's densest concentration of both department stores and offices. A few examples are the Printemps and Galeries Lafayette grands magasins (department stores), and the Paris headquarters of financial giants such as Crédit Lyonnais and American Express.
  • Quartier Latin (5th and 6th arrondissements, left bank) is a twelfth century scholastic centre formerly stretching between the Left Bank's Place Maubert and the Sorbonne campus. It is known for its lively atmosphere and many bistros. With various higher education establishments, such as the École Normale Supérieure, ParisTech and the Jussieu university campus make it a major educational centre in Paris, which also contributes to its atmosphere.
  • Faubourg Saint-Honoré (8th arrondissement, right bank) is one of Paris' high-fashion districts, home to labels such as Hermès and Christian Lacroix.

The Place de la Bastille ( ) is a square in Paris, where the Bastille prison stood until it was stormed and subsequently torn down between July 14, 1789 and July 14, 1790 during the French Revolution; no vestige of it remains. ... The protest The 2006 Labour Protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labour. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... This article is about the decapitation device. ... The Hôtel de Crillon, located on the foot of the Champs-Élysées at No. ... Communards pose with the statue from the toppled Vendôme column, 1871 Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine. ... Hôtel Ritz at Place Vendôme The Hôtel Ritz is a hotel located at 15 Place Vendôme, in the heart of Paris, France. ... The outside of the Forum des Halles today Les Halles is an area of Paris, France, located in the 1er arrondissement. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... Les Halles is an area of Paris, France, located in the 1er arrondissement. ... View of the Rungis International Market The Marché dIntérêt National de Rungis (or International market of Rungis) is the central market of Paris, located in the commune of Rungis, in the southern suburbs. ... Marais redirects here. ... Avenue Montaigne, like Bond Street in London, is a street in Paris specialising in high fashion. ... The House of Chanel, more commonly known as Chanel, is a Parisian fashion house in France founded by Coco Chanel (b. ... Louis vuitton was a great man he was born on fh 12 3845. ... LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton S.A. (Euronext: MC), usually shortened to LVMH, is a French holding company and the worlds largest luxury goods conglomerate. ... Christian Dior (January 21, 1905 – October 23, 1957), was an influential French fashion designer, probably best known as the founder of one of the worlds top fashion houses Dior. ... Givenchy (pronounced ) is a French brand of clothing, accessories, perfumes and cosmetics. ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... The Sacré-CÅ“ur Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-CÅ“ur, Basilica of the Sacred Heart) is a Roman Catholic basilica and popular landmark in Paris, France, dedicated to the Sacred Heart. ... The Montparnasse Tower, which at 209m was the tallest building in Western Europe when it was built. ... List of stations of the Paris Métro Montparnasse-Bienvenüe is a station of the Paris Métro which is a transfer point between Lines 4, 6, 12 and 13. ... Métro redirects here. ... Tour Maine-Montparnasse (Maine-Montparnasse Tower), also commonly named Tour Montparnasse is a 210-metre (689-foot) tall office skyscraper located in Paris, France, in the area of Montparnasse. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... The Avenue de lOpéra is a street in Paris, France. ... Exterior of the Palais Garnier. ... Boulevard Haussmann Printemps and metro stop at night Printemps (meaning Spring in French) is a French department store (or a grand magasin, literally big store). The flagship Printemps store is located on Boulevard Haussmann in the IXe arrondissement of Paris along with other famous department stores like Galeries Lafayette. ... The Galeries Lafayette is a French department store company. ... Crédit Lyonnais is a French bank. ... American Express (NYSE: AXP), sometimes known as AmEx or Amex, is a diversified global financial services company, headquartered in New York City. ... The Quartier Latin (Latin Quarter) is an area in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France, around the Sorbonne University. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... This article is about the type of restaurant. ... The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Ulm) is a prestigious French grande école, possibly the most prestigious. ... In 1991, many prestigious French écoles dingénieurs (engineering schools), felt the need to set up a co-ordinating body that would foster closer collaboration among themselves in areas of common interest and thereby acquire international recognition as an entity of sufficient size and importance. ... Main entrance Gridiron bars The Jussieu Campus (Campus Universitaire de Jussieu) is a higher education campus located in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... Seen eastwards The rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré is a street in Paris, France. ... Hermès International, S.A., or simply Hermès (IPA: French [3], typical American English , typical British English ), is a prestigious, highly-respected, French high fashion house specializing in leather, ready-to-wear, lifestyle accessories, and perfumery luxury goods. ... Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (May 16, 1951 in Arles, France) is a French fashion designer. ...

In the Paris area

  • La Défense (straddling the communes of Courbevoie, Puteaux, and Nanterre, 2.5 km/1.5 miles west of the city proper) is a key suburb of Paris and is one of the largest business centres in the world. Built at the western end of a westward extension of Paris' historical axis from the Champs-Élysées, La Défense consists mainly of business highrises. Initiated by the French government in 1958, the district hosts 3.5 million m² of offices, making it the largest district in Europe specifically developed for business. The Grande Arche (Great Arch) of la Défense, which houses a part of the French Transports Minister's headquarters, ends the central Esplanade around which the district is organised.
  • Plaine Saint-Denis (straddling the communes of Saint-Denis, Aubervilliers, and Saint-Ouen, immediately north of the 18th arrondissement, across the Périphérique ring road) is a formerly derelict manufacturing area which has undergone large-scale urban renewal in the last 10 years. It now hosts the Stade de France around which is being built the new business district of LandyFrance, with two RER stations (on RER line B and D) and possibly some skyscrapers. In the Plaine Saint-Denis are also located most of France's television studios as well as some major movie studios.
  • Val de Seine (straddling the 15th arrondissement and the communes of Issy-les-Moulineaux and Boulogne-Billancourt to the south-west of central Paris) is the new media hub of Paris and France, hosting the headquarters of most of France's TV networks (TF1 in Boulogne-Billancourt, France 2 in the 15th arrondissement, Canal+ and the international channels France 24 and Eurosport in Issy-les-Moulineaux), as well as several telecommunication and IT companies such as Neuf Cegetel in Boulogne-Billancourt or Microsoft's Europe, Africa & Middle East regional headquarters in Issy-les-Moulineaux.

La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... The Val de Seine is one of the most important business districts of Paris agglomeration. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... Bridge of Courbevoie, Georges Seurat, 1886-1887. ... EDF headquarters, located in Puteaux in the district of La Défense. ... Société Générale twin towers, located in Nanterre in the district of La Défense. ... Paris has many different districts that are not necessarily reflected in any administrative plan. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest skyscraper by roof height on high rise. ... The Grande Arche, La Défense district The Grande Arche de la Fraternité is a monument in the business district of La Défense to the west of Paris. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... Saint Denis can refer to: a Christian saint: see Denis Seine-Saint-Denis a département of France Several communes in France: Saint-Denis,in the Aude département Saint-Denis, in the Gard département Saint-Denis, in the Seine-Saint-Denis département, home of Saint Denis Basilica Saint-Denis, in the... Aubervilliers is a town and commune of France, in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris, on which it is bordering. ... Saint-Ouen is a town and commune of France, in the northern suburbs of Paris, which it is bordering, between Saint-Denis and Clichy. ... The 18th arrondissement (XVIIIe arrondissement), located on the Rive Droite (Right Bank), is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ... Périphérique is the French term for a ring road (U.S.: Beltway), a motorway or freeway encircling or orbiting a large city. ... The Stade de France is a stadium in Saint-Denis, France in the inner suburbs of Paris. ... For other uses, see RER (disambiguation). ... The RER B is one of the five lines in the RER Rapid transit system serving Paris, France. ... The RER D is one of the five lines in the RER subway system serving Paris, France. ... A television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live on tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction. ... A movie studio (aka film studio) is a controlled environment for the making of a motion picture. ... The Val de Seine is one of the most important business districts of Paris agglomeration. ... The 15th arrondissement (XVe arrondissement), located on the Left Bank (Rive Gauche), is the most populous of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... Issy-les-Moulineaux, is a city in the département of Hauts-des-Seine in the southwestern suburban Paris, France. ... Boulogne-Billancourt is a city and commune in France, the sous-préfecture (=subprefecture) of the Hauts-de-Seine département in the ÃŽle-de-France région. ... TF1 is a private French TV channel, controlled by TF1 Group, whose major share-holder is Bouygues. ... Canal+ (Canal Plus, meaning Channel Plus/More in French) is a French premium pay television channel launched in 1984. ... Eurosport is the largest European sports satellite and cable network available in 54 countries and broadcasting in 20 different languages. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Neuf Cegetel is a French telecommunication group founded on 11 May 2005 from Cegetel and Neuf Telecom merging. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...

Monuments and landmarks

Main article: List of visitor attractions in Paris
Basilique du Sacré-Cœur
Basilique du Sacré-Cœur

Three of the most famous Parisian landmarks are the twelfth century cathedral Notre Dame de Paris on the Île de la Cité, the nineteenth century Eiffel Tower, and the Napoleonic Arc de Triomphe. The Eiffel Tower was a "temporary" construction by Gustave Eiffel for the 1889 Universal Exposition but the tower was never dismantled and is now an enduring symbol of Paris[26]. It is visible from many parts of the city as are the Tour Montparnasse skyscraper and the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur on the Montmartre hill[citation needed]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Paris. ... Église de la Madeleine, Paris Léglise de la Madeleine, or Léglise Sainte-Marie-Madeleine (or simply La Madeleine), is a church in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that was designed as a temple to the glory of Napoleons army. ... Download high resolution version (600x791, 74 KB)Basilica of the Sacré Cœur, Paris. ... Download high resolution version (600x791, 74 KB)Basilica of the Sacré Cœur, Paris. ... The Sacré-CÅ“ur Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-CÅ“ur, Basilica of the Sacred Heart) is a Roman Catholic basilica and popular landmark in Paris, France, dedicated to the Sacred Heart. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1125 pixel, file size: 904 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) cellspacing=8 cellpadding=0 style=width:100%; clear:both; text-align:center; margin:0. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1125 pixel, file size: 904 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) cellspacing=8 cellpadding=0 style=width:100%; clear:both; text-align:center; margin:0. ... The Luxembourg Palace seen from the garden The Luxembourg Garden (Jardin du Luxembourg, familiar nickname Luco) is a 224,500 m² public park in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... For the group sometimes known as Landmark, see Landmark Education Originally, a landmark literally meant a geographic feature, used by explorers and others to find their way back through an area on a return trip. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Notre Dame de Paris on ÃŽle de la Cité from upstream (the east) The ÃŽle de la Cité, one of two islands in the Seine (the other being ÃŽle Saint-Louis), in the centre of Paris and the location where the medieval city was refounded. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... For a listing of World Fairs, see List of worlds fairs. ... Tour Maine-Montparnasse (Maine-Montparnasse Tower), also commonly named Tour Montparnasse is a 210-metre (689-foot) tall office skyscraper located in Paris, France, in the area of Montparnasse. ... The Sacré-CÅ“ur Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-CÅ“ur, Basilica of the Sacred Heart) is a Roman Catholic basilica and popular landmark in Paris, France, dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ...


The Historical axis is a line of monuments, buildings and thoroughfares that run in a roughly straight line from the city centre westwards: the line of monuments begins with the Louvre and continues through the Tuileries Gardens, the Champs-Élysées and the Arc de Triomphe centred in the Place de l'Étoile circus. From the 1960s the line was prolonged even further west to the La Défense business district dominated by square-shaped triumphal Grande Arche of its own; this district hosts most of the tallest skyscrapers in the Paris urban area. The Invalides museum is the burial place for many great French soldiers, including Napoleon, and the Panthéon church is where many of France's illustrious men and women are buried. The former Conciergerie prison held some prominent Ancien Régime members before their deaths during the French Revolution. Another symbol of the Revolution are the two Statues of Liberty located on the Île des Cygnes on the Seine and in the Luxembourg Garden. A larger version of the statues was sent as a gift from France to America in 1886 and now stands in New York City's harbour. The Axe historique (historical axis) is a line of monuments, buildings and thoroughfares that extends from the centre of Paris, France, to the west. ... This article is about the museum. ... Tuileries Palace before 1871 - View from the Louvre courtyard The Tuileries Palace stood in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine until 1871, when it was destroyed. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... The Place de lÉtoile is a large Place in Paris, France, the meeting point of twelve avenues (hence the name Star Square) including the Champs-Élysées which continues to the east. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... The Grande Arche, La Défense district The Grande Arche de la Fraternité is a monument in the business district of La Défense to the west of Paris. ... This article contains a list of the tallest buildings and structures located in the inner Paris urban area (Paris and neighbouring communes). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... , The church at the Invalides Les Invalides in Paris, France consists of a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the buildings original purpose. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The Conciergerie (French: La Conciergerie) is a former prison in Paris, located on the west of the ÃŽle de la Cité, near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Hundreds of smaller replicas of the Statue of Liberty have been erected worldwide. ... ÃŽle des Cygnes (Isle of the Swans) is a small island in the Seine river in Paris, France. ... People relaxing in front of the Luxembourg Palace The Jardin du Luxembourg (familiar nickname Luco) is a 224,500 m² public park and the largest in the city located in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The Palais Garnier built in the later Second Empire period, houses the Paris Opera and the Paris Opera Ballet, while the former palace of the Louvre now houses one of the most famous museums in the world. The Sorbonne is the most famous part of the University of Paris and is based in the centre of the Latin Quarter. Apart from Notre Dame de Paris, there are several other ecclesiastical masterpieces including the Gothic thirteenth century Sainte-Chapelle palace chapel and the Église de la Madeleine. The Palais Garnier, Paris The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier or Grand Opera House[1], but more commonly as the Paris Opéra, is a 2,200 seat opera house in Paris, France. ... The canonical example of Second Empire style is the Opéra Garnier, in which Neo-Baroque meets Neo-Renaissance. ... The Paris Opera Ballet is the ballet company of the Paris Opera. ... This article is about the museum. ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... The Quartier Latin (Latin Quarter) is an area in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France, around the Sorbonne University. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... Église de la Madeleine, Paris Léglise de la Madeleine, or Léglise Sainte-Marie-Madeleine (or simply La Madeleine), is a church in the 8th arrondissement of Paris that was designed as a temple to the glory of Napoleons army. ...


Parks and gardens

Two of Paris's oldest and famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden, created from the 16th century for a palace on the banks of the Seine near the Louvre, and the Left bank Luxembourg Garden, another formerly private garden belonging to a château built for the Marie de' Medici in 1612. The Jardin des Plantes, created by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants, was Paris' first public garden. The following is a list of parks and gardens in Paris, France: // Forests Bois de Boulogne Bois de Vincennes Parks A greenhouse in the parc André Citroën Arboretum de lécole du Breuil Parc André Citroën Parc de Bagatelle Parc de Belleville Parc de Bercy Parc Georges Brassens... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ... This article is about the river in France. ... This article is about the museum. ... For the musical group, see Left Banke. ... The Luxembourg Palace seen from the garden The Luxembourg Garden (Jardin du Luxembourg, familiar nickname Luco) is a 224,500 m² public park in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... The Jardin des Plantes is the main botanical garden in France. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 - May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ...


A few of Paris's other large gardens are Second Empire creations: the formerly suburban parks of Montsouris, Parc des Buttes Chaumont and Parc Monceau (formerly known as the "folie de Chartres"), were creations of Napoleon III's engineer Jean-Charles Alphand and the landscape and are enjoyed by all ages. Another project executed under the orders of Baron Haussmann was the re-sculpting of Paris's western Bois de Boulogne forest-parklands; the Bois de Vincennes, on the city's opposite eastern end, received a similar treatment in years following. The canonical example of Second Empire style is the Opéra Garnier, in which Neo-Baroque meets Neo-Renaissance. ... Parc Montsouris is a city park of Paris, in the 14th arrondisement, in the southern portion of the city proper. ... The Parc des Buttes Chaumont are an island of greenery in the middle of the urban environment. ... Rotunda, Parc Monceau Parc Monceau (//) is a public park situated in the 8th and 17th Arrondissements of Paris at the junction of Boulevard de Courcelles, Rue de Prony and Rue Georges Berger. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... The lake Hippodrome de Vincennes The Bois de Vincennes is a park in the English landscape manner to the east of Paris. ...


Newer additions to Paris's park landscape are the Parc de la Villette, built by the architect Bernard Tschumi on the location of Paris's former slaughterhouses, the Parc André Citroën and gardens being lain to the periphery along the traces of its former circular "Petite Ceinture" railway line : Promenade Plantée. A folly in the Parc de la Villette The Parc de la Villette is a park in Paris at the outer edge of the 19th arrondissement, bordering Seine-Saint-Denis. ... Bernard Tschumi (born January 25, 1944 Lausanne, Switzerland) is an architect, writer, and educator. ... For the Batman villain, see Abattoir (comics). ... The former Charonne-Voyageurs Petite Ceinture station, today the Fléche dOr café-concert. ... The Promenade Plantée is an elevated park in the XIIe arrondissement of Paris, France. ...


Cemeteries

Paris's cemeteries were located to its outskirts in Roman times, but this changed with the rise of Catholicism and the construction of churches and their adjoining burial grounds within the city centre. City growth soon filled these cemeteries to overflowing, creating sometimes very unsanitary conditions; condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris' parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris' then suburban stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate (today 14e arrondissement's place Denfert-Rochereau). As a more definitive solution than a first creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, Napoleon Bonaparte decreed the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries to the outside of the city walls; Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse, and later Passy. Looking down the hill at tombstones at the Cimetière du Père Lachaise in Paris, France This photo was taken by Craig Patik in April of 2000. ... Looking down the hill at tombstones at the Cimetière du Père Lachaise in Paris, France This photo was taken by Craig Patik in April of 2000. ... Looking down the hill at Père-Lachaise. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... The 14e arrondissement is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ... Denfert-Rocherau is a station on the Paris Metro and RER systems. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Looking down the hill at Père-Lachaise. ... Montmartre Cemetery (Fr: Cimetière de Montmartre) is a famous cemetery located at 37 Avenue Samson, in the 18th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... Zoom on Montparnasse cemetery as seen from top of Montparnasse tower (Paris, France). ... The Cimetière de Passy is a famous cemetery located in 2, rue du Commandant Schœlsing, in the quarter of Passy in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, France. ...


When Paris annexed its formerly suburban communes in 1860, it once again included cemeteries within its city walls. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: the largest of these are the Cimetière Parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetière Parisien de Bobigny-Pantin, the Cimetière Parisien d'Ivry and the Cimetière Parisien de Bagneux. Saint-Ouen is the name of several communes in France: Saint-Ouen, in the Charente-Maritime département Saint-Ouen, in the Loir-et-Cher département Saint-Ouen, in the Somme département Saint-Ouen, in the Seine-Saint-Denis département It is also part of the name of several commune: Saint... Bobigny is a town and commune of France, in the suburbs is of Paris, chief town of the arrondissement of the Seine-Saint-Denis. ... Pantin is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. ... Ivry is part of the name of several communes in France: Ivry-la-Bataille, in the Eure département Ivry-sur-Seine, in the Val-de-Marne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... There are communes that have the name Bagneux in France: Bagneux, in the Aisne département Bagneux, in the Allier département Bagneux, in the Indre département Bagneux, in the Marne département Bagneux, in the Meurthe_et_Moselle département Bagneux, in the Hauts-de-Seine département Related Bagneux-la-Fosse, in the Aube département...


Culture

Entertainment

Opera

The Opéra Garnier
The Opéra Garnier

Paris's largest opera houses are the 19th century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) and modern Opéra Bastille; the former tends towards the more classic ballets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and modern. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x764, 440 KB) Description Summary Le Palais Garnier; Opera de Paris Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : December 2005 This image has been cleaned up: lossless jpegtran crop of black borders. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1020x764, 440 KB) Description Summary Le Palais Garnier; Opera de Paris Author : -- Eric Pouhier Date : December 2005 This image has been cleaned up: lossless jpegtran crop of black borders. ... Exterior of the Palais Garnier. ... An opera house is a building where operas are performed. ... Exterior of the Palais Garnier. ... Exterior of the Palais Garnier. ... The Opéra Bastille L’Opéra de la Bastille (Bastille Opera) is a modern opera house in Paris, France. ...


In middle of 19th century there were active two other competing opera houses: Opéra-Comique (which still exists to this day) and Theatre Lyrique (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Théâtre de la Ville). Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Opéra comique is a French style of opera that is a partial counterpart to the Italian opera buffa. ... The Théâtre de la Ville is one of the two theatres built in the 19th century by Baron Haussmann, the other being the Theatre Musical de Paris. ...


Theatre/Concert halls
Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture. This still holds true today, although, perhaps strangely, many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television. Some of Paris's major theatres include Bobino, Théâtre Mogador and the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse. Some Parisian theatres have also doubled as concert halls. Bobino is a French language childrens television show made in Quebec. ... Théâtre Mogador founded in 1913 and designed by Bertie Crewe, is a Parisian music hall theatre located in the 9th district. ...


Many of France's greatest musical legends, such as Édith Piaf, Maurice Chevalier, Georges Brassens and Charles Aznavour, found their fame in Parisian concert halls: legendary yet still-showing examples of these are Le Lido, Bobino, l'Olympia, la Cigale and le Splendid. Édith Piaf (19 December 1915—10 October 1963) was a French singer and cultural icon who is widely accepted as the countrys greatest pop singer. ... French singer Maurice Chevalier with stars of Hellzapoppin at Expo 67, in Montreal, Quebec. ... Georges Brassens (French IPA: ) (October 22, 1921 - October 29, 1981) was a French acoustic singer and songwriter. ... Charles Aznavour (Armenian: Õ‡Õ¡Õ¼Õ¬ Ô±Õ¦Õ¶Õ¡Õ¾Õ¸Ö‚Ö€; born May 22, 1924) is an Armenian-French singer, songwriter, actor and public activist. ... Le Lido cabaret on the Champs-Élysées famous for its exotic shows and where, as an American GI on leave with some army friends, Elvis Presley gave an impromptu concert. ... Bobino is a French language childrens television show made in Quebec. ... The Olympias entrance and billboard Paris Olympia is a music hall at 28, Blvd. ...


The Élysées-Montmartre, much reduced from its original size, is a concert hall today. The New Morning is one of few Parisian clubs still holding jazz concerts, but the same also specialises in 'indie' music. More recently, the Le Zénith hall in Paris's La Villette quarter and a "parc-omnisports" stadium in Bercy serve as large-scale rock concert halls. Le Zénith is the name of a number of famous concert venues in France. ... Villette is a novel by Charlotte Brontë. ... Bercy is an area in the east of the city of Paris, France, north of the river Seine. ...


Dancehalls/Discotheques
Guinguettes and Bals-concerts were the backbone of Parisian entertainment before the mid-20th century. Early to mid-19th century examples were the Moulin de la Galette guinguette and the Élysées-Montmartre and Chateau-Rouge dancehalls-gardens. Popular orchestral fare gave way to the Parisian accordionists of lore whose music moved the Apollo and le Java faubourg du Temple and Belleville dance-hall crowds. Out of the clubs remaining from this era grew the modern discothèque: Le Palace, although closed today, is Paris's most legendary example. Today, much of the clubbing in Paris happens in clubs like Le Queen, L'Etoile, Le Cab which are highly selective. Electronic music oriented clubs such as Le Rex, Le Batofar (a boat converted into a club) or The Pulp are quite popular and some of the world's best DJs play there. Also, most of those DJs are from Paris, like Daft Punk, Justice, Uffie,... Belleville is a neighborhood of Paris, located in the 20th arrondissement. ... Batofar ignited the night club on boat trend in Paris. ...


Cafés, restaurants and hotels

Cafés quickly became an integral part of French culture from their appearance, namely from the opening of the left bank Café Procope in 1689 and the café Régence at the Palais Royal one year earlier. The cafés in the gardens of the latter locale became quite popular through the 18th century, and can be considered Paris' first "terrace cafés"; these would not become widespread until sidewalks and boulevards began to appear from the mid-19th century. Cafés are an almost obligatory stop on the way to or from work for many Parisians, and especially during lunchtime. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Hôtel de Crillon, located on the foot of the Champs-Élysées at No. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 797 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1915 × 1440 pixel, file size: 852 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hotel Hôtel... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 797 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1915 × 1440 pixel, file size: 852 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hotel Hôtel... Hôtel Ritz at Place Vendôme The Hôtel Ritz is a hotel located at 15 Place Vendôme, in the heart of Paris, France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2250x1500, 1208 KB) Author: Robyn Lee (user roboppy) Date: October 16, 2006 URL: http://flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2250x1500, 1208 KB) Author: Robyn Lee (user roboppy) Date: October 16, 2006 URL: http://flickr. ... Les Deux Magots Les Deux Magots is a famous[1] café in the Saint-Germain-des-Prés area of Paris, France. ... For the musical group, see Left Banke. ... Café Procope is the oldest restaurant of Paris. ... Gardens of the Palais-Royal: The illustration, from an 1863 guide to Paris, enlarges the apparent scale. ...


Paris's culinary reputation has its base in the many origins of its inhabitants. With the early-19th century railways and ensuing industrial revolution came a flood of migration that brought with it all the gastronomical diversity of France's many different regions, and maintained through 'local speciality' restaurants catering to the tastes of people from all. "Chez Jenny" is a typical example of a restaurant specialising in the cuisine of the Alsace region, and "Aux Lyonnais" is another with traditional fare originating from its city name's region. Of course migration from even more distant climes meant an even greater culinary diversity, and today, in addition to a great number of North African and Asian establishments, in Paris one can find top-quality cuisine from virtually the world over. Elsaß redirects here. ...


Hotels were another result of widespread travel and tourism, especially Paris's late-19th century Expositions Universelles (World's Fairs). Of the most luxurious of these, the Hôtel Ritz appeared in the Place Vendôme from 1898, and the Hôtel de Crillon opened its doors on the north side of the place de la Concorde from 1909. Tourist redirects here. ... For a listing of World Fairs, see List of worlds fairs. ... Hôtel Ritz at Place Vendôme The Hôtel Ritz is a hotel located at 15 Place Vendôme, in the heart of Paris, France. ... Communards pose with the statue from the toppled Vendôme column, 1871 Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine. ... The Hôtel de Crillon, located on the foot of the Champs-Élysées at No. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ...


Cinema

See also: List of films set in Paris

Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, that is to say with a dominance of Hollywood-generated film entertainment. French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (réalisateurs) such as Claude Lelouch, François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol and Luc Besson, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. A specialty of Paris is its very large network of small movie theatres: on a given week the movie fan has the choice between around 300 old or new movies from all over the world. Claude Lelouch (born October 30, 1937) is a French film director, writer and producer. ... François Roland Truffaut (French IPA: ) (February 6, 1932 – October 21, 1984) was one of the founders of the French New Wave in filmmaking, and remains an icon of the French film industry. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... Claude Chabrol (French IPA: ) (born June 24, 1930, Paris) is a French film director and has become well-known since his first film, Le Beau Serge (1958) for his chilling tales of murder, including Le Boucher (1970). ... Luc Besson (IPA: ) (born March 18, 1959) is a French film director, writer and producer. ...


Many of Paris's concert/dance halls were transformed into movie theatres when the media became popular from the 1930s. Later most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms: Paris's largest cinema today is by far le Grand Rex theatre with 2,800 seats, while other cinemas all have fewer than 1,000 seats. There is now a trend toward modern multiplexes that contain more than 10 or 20 screens. Le Grand Rex is an old and famous theatre for movies and concerts in Paris . ...


Tourism

Paris has always been a destination for traders, students and those on religious pilgrimages, but its 'tourist industry' began on a large scale only with the appearance of rail travel, namely from state organisation of France's rail network from 1848. Among Paris's first mass attractions drawing international interest were, from 1855, the above-mentioned Expositions Universelles that would bring Paris many new monuments, namely the Eiffel Tower from 1889. These, in addition to the capital's Second Empire embellishments, did much to make the city itself the attraction it is today. The museums of Paris can be sorted into 3 categories: National museums - (N) Museums of the City of Paris - (VP) The private museums - (P) Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2145 KB) another pic of Notre-Dame de Paris from the east. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2145 KB) another pic of Notre-Dame de Paris from the east. ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre) in Paris, France, is one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... For a listing of World Fairs, see List of worlds fairs. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. ...


Paris's museums and monuments are among its highest-esteemed attractions; tourism has motivated both the city and national governments to create new ones. The city's most prized museum, the Louvre, welcomes over 8 million visitors a year, being by far the world's most visited art museum. The city's cathedrals are another main attraction: its Notre Dame de Paris and the Basilique du Sacré-Coeur receive 12 million and eight million visitors respectively. The Eiffel Tower, by far Paris's most famous monument, averages over six million visitors per year and more than 200 millions since its construction. Disneyland Resort Paris is a major tourist attraction not only for visitors to Paris, but to Europe as well, with 14.5 million visitors in 2007. This article is about the museum. ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... The Sacré-CÅ“ur Basilica (French: Basilique du Sacré-CÅ“ur, Basilica of the Sacred Heart) is a Roman Catholic basilica and popular landmark in Paris, France, dedicated to the Sacred Heart. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... Disneyland Resort Paris is a holiday and recreation resort in Marne-la-Vallée, a new town in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. ...


The Louvre is one of the largest and most famous museums, housing many works of art, including the Mona Lisa (La Joconde) and the Venus de Milo statue. Works by Pablo Picasso and Auguste Rodin are found in Musée Picasso and Musée Rodin respectively, while the artistic community of Montparnasse is chronicled at the Musée du Montparnasse. Starkly apparent with its service-pipe exterior, the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne. Art and artifacts from the Middle Ages and Impressionist eras are kept in Musée Cluny and Musée d'Orsay respectively, the former with the prized tapestry cycle The Lady and the Unicorn. Paris's newest (and third largest) museum, the Musée du quai Branly, opened its doors in June 2006 and houses art from Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. This article is about the museum. ... For other uses, see Mona Lisa (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the group of prehistoric statuettes known as Venus figurines. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Hôtel Salé This article refers to the museum in Paris. ... The Musée Rodin in Paris, France, is a museum that was opened in 1919 in the Hôtel Biron and surrounding grounds. ... The Montparnasse Tower, which at 209m was the tallest building in Western Europe when it was built. ... Musée du Montparnasse The Musée du Montparnasse is a museum at 21. ... Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the IVe arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles and the Marais. ... The Musée National dArt Moderne is an art museum in Paris, France, located within the Centre Georges Pompidou. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the art movement. ... The Musée de Cluny, officially known as Musée National du Moyen Âge, is a museum in Paris, France, at 6 Place Paul Painlevé, south of the Blvd St. ... , The Musée dOrsay is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine, housed in the former railway station, the Gare dOrsay. ... The Lady and the Unicorn: A mon seul désir The Lady and the Unicorn (French: La dame à la licorne) is the title of a cycle of French tapestries often considered one of the greatest works of art of the Middle Ages in Europe. ...


Many of Paris's once-popular local establishments have come to cater to the tastes and expectations of tourists, rather than local patrons. Le Lido, The Moulin Rouge cabaret-dancehall, for example, are a staged dinner theatre spectacle, a dance display that was once but one aspect of the cabaret's former atmosphere. All of the establishment's former social or cultural elements, such as its ballrooms and gardens, are gone today. Much of Paris's hotel, restaurant and night entertainment trades have become heavily dependent on tourism, with results not always positive for Parisian culture. Le Lido cabaret on the Champs-Élysées famous for its exotic shows and where, as an American GI on leave with some army friends, Elvis Presley gave an impromptu concert. ... For other uses, see Moulin Rouge (disambiguation). ...


Sports

Paris's most popular sport clubs are the football club Paris Saint-Germain FC, the basketball team Paris Basket Racing, and the rugby union club Stade Français. The 80,000-seat Stade de France was built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup and is used for football and rugby union, and is used annually for French rugby team's home matches of the Six Nations Championship and sometimes for big matches for the Stade Français rugby team. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x888, 300 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stade de France Stade Français Paris ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (768x888, 300 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stade de France Stade Français Paris ... The Stade de France is a stadium in Saint-Denis, France in the inner suburbs of Paris. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... This article is about the football (soccer) club. ... This article is about the sport. ... The Paris Basket Racing, or PBR, is a French basketball club based in Paris. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Stade Français CASG Paris is a French rugby union club that plays in the 16th arrondissement of Paris at Stade Jean-Bouin, across the road from Parc des Princes. ... The Stade de France is a stadium in Saint-Denis, France in the inner suburbs of Paris. ... 1998 World Cup redirects here. ... First international  France 8–38 New Zealand  (1 January 1906) Largest win  Brazil 7–99 France  (2 June 1974) Worst defeat  New Zealand 61–10 France  (9 June 2007) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Losing finalist, 1987, 1999 The France national rugby union team represents France... The RBS 6 Nations Championship, (referred to as RBS 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) known before 2000 as the Five Nations Championship, is an annual international rugby union competition held between six European sides: France, England, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. ...


In addition to Paris Saint-Germain FC, the city has a number of other amateurs football clubs: Paris FC, Maccabi Paris, RCF Paris and Stade Français Paris. The last is the football section of the omnisport club of the same name, most notable for its rugby team. This article is about the football (soccer) club. ... Paris FC is a French club located in the east of Paris. ... Maccabi Paris, is an association football club based in Paris, France. ... Racing Club de France is a football club based in Paris. ... This article is about the football section of Stade Français. ...


The city's major rugby side is Stade Français. Racing Métro 92 Paris (who now play in Rugby Pro D2) is another rugby team, which actually contested the first ever final against Stade Français in 1892. Paris also hosted the 1900 and 1924 Olympic Games and was venue for the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups. Stade Français CASG Paris is a French rugby union club that plays in the 16th arrondissement of Paris at Stade Jean-Bouin, across the road from Parc des Princes. ... Racing Métro 92 Paris is a French rugby union club that was formed in 2001 with the collaboration of the Racing Club de France and US Métro. ... Rugby Pro D2, also known as Pro D2 is the second level of domestic club rugby union in France, below the first division, Top 14. ... The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... The Games of the VIII Olympiad were held in 1924 in Paris, France. ... The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from June 4 to June 19. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the...


Although the starting point and the route of the famous Tour de France varies each year, the final stage always finishes in Paris and since 1975, the race has finished on the Champs-Elysées. Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France. The French Open, held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre near the Bois de Boulogne, is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour. The 2006 UEFA Champions League Final between Arsenal and FC Barcelona was played in the Stade de France. Paris hosted the 2007 Rugby World Cup final at Stade de France on 20 October 2007. For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the tennis tournament. ... Outside the Philippe Chatrier Court, Roland Garros Stade de Roland Garros (Roland Garros Stadium) is located in southwest Paris, France, and has been the home of the French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament, played every year in May and June. ... The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... For other uses, see Grand Slam. ... The 2006 UEFA Champions League Final was a football match between FC Barcelona of Spain and Arsenal F.C. of England. ... Arsenal Football Club (also known as Arsenal, The Arsenal or The Gunners) are an English professional football club based in Holloway, north London. ... Futbol Club Barcelona (Spanish IPA: , Catalan IPA: ), known familiarly as Barça (Spanish IPA: , Catalan IPA: ), is a sports club based in Barcelona, Spain. ... The Stade de France is a stadium in Saint-Denis, France in the inner suburbs of Paris. ... The 2007 Rugby World Cup is the sixth Rugby World Cup, a quadrennial international rugby union world championship inaugurated in 1987. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Paris

With a 2005 GDP of €478.7 billion[27] (US$595.3 billion),[28] the Paris region has the highest GDPs in Europe, making it an engine of the global economy: were it a country, it would rank as the fourteenth largest economy in the world.[29] The Paris Region is France's premier centre of economic activity: while its population accounted for 18.7% of the total population of metropolitan France in 2005,[30] its GDP was about 28.5% of the same.[27] Activity in the Paris urban area, though diverse, doesn't have a leading specialised industry (such as Los Angeles with entertainment industries or London and New York with financial industries in addition to their other activities). Recently the Paris economy has been shifting towards high value-added service industries (finance, IT services, etc.) and high-tech manufacturing (electronics, optics, aerospace, etc). This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2008 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2008 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Grande Arche, La Défense district The Grande Arche de la Fraternité is a monument in the business district of La Défense to the west of Paris. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1301 KB) Description Du coté de lesplanade de la défense, de nuit by YoGi - 01/2006 - http://darkmag. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1301 KB) Description Du coté de lesplanade de la défense, de nuit by YoGi - 01/2006 - http://darkmag. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... The Paris urban area (today covering an area similar to the ÃŽle-de-France région) is a statistical area encompassing the administrative city (commune) of Paris, the Paris urban unit (unité urbaine, an area of built-up demographic growth) and a commuter belt (couronne périurbaine) surrounding these; these...


The Paris region's most intense economic activity through the central Hauts-de-Seine département and suburban La Défense business district places Paris' economic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense and the Val de Seine. Paris' administrative borders have little consequences on the limits of its economic activity: although most workers commute from the suburbs to work in the city, many commute from the city to work in the suburbs. At the 1999 census, 47.5% of the 5,089,170 people in employment in the Paris urban area worked in the city of Paris and the Hauts-de-Seine département, while only 31.5% worked exclusively in Paris[citation needed]. Hauts-de-Seine is a département in France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... The Palais Garnier, Paris The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier or Grand Opera House[1], but more commonly as the Paris Opéra, is a 2,200 seat opera house in Paris, France. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... The Val de Seine is one of the most important business districts of Paris agglomeration. ... The Paris urban area (today covering an area similar to the ÃŽle-de-France région) is a statistical area encompassing the administrative city (commune) of Paris, the Paris urban unit (unité urbaine, an area of built-up demographic growth) and a commuter belt (couronne périurbaine) surrounding these; these...


Although the Paris economy is largely dominated by services, it remains an important manufacturing powerhouse of Europe, especially in industrial sectors such as automobiles, aeronautics, and electronics. Over recent decades, the local economy has moved towards high value-added activities, in particular business services. The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ...


The 1999 census indicated that of the 5,089,170 persons employed in the Paris urban area, 16.5% worked in business services, 13.0% in commerce (retail and wholesale trade), 12.3% in manufacturing, 10.0% in public administrations and defence, 8.7% in health services, 8.2% in transportation and communications, 6.6% in education, and the remaining 24.7% in many other economic sectors. Among the manufacturing sector, the largest employers were the electronic and electrical industry (17.9% of the total manufacturing workforce in 1999) and the publishing and printing industry (14.0% of the total manufacturing workforce), with the remaining 68.1% of the manufacturing workforce distributed among many other industries. Tourism and tourist related services employ 6.2% of Paris's workforce, and 3.6% of all workers within the Paris Region.[31] The Paris urban area (today covering an area similar to the Île-de-France région) is a statistical area encompassing the administrative city (commune) of Paris, the Paris urban unit (unité urbaine, an area of built-up demographic growth) and a commuter belt (couronne périurbaine) surrounding these; these... Drawing of a self-service store. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... The defense industry refers primarily to: Defense contractors: business organizations or individuals that provide products or services to a defense department of a government. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... For other uses, see Publishing (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Print. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... The Paris region, Île-de-France, is the region surrounding Frances capital city, Paris. ...


Demography

Demographics within the Paris Region
(according to the INSEE 2005 estimates)
Ile-de-France départements
Areas Population
2005 est.
Area
Density
1999-2005
pop. growth
City of Paris
(département 75)
2,153,600 105 km² (41 sq mi) 20,433/km² (52,921/sq mi) +1.33%
Inner ring
(Petite Couronne)
(Depts. 92, 93, 94)
4,254,600 657 km² (254 sq mi) 6,477/km² (16,775/sq mi) +5.34%
Outer ring
(Grande Couronne)
(Depts. 77, 78, 91, 95)
4,991,100 11,249 km² (4,343 sq mi) 426/km² (1,103/sq mi) +4.25%
Ile-de-France
(entire région)
11,399,300 12,011 km² (4,637 sq mi) 949/km² (2,458/sq mi) +4.08%
Statistical Growth (INSEE 1999 census)
Areas Population
1999 census
Area
(km²)
Density
1990-1999
pop. growth
Urban area
(Paris agglomeration)
9,644,507 2,723 km² (1,051 sq mi) 3,542/km² (9,174/sq mi) +1.85%
Metro area
(Paris aire urbaine)
11,174,743 14,518 km² (5,605 sq mi) 770/km² (1,994/sq mi) +2.90%
Main article: Demographics of Paris

The population of the city of Paris was 2,125,246 at the 1999 census, lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million in 1921. The city's population loss mirrors the experience of most other core cities in the developed world that have not expanded their boundaries. The principal factors in the process were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices and improved affluence among working families. The city's population loss was one of the most severe among international municipalities and the largest for any that had achieved more than 2,000,000 residents. These losses are generally seen as negative for the city; the city administration is trying to reverse them with some success, as the population estimate of July 2004 showed a population increase for the first time since 1954, reaching a total of 2,144,700 inhabitants. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (570x622, 130 KB) Summary Statistical demographics plan of Paris and the ÃŽle-de-France région J.M. Schomburg - My own work - Created the 08/03/2006 Attribution: Plan: 2005 J.M. Schomburg http://www. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Hauts-de-Seine is a département in France. ... Seine-Saint-Denis is a French département located in the ÃŽle-de-France région. ... Val-de-Marne is a French département, named after the Marne River, located in the ÃŽle-de-France région. ... Seine-et-Marne is a French département, named after the Seine and the Marne rivers, and located in the ÃŽle-de-France région. ... Yvelines is a French département in the région of ÃŽle-de-France. ... Essonne is a French department in the region of ÃŽle-de-France. ... Val-dOise is a French département named after the Oise River, located in the ÃŽle-de-France région. ... This article is about the French administrative region. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... // Historical population Metropolitan area of Paris (NB: the limits of the metropolitan area change yearly; only the last two data are official from the French national statistics office INSEE, while the other data are just estimates compiled from several sources. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ...


Density

Paris is the most densely populated city of more than 1,000,000 population in the Western world[citation needed]. Its density, excluding the outlying woodland parks of Boulogne and Vincennes, was 24,448 inhabitants per square kilometre (63,320/sq mi) in the 1999 official census. Even including the two woodland areas its population density was 20,164 inhabitants per square kilometre (52,224.5/sq mi), the fifth most densely populated commune in France following Le Pré-Saint-Gervais, Vincennes, Levallois-Perret, and Saint-Mandé, all of which border the city proper. The most sparsely populated quarters are the western and central office and administration-focussed arrondissements. The city's population is densest in the northern and eastern arrondissements; the 11th arrondissement had a density of 40,672 inhabitants per square kilometre (105,340/sq mi) in 1999, and some of the same arrondissement's eastern quarters had densities close to 100,000/km² (260,000/sq mi) in the same year. Occident redirects here. ... The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... The lake Hippodrome de Vincennes The Bois de Vincennes is a park in the English landscape manner to the east of Paris. ... Le Pré-Saint-Gervais (simply known by locals as Le Pré, i. ... This article is about the city in France. ... Levallois-Perret is a town and commune in France, in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, on the right bank of the Seine. ... Saint-Mandé is a commune of the Val-de-Marne département, in France. ... The city of Paris is divided into 20 arrondissements municipaux (“municipal boroughs,” approximately, in English), more simply referred to as arrondissements (pronounced ). These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements. ... The 11th arrondissement (XIe arrondissement), located on the Right Bank, is the most densely populated of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France, as well as the second most densely populated in Europe // The eleventh is a lively, varied area. ...


The Paris agglomeration

The city of Paris's administrative limits cover an area much smaller than its entire urban area. At present, the real extent of the dense urbanisation of which Paris is only a core, defined by the pôle urbain (urban area) statistical area, covers 2,723 km² (1,051.4 sq mi),[32], or an area about 26 times larger than the city itself. Surrounding the Paris pôle urbain is the couronne peri-urbaine commuter belt area that completes the Paris aire urbaine (a unit similar to a North American metropolitan area) covering 14,518 km² (5,605.5 sq mi)[citation needed], or an area about 138 times that of Paris itself. Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The administration of Paris's urban growth is divided between itself and its surrounding départements: Paris' closest ring of three adjoining departments, or petite couronne ("small ring") are fully saturated with urban growth, and the ring of four departements outside of these, the grande couronne départements, are only covered in their inner regions by Paris' urbanisation. These eight départements form the larger administrative Île-de-France région; most of this region is filled, and overextended in places, by the Paris aire urbaine. The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... This article is about the French administrative region. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common...


The Paris agglomeration has shown a steady rate of growth since the end of the late 16th century French Wars of Religion, save brief setbacks during the French Revolution and World War II[citation needed]. Suburban development has accelerated in recent years: with an estimated total of 11.4 million inhabitants for 2005, the Île-de-France région shows a rate of growth double that of the 1990s.[33][34] The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the French administrative region. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common...


Immigration

By law, French censuses do not ask questions regarding ethnicity or religion, but do gather information concerning country of birth. From this it is still possible to determine that the Paris and its aire urbaine (metropolitan area) is one of the most multi-cultural in Europe: at the 1999 census, 19.4% of its total population was born outside of metropolitan France.[35] At the same census, 4.2% of the Paris aire urbaine's population were recent immigrants (i.e people who migrated to France between the 1990 and 1999 censuses),[36] in their majority from mainland China and Africa.[37] In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ... ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The first wave of international migration to Paris started as early as in 1820 with the arrivals of German peasants fleeing the agricultural crisis in Germany. Several waves of immigration followed continuously until today: Italians and central European Jews during the 19th century; Russians after the revolution of 1917; colonial citizens during World War I and later; Poles between the two world wars; Spaniards, Portuguese and North Africans from the 1950s to the 1970s; North African Jews after the independence of those countries; Africans and Asians since then.[38] The majority of these today are naturalised French without any distinction, due to the principle of equality among French citizens. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Administration

Paris, its administrative limits unchanged since 1860, is one of few cities that has not evolved politically with its real demographic growth; this issue is at present being discussed in plans for a "Grand Paris" (Greater Paris) that will extend Paris' administrative limits to embrace much more of its urban tissue.[39]


Capital of France

Paris is the capital of France, and therefore is the seat of France's national government.


For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. The President of France resides at the Élysée Palace in the VIIIe arrondissement, while the Prime Minister's seat is at the Hôtel Matignon in the VIIe arrondissement. Government ministries are located in various parts of the city – many are located in the VIIe, near the Matignon. This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... The entrance to the Élysée Palace. ... The 8th arrondissement (VIIIe arrondissement), located on the Right Bank, is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The Hôtel Matignon is the official residence of the Prime Minister of France. ... The 7th arrondissement, located on the Left Bank, is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ... The 7th arrondissement, located on the Left Bank, is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ...


The two houses of the French Parliament are also located on the Left Bank. The upper house, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg in the VIe arrondissement, while the more important lower house, the Assemblée Nationale, meets in the Palais Bourbon in the VIIe. The President of the Senate, the second highest public official in France after the President of the Republic, resides in the "Petit Luxembourg", a smaller palace annex to the Palais du Luxembourg. For the musical group, see Left Banke. ... The Senate (in French : le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The Luxembourg Palace in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, north of the Luxembourg Garden, is where the French Senate meets. ... The 6th arrondissement (VIe arrondissement), located on the Left Bank, is one of the central arrondissements of Paris, France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The Palais Bourbon, a palace located in Paris, France, is the seat of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative chamber of the French government. ... The French Senate is the Upper House of the French Parliament. ... The Luxembourg Palace in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, north of the Luxembourg Garden, is where the French Senate meets. ...


France's highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation, the highest court in the judicial order, which tries most criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the Île de la Cité, while the Conseil d'État, which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais Royal in the Ier. The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... Paris Hall of Justice The Palais de Justice is located in the ÃŽle de la Cité in central Paris, France. ... Notre Dame de Paris on ÃŽle de la Cité from upstream (the east) The ÃŽle de la Cité, one of two islands in the Seine (the other being ÃŽle Saint-Louis), in the centre of Paris and the location where the medieval city was refounded. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... Gardens of the Palais-Royal: The illustration, from an 1863 guide to Paris, enlarges the apparent scale. ... The 1er arrondissement is the least populated of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France, though it is also one of the smallest by land area. ...


The Constitutional Council, which is an advisory body which is the ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and government decrees, also meets in the Palais Royal. A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... Gardens of the Palais-Royal: The illustration, from an 1863 guide to Paris, enlarges the apparent scale. ...


City government

Paris has been a commune (municipality) since 1834 (and also briefly between 1790 and 1795). At the 1790 division (during the French Revolution) of France into communes, and again in 1834, Paris was a city only half its modern size, but in 1860 it annexed bordering communes, some entirely, to create the new administrative map of twenty municipal arrondissements the city still has today. These municipal subdivisions describe a clockwise spiral outward from its most central first arrondissement. Image File history File links Par_Arr. ... Image File history File links Par_Arr. ... The city of Paris is divided into 20 arrondissements municipaux (“municipal boroughs,” approximately, in English), more simply referred to as arrondissements (pronounced ). These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements. ... Before the French Revolution, the municipality of Paris was headed by the provost of the merchants (prévôt des marchands). ... The city of Paris is divided into 20 arrondissements municipaux (“municipal boroughs,” approximately, in English), more simply referred to as arrondissements (pronounced ). These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The city of Paris is divided into 20 arrondissements municipaux (“municipal boroughs,” approximately, in English), more simply referred to as arrondissements (pronounced ). These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements. ... The 1er arrondissement is the least populated of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France, though it is also one of the smallest by land area. ...


In 1790, Paris became the préfecture (seat) of the Seine département, which covered much of the Paris region. In 1968, it was split into four smaller ones: the city of Paris became a distinct département of its own, retaining the Seine's departmental number of 75 (originating from the Seine département's position in France's alphabetical list), while three new départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne were created and given the numbers 92, 93 and 94 respectively. The result of this division is that today Paris' limits as a département are exactly those of its limits as a commune, a situation unique in France. In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... Seine was a département of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Hauts-de-Seine is a département in France. ... Seine-Saint-Denis is a French département located in the ÃŽle-de-France région. ... Val-de-Marne is a French département, named after the Marne River, located in the ÃŽle-de-France région. ...


Municipal offices

Each of Paris' 20 arrondissements has a directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement), which in turn elects an arrondissement mayor. A selection of members from each arrondissement council form the Council of Paris (conseil de Paris), which in turn elects the mayor of Paris. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3888 × 2592 pixel, file size: 3. ... Luxembourg Palace The Luxembourg Palace in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Luxembourg Garden, is where the French Senate meets. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1503 KB) Paris, Hotel de Ville, sept. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1503 KB) Paris, Hotel de Ville, sept. ... The Hôtel de Ville houses the office of the Mayor of Paris. ... The Edict of Paris of Clotaire II, the Merovingian king of the Franks, promulgated October 18, 614 (or perhaps 615), is one of the most important royal instruments of the Merovingian period in French history and a hallmark in the history of the development of the French monarchy. ... This is a list of mayors of Paris (maire de Paris). ...


In medieval times Paris was governed by a merchant-elected municipality whose head was the provost of the merchants: in addition to regulating city commerce, the provost of the merchants was responsible for some civic duties such as the guarding of city walls and the cleanliness of city streets. The creation of the provost of Paris from the 13th century diminished the merchant Provost's responsibilities and powers considerably: a direct representative of the king, in a role resembling somewhat the préfet of later years, the Provost of Paris oversaw the application and execution of law and order in the city and its surrounding prévôté (county). Many functions from both provost offices were transferred to the office of the crown-appointed lieutenant general of police upon its creation in 1667. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This is a list of mayors of Paris (maire de Paris). ... Look up provost in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties...


Paris's last Prévôt des marchands was assassinated the afternoon of the 14th of July 1789 uprising that was the French Revolution Storming of the Bastille. Paris became an official "commune" from the creation of the administrative division on December 14 the same year, and its provisional "Paris commune" revolutionary municipality was replaced with the city's first municipal constitution and government from October 9, 1790.[40] Through the turmoil of the 1794 Thermidorian Reaction, it became apparent that revolutionary Paris' political independence was a threat to any governing power: the office of mayor was abolished the same year, and its municipal council one year later. Look up provost in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Belligerents French government Parisian militia (predecessor of Frances National Guard) Commanders Bernard-René de Launay â€  Prince de Lambesc Camille Desmoulins Strength 114 soldiers, 30 artillery pieces 600 - 1,000 insurgents Casualties and losses 1 (6 or possibly 8 killed after surrender. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror (which ended with the execution of Robespierre), and triggered by the execution of Robespierre and several other leading members of the Committee of Public Safety on a vote of the Comittee. ...


Although the municipal council was recreated in 1834, Paris spent most of the 19th and 20th centuries, along with the larger Seine département of which it was a centre, under the direct control of the State-appointed préfet of the Seine, in charge of general affairs there; the state-appointed Prefect of Police was in charge of police in the same jurisdiction. Paris, save for a few brief occasions, would have no mayor until 1977, and the Paris Prefecture of Police is still under state control today. Seine was a département of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to British counties. ... In France and many other French-speaking countries, a préfet (English: prefect) is the States representative in a département or région (in the later case, he is called a préfet de région). ... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties...


Despite its dual existence as commune and département, Paris has a single council to govern both; the Council of Paris, presided by the mayor of Paris, meets either as a municipal council (conseil municipal) or as a departmental council (conseil général) depending on the issue to be debated.


Paris's modern administrative organisation still retains some traces of the former Seine département jurisdiction. The Prefecture of Police (also directing Paris's fire brigades), for example, has still a jurisdiction extending to Paris' petite couronne of bordering three départements for some operations such as fire protection or rescue operations, and is still directed by France's national government. Paris has no municipal police force, although it does have its own brigade of traffic wardens. The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties...

Departments of Île-de-France
Departments of Île-de-France

Image File history File links Ile-de-France_jms. ... Image File history File links Ile-de-France_jms. ... This article is about the French administrative region. ...

Capital of the Île-de-France région

As part of a 1961 nation-wide administrative effort to consolidate regional economies, Paris as a département became the capital of the new région of the District of Paris, renamed the Île-de-France région in 1976. It encompasses the Paris département and its seven closest départements. Its regional council members, since 1986, have been chosen by direct elections. The prefect of the Paris département (who served as the prefect of the Seine département before 1968) is also prefect of the Île-de-France région, although the office lost much of its power following the creation of the office of mayor of Paris in 1977. The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the French administrative region. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common...


Intercommunality

Few of the above changes have taken into account Paris' existence as an agglomeration. Unlike in most of France's major urban areas such as Lille and Lyon, there is no intercommunal entity in the Paris urban area, no intercommunal council treating the problems of the region's dense urban core as a whole; Paris's alienation of its suburbs is indeed a problem today, and considered by many to be the main causes of civil unrest such as the suburban riots in 2005. A direct result of these unfortunate events were propositions for a more efficient metropolitan structure to cover the city of Paris and some of the suburbs, ranging from a socialist idea of a loose "metropolitan conference" (conférence métropolitaine) to the right-wing idea of a more integrated Grand Paris ("Greater Paris"). In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French city. ... The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ...


Education

In the early ninth century, the emperor Charlemagne mandated all churches to give lessons in reading, writing and basic arithmetic to their parishes, and cathedrals to give a higher education in the finer arts of language, physics, music and theology. Paris was already one of France's major cathedral towns and began its rise to fame as a scholastic centre. By the early 13th century the Île de la Cité Notre-Dame cathedral school had many famous teachers, and the controversial teachings of some of these led to the creation of a separate Left-Bank Sainte-Genevieve University that would become the centre of Paris' scholastic Latin quarter best represented by the Sorbonne university. For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Notre Dame de Paris on ÃŽle de la Cité from upstream (the east) The ÃŽle de la Cité, one of two islands in the Seine (the other being ÃŽle Saint-Louis), in the centre of Paris and the location where the medieval city was refounded. ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... Ste. ... Inscription over the entrance to the Sorbonne The front of the Sorbonne Building The name Sorbonne (La Sorbonne) is commonly used to refer to the historic University of Paris in Paris, France or one of its successor institutions (see below), but this is a recent usage, and Sorbonne has actually...


Twelve centuries later, education in Paris and the Paris region (Île-de-France région) employs approximately 330,000 persons, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions.[41] This article is about the French administrative region. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common...


Primary and secondary education

Multi-ethnic children in a Primary Education School in Paris
Multi-ethnic children in a Primary Education School in Paris

Paris is home to several of France's most prestigious high-schools such as Lycée Louis-le-Grand and Lycée Henri-IV. Other high-schools of international renown in the Paris area include the Lycée International de Saint Germain-en-Laye and the École Active Bilingue Jeannine Manuel. The Lycée Louis-le-Grand, in Paris is one of the most famous lycées providing preparatory classes for grandes écoles. ... The Lycée Henri IV (sometimes nicknamed HIV to be pronouced H4) is a public high school located in Paris. ... The Lycée International is a public high school located in Saint-Germain-en-Laye. ... The Ecole Active Bilingue Jeannine Manuel of Paris or EABJM was founded in 1955 by Jeannine Manuel. ...


Higher education

Lycée Louis-le-Grand
Lycée Louis-le-Grand

As of the academic year 2004-2005, the Paris Region's 17 public universities, with its 359,749 registered students,[42] is the largest concentration of university students in Europe.[43] The Paris Region's prestigious grandes écoles and scores of university-independent private and public schools have an additional 240,778 registered students, that together with the university population creates a grand total of 600,527 students in higher education that year.[42] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 125 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 125 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): University of Paris Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Download high resolution version (2108x1944, 599 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2108x1944, 599 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Lycée Louis-le-Grand, in Paris is one of the most famous lycées providing preparatory classes for grandes écoles. ... For the film released in 2004, see Grande École (film). ...


Universities

The cathedral of Notre-Dame was the first centre of higher education before the creation of the University of Paris. The universitas was chartered by King Philip Augustus in 1200, as a corporation granting teachers (and their students) the right to rule themselves independently from crown law and taxes. At the time, many classes were held in open air. Non-Parisian students and teachers would stay in hostels, or "colleges", created for the boursiers coming from afar. Already famous by the 13th century, the University of Paris had students from all of Europe. Paris' Rive Gauche scholastic centre, dubbed "Latin Quarter" as classes were taught in Latin then, would eventually regroup around the college created by Robert de Sorbon from 1257, the Collège de Sorbonne. The University of Paris in the 19th century had six faculties: law, science, medicine, pharmaceutical studies, literature and theology. For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... For the musical group, see Left Banke. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... The Quartier Latin (Latin Quarter) is an area in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France, around the Sorbonne University. ... Robert de Sorbon (October 9, 1201 – August 15, 1274) was a French theologian and founder of the Sorbonne college in Paris. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The Sorbonne today, from the same point of view The Collège de Sorbonne was a theological college of the University of Paris, founded in 1257 by Robert de Sorbon, after whom it is named. ...


Following the 1968 student riots, there was an extensive reform of the University of Paris, in an effort to disperse the centralised student body. The following year, the formerly unique University of Paris was split between thirteen autonomous universities ("Paris I" to "Paris XIII") located throughout the City of Paris and its suburbs. Each of these universities inherited only some of the departments of the old University of Paris, and are not generalist universities. Paris I, II, V and X, inherited the Law School; Paris V inherited the School of Medicine as well; Paris VI and VII inherited the scientific departments; etc. A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ...


In 1991, four more universities were created in the suburbs of Paris, reaching a total of seventeen public universities for the Paris (Île-de-France) région. These new universities were given names (based on the name of the suburb in which they are located) and not numbers like the previous thirteen: University of Cergy-Pontoise, University of Évry Val d'Essonne, University of Marne-la-Vallée and University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines. Other institutions include the University of Westminster's Centre for International Studies, the American University of Paris, and the American Business School of Paris. This article is about the French administrative region. ... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... The Université dÉvry Val-dEssonne (UEVE) is a university in Évry, France. ... The University of Westminster is a university in London, England, formed in 1992 as a result of the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992, which allowed the London Polytechnic (Polytechnic of Central London or PCL ) to rename itself as a university. ... The Seal of the Diplomatic Academy of London. ... The American University of Paris is an accredited, independent, private liberal arts and sciences institution in Paris, France. ...


There is also a University of London Institute in Paris(ULIP) which offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in French Studies ratified by the University of London. The University of London Institute in Paris (abbreviated ULIP) is a remote college of the University of London located in Paris. ...


Grandes écoles

The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of the prestigious grandes écoles, which are specialised centres of higher education outside the public university structure. The prestigious public universities are usually considered grands établissements. Most of the grandes écoles were relocated to the suburbs of Paris in the 1960s and 1970s, in new campuses much larger than the old campuses within the crowded city of Paris, though the École Normale Supérieure has remained on rue d'Ulm in the Ve arrondissement. The Paris area has a high number of engineering schools, led by the prestigious Paris Institute of Technology (ParisTech) which comprises several colleges such as École Polytechnique, École des Mines, Arts et Métiers, Télécom Paris, École spéciale des travaux publics and École des Ponts et Chaussées. There are also many business schools, including , HEC, ESSEC, INSEAD, and ESCP-EAP European School of Management. Although the elite administrative school ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg, the political science school Sciences-Po is still located in Paris' Left bank VIIe arrondissement. For the film released in 2004, see Grande École (film). ... The grands établissements are French public institutions under ministerial charter. ... The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Ulm) is a prestigious French grande école, possibly the most prestigious. ... The 5e arrondissement is one of the central arrondissements of Paris, France, located on the Left Bank. ... In 1991, many prestigious French écoles dingénieurs (engineering schools), felt the need to set up a co-ordinating body that would foster closer collaboration among themselves in areas of common interest and thereby acquire international recognition as an entity of sufficient size and importance. ... For other Écoles Polytechniques, see École Polytechnique de Montréal and École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. ... The Hôtel de Vendôme, central building of the Ecole des Mines The École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris (also known as Ecole des Mines, Ecole des Mines de Paris, Mines Paris or simply Mines) was created in 1783 on the request of King Louis XVI in... The École Nationale Supérieure dArts et Métiers or ENSAM is a French Engineering institute and grand établissement and a prominent member of ParisTech (Paris Institute of Technology). ... The École Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications (also known as ENST or Télécom or Télécom Paris) is one of the most prestigious and selective grandes écoles in France located in Paris. ... École spéciale des travaux publics, du bâtiment et de lindustrie (ESTP) in a technical college in Paris, founded in 1891 by Léon Eyrolles, the institution was officially recognized by the State in 1921. ... The École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC) (National school of Bridges and Roads), often referred to as les Ponts, is the worlds oldest engineering school and remains to this day one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles of engineering. ... École des Hautes Études Commerciales de Paris For other schools named Hautes Études Commerciales, see Hautes Études Commerciales. ... INSEAD is a graduate business school and research institution with campuses in Fontainebleau (near Paris), France and in Singapore. ... The ESCP-EAP European School of Management is a top ranking international business school and one of the most prestigious French Management Grandes Écoles [1], [2]. It is the oldest institution in the world[3] dedicated to business education. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Institut détudes politiques de Paris (English: Paris Institute of Political Studies), often referred to as Sciences Po (pronounced see-ahns po), is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France. ... For the musical group, see Left Banke. ... The 7th arrondissement, located on the Left Bank, is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ...


The grandes écoles system is supported by a number of preparatory schools which offer courses of two to three years duration called Classes Préparatoires, also known as classes prépas or simply prépas. These courses provide entry to the grandes écoles. Many of the best prépas are located in Paris, including Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lycée Henri-IV, Lycée Saint-Louis, Lycée Janson de Sailly and Lycée Carnot. Two other top-ranking prépas (Lycée Hoche and Lycée Privé Sainte-Geneviève) are located in Versailles, near Paris. Student selection is based on school grades and teacher remarks. Prépas attract most of the best students in France and are known to be very demanding in terms of work load and psychological stress. The Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Écoles (nicknames : Classes prépas or simply prépa) are highly selective French undergraduate studies which prepare students to the Grandes Écoles. ... The Lycée Louis-le-Grand, in Paris is one of the most famous lycées providing preparatory classes for grandes écoles. ... The Lycée Henri IV (sometimes nicknamed HIV to be pronouced H4) is a public high school located in Paris. ... Lycée Saint-Louis, Paris VIe (Photo from 1929). ... Lycée Janson de Sailly is a lycée located in the XVIe arrondissement of Paris, France. ... The Lycée Carnot is a public high-school located in Paris, in the seventeenth arrondissement. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ...


Infrastructure

Thalys with destinations to Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands
Thalys with destinations to Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands

Image File history File linksMetadata Thalys2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Thalys2. ... Thalys PBKA Thalys is a high-speed train network built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (648x1000, 96 KB) Inauguration of the T3 tramway, Porte de Versailles, Paris, at 12:10 pm on the 16th of December 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (648x1000, 96 KB) Inauguration of the T3 tramway, Porte de Versailles, Paris, at 12:10 pm on the 16th of December 2006. ... Tramway line T3 is the first modern tramway in Paris proper. ...

Transport

See also: List of railway stations in Paris

The role of Paris as an international trade centre has caused its transportation system to develop considerably throughout history, and it continues its growth at a fast pace today. In only a few decades[citation needed], Paris has become the centre of a motorway and freeway system, a high-speed train network and, through its two major airports, an international air travel hub. Paris transportation network is very diverse and exists literally over many levels. ... This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook (2003 edition) which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The public transit networks of the Paris region are coordinated by the Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France[44] (STIF), formerly Syndicat des transports parisiens (STP). The members of this syndicate are the Ile-de-France region and the eight departements of this region. The syndicate coordinates public transport and contracts it out to the RATP (operating 654 bus lines, the Métro, three tramway lines, and sections of the RER), the SNCF (operating suburban rails, a tramway line and the other sections of the RER) and the Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,070 minor bus lines. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Typical RATP métro access turnstiles The Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP/Autonomous Transport Region of Paris) is the major transit authority responsible for public transportation in Paris and its environs. ... RATP operate the majority of buses in central Paris. ... Métro redirects here. ... Tram on line T1 in Bobigny. ... For other uses, see RER (disambiguation). ... SNCF (Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français) (French National Railway Company) is a French public enterprise. ... The Transilien is the brand name for railway services of the SNCF-owned railway network operating within Paris ÃŽle-de-France région. ... Optile (Organisation Professionnelle des Transports dÃŽle-de-France, or Professional Transport Organisation of ÃŽle-de-France) is a public transport organisation, created in October 2000 from a merger between several private bus companies serving suburban Paris. ...


The Métro is Paris's most important transportation system. The system, with 300 stations (384 stops) connected by 214 km (133.0 mi) of rails, comprises 16 lines, identified by numbers from 1 to 14, with two minor lines, 3bis and 7bis, so numbered because they used to be branches of their respective original lines, and only later became independent. In October 1998, the new line 14 was inaugurated after a 70-year hiatus in inaugurating fully new métro lines. Because of the short distance between stations on the Métro network, lines were too slow to be extended further into the suburbs as is the case in most other cities. As such, an additional express network, the RER, has been created since the 1960s to connect more distant parts of the urban area. The RER consists in the integration of modern city-centre subway and pre-existing suburban rail. Nowadays, the RER network comprises 5 lines, 257 stops and 587 km (365 mi) of rails. Métro redirects here. ... Line 14 of Paris Métro crosses the center of Paris and currently runs between the Saint Lazare and Bibliothèque François Mitterrand stations. ... For other uses, see RER (disambiguation). ...


Additionally, Paris is served by a light rail network of 4 lines, the tramway: Line T1 runs from Saint-Denis to Noisy-le-Sec, line T2 runs from La Défense to Issy, line T3 runs from Pont de Garigliano to Porte d'Ivry, line T4 runs from Bondy to Aulnay-sous-Bois. This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Tram on line T1 in Bobigny. ... Saint Denis can refer to: a Christian saint: see Denis Seine-Saint-Denis a département of France Several communes in France: Saint-Denis,in the Aude département Saint-Denis, in the Gard département Saint-Denis, in the Seine-Saint-Denis département, home of Saint Denis Basilica Saint-Denis, in the... Noisy-le-Sec is a town and commune of the Seine-Saint-Denis département, in France. ... La Défense viewed across the Bois de Boulogne. ... Issy-les-Moulineaux, is a city in the département of Hauts-des-Seine in the southwestern suburban Paris, France. ... Bondy is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. ... Aulnay-sous-Bois is a town and commune of France, in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris. ...


Paris is a central hub of the national rail network. The six major railway stations, Gare du Nord, Gare Montparnasse, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Austerlitz, and Gare Saint-Lazare, are connected to three networks: the TGV serving 4 High-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails (Transilien). Main entrance to the Gare du Nord The Gare du Nord (English: North Station) is one of the six large terminus stations of the SNCFs main line network in Paris. ... View of the Gare Montparnasse from the Tour Montparnasse The Gare Montparnasse is one of the six large terminus train stations of Paris, located in the Montparnasse area, in the XVe arrondissement. ... An RER train at Gare de lEst. ... Inside the Gare de Lyon. ... The Gare dAusterlitz (Austerlitz Station) is a railway station in Paris. ... Gare Saint-Lazare is Paris busiest railway station. ... For the group of heart conditions referred to as TGV, see Transposition of the great vessels. ... High speed train redirects here. ... Corail B6Dux cab-car of TER Rhône-Alpes Corail ND cars at gare Saint-Lazare Interior of a 2nd class Corail ND VTU (B10tu, B11tu) coach Corail is the name given to a class of passenger rail cars of the SNCF that first entered commercial service in 1975. ... The Transilien is the brand name for railway services of the SNCF-owned railway network operating within Paris Île-de-France région. ...


Paris offers a bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 10,000 public bicycles distributed at 750 parking stations which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips. White bicycles for free use, in Hoge Veluwe national park, the Netherlands Community bicycle programs (also known as Yellow bicycle programs, White bicycle programs, bike sharing, public bike or free bike) are one variation on an international movement to provide environmentally friendly transportation options to citizens. ... Vélib’ (“vélo libre” or “vélo liberté”, English: ) is a public bicycle rental programme in Paris, France. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... Some countries, like Germany, show text on one-way signs A Swedish one-way sign used on T junctions No entry signs are often placed at the wrong ends of one-way streets A one-way street is a street on which vehicles can only move in one direction. ...


Furthermore, Paris is served by two major airports: Orly Airport, which is south of Paris, and the Charles de Gaulle International Airport, nearby Roissy-en-France, which is one of the busiest in the world. A third and much smaller airport, in the town of Beauvais, 70 km (45 mi) to the north of the city, is used by charter and low-cost airlines. The fourth airport, Le Bourget nowadays only hosts business jets, air trade shows and the aerospace museum. For the NATO military use of this facility, see Orly Air Base (Paris). ... Charles de Gaulle International Airport (IATA: CDG, ICAO: LFPG) (French: ), also known as Roissy Airport (or just Roissy in French), in Paris, is one of the worlds principal aviation centres, as well as Frances main international airport. ... Roissy-en-France, or simply Roissy, is a commune of the Val-dOise département, near Paris, France. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ... Le Bourget airport (Aéroport du Bourget) is an airport, located in Le Bourget, close to Paris, France, nowadays only used for general aviation (business jets) as well as air shows. ...


The city is also the most important hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by three orbital freeways: the Périphérique which follows the approximate path of 19th century fortifications around Paris, the A86 motorway in the inner suburbs, and finally the Francilienne motorway in the outer suburbs. Paris has an extensive road network with over 2000 kilometres of highways and motorways. By road Brussels can be reached in three hours, Frankfurt in 6 hours and Barcelona in 12 hours. Motorway symbol in UK, Australia, Spain, France and Ireland. ... Périphérique is the French term for a ring road (U.S.: Beltway), a motorway or freeway encircling or orbiting a large city. ... A86 (or Paris super-périphérique) is the second (incomplete) ring road (U.S.: Beltway) around Paris. ... The Francilienne is a partial ring road around Ile-de-France (Paris), France, lying outside the A86. ...


Water and sanitation

Paris in its early history had only the Seine and Bièvre rivers for water. Later forms of irrigation were: a first-century Roman aqueduct from southerly Wissous (later left to ruin); sources from the Right bank hills from the late 11th century; from the 15th century an aqueduct built roughly along the path of the abandoned Wissous aqueduct; finally, from 1809, the canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less polluted rivers to the northeast of the capital. Paris would only have its first constant and plentiful source of drinkable water from the late 19th century: from 1857, the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand, under Napoleon III's Préfet Haussmann, oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts that brought sources from locations all around the city to several reservoirs built atop the Capital's highest points of elevation. From then the new source/reservoir system became Paris' principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then used for the cleaning of Paris' streets. This system is still a major part of Paris' modern water supply network. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 500 KB) A bridge over Canal Saint-Martin in Paris I attest that I am the copyright holder for this image and I release it for use under the Creative Commons 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 500 KB) A bridge over Canal Saint-Martin in Paris I attest that I am the copyright holder for this image and I release it for use under the Creative Commons 2. ... The northern portion of the canal A bridge over the canal The canal as it goes underground to return to the Seine Canal Saint-Martin is a 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3038 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3038 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the river in France. ... This article is about the President of the French Republic and Emperor of the French. ... In France and many other French-speaking countries, a préfet (English: prefect) is the States representative in a département or région (in the later case, he is called a préfet de région). ... Georges-Eugène, Baron Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891) was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ...


Paris has over 2,400 km of underground passageways[45] dedicated to the evacuation of Paris' liquid wastes. Most of these date from the late 19th century, a result of the combined plans of the Préfet Baron Haussmann and the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand to improve the then very unsanitary conditions in the Capital. Maintained by a round-the-clock service since their construction, only a small percentage of Paris' sewer réseau has needed complete renovation. The entire Paris network of sewers and collectors has been managed since the late 20th century by a computerised network system, known under the acronym "G.A.AS.PAR", that controls all of Paris' water distribution, even the flow of the river Seine through the capital. In France and many other French-speaking countries, a préfet (English: prefect) is the States representative in a département or région (in the later case, he is called a préfet de région). ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ...


International relations

Paris, Banks of the Seine*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Reference 600
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1991  (15th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Paris has one sister city and a number of partner cities.[46][47] A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...


Sister city

  • Flag of Italy Rome, Italy, since 1956 (Seule Paris est digne de Rome; seule Rome est digne de Paris / Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; Solo Roma è degna di Parigi / "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; Only Rome is worthy of Paris").

Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

Partner cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about Porto Alegre, Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Mausoleum of Mohammed V through mosque ruins NASA image of Rabat Rabat (Arabic الرباط, transliterated ar-Rabāṭ or ar-Ribāṭ), population 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... Building in San‘a’ Clay houses in San‘a’ The residence of Imam Yahya in the Wadi Dhar near San‘a’. Backstreet in Yemen (Arabic: ‎ , sometimes spelled Sanaa or Sanaa) is the capital of Yemen and the centre of San‘a’ Governorate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Motto: Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... This article is about the city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: , Country Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ...

See also

Boulevard Haussmann The Haussmann Renovations, or Haussmannization of Paris was a work led under the initiative of Napoléon III and the Seine préfet, Haussmann, from 1852 to 1870. ... The Large Cities Climate Leadership Group is a group of cities committed to the reduction of urban carbon emissions and adapting to climate change. ... This article is about megacities in general. ... The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts) was a World fair held in Paris, France in 1925. ... The University of London Institute in Paris (abbreviated ULIP) is a remote college of the University of London located in Paris. ...

References

  1. ^ English version. Official website of Paris.
  2. ^ a b Excluding Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes
  3. ^ People will sometimes imitate the French pronunciation by saying /pæˈriː/ or /pəˈriː/.
  4. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. " Estimation de population par département, sexe et grande classe d’âge – Années 1990 à 2006". Retrieved on 2008-02-16.
  5. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Population des villes et unités urbaines de plus de 1 million d'habitants de l'Union Européenne". Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  6. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Aire Urbaine '99 – pop totale par sexe et âge". Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  7. ^ Stefan Helders, World Gazetteer. "World Metropolitan Areas". Retrieved on 2007-01-18.
  8. ^ Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network, Loughborough University. "Inventory of World Cities". Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  9. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. Produits Intérieurs Bruts Régionaux (PIBR) en valeur en millions d'euros (XLS). Retrieved on 2007-09-01.
  10. ^ Fortune. Global Fortune 500 by countries: France. Retrieved on 2007-11-03.
  11. ^ Logistics-in-Europe.com, Vertical Mail. "Paris Ile-de-France, a head start in Europe". Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  12. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. Le tourisme se porte mieux en 2004 (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  13. ^ The City of Antiquity, official history of Paris by The Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau
  14. ^ a b c Mairie de Paris. Paris, Roman City - Chronology. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  15. ^ Mairie de Paris. Paris, Roman City - The City. Retrieved on 2006-07-16.
  16. ^ Jones, Colin (2005) Paris: The Biography of a City (New York, NY: Penguin Viking), pp. 318–319.
  17. ^ (French) Amicale Genealogie, La Petite Gazette Généalogique. "Le Cholera". Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  18. ^ Jones, Colin (2005) Paris: The Biography of a City (New York, NY: Penguin Viking), pp. 324–325.
  19. ^ a b Jones, Colin (2005) Paris: The Biography of a City (New York, NY: Penguin Viking), p. 334.
  20. ^ Jones, Colin (2005) Paris: The Biography of a City (New York, NY: Penguin Viking), pp. 388–391
  21. ^ Richard Overy (2006). Why the Allies Won. Pimlico, pp. 215–216. ISBN 1845950658. 
  22. ^ Kelly Bell. Dietrich von Choltitz: Saved of Paris From Destruction During World War II. www.TheHistoryNet.com. Retrieved on 2007-11-17.
  23. ^ BBC News. Special Report: Riots in France. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-11-17.
  24. ^ a b (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Géographie de la capitale - Le climat". Retrieved on 2006-05-24.
  25. ^ World Weather Information Service - Paris. Retrieved on April 14, 2008.
  26. ^ Paris/7th arrondissement. Wikitravel. Retrieved on 2007-11-27.
  27. ^ a b (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux en valeur de 1990 à 2005" (XLS). Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  28. ^ At real exchange rates, not at PPP
  29. ^ World Bank. "Total GDP 2005" (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  30. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Estimations de la population des régions au 1er janvier ". Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  31. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Les emplois dans les activités liées au tourisme: un sur quatre en Ile-de-France" (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  32. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Chiffres-Clefs – Unité Urbaine – Paris". Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  33. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Enquêtes annuelles de recensement 2004 et 2005" (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  34. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Enquêtes annuelles de recensement: premiers résultats de la collecte 2004" (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  35. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Aire urbaine 99 : Paris - Migrations (caractère socio-économique selon le lieu de naissance)". Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  36. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Aire urbaine 99 : Paris - Migrations (caractère démographique selon le lieu de résidence au 01/01/90)". Retrieved on 2006-07-06.
  37. ^ (French) Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques. "Flux d'immigration permanente par motif en 2003". Retrieved on 2006-06-25.
  38. ^ (French) Cité Nationale de l'Histoire de l'Immigration. "Histoire de l'immigration en France". Retrieved on 2006-06-25.
  39. ^ (French) 20mins.fr. "Sarkozy relance le projet d'un Grand Paris". Retrieved on 2008-04-13.
  40. ^ JSTOR Journal Archive. "Improvising a Government in Paris in July 1789". Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  41. ^ (French) La Préfecture de la Région d'Ile-de-France. L'enseignement. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  42. ^ a b Regional Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Paris – Île-de-France (2006). Paris Region : key figures 2006 (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  43. ^ (French) Céline Rozenblat, Patricia Cicille, Delegation for Spatial Planning and Regional Action (Datar) (2006). Les villes européennes – Analyse comparative (page 42) (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-07-04.
  44. ^ (French) Syndicat des Transports d'Ile-de-France (STIF). "Le web des voyageurs franciliens". Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  45. ^ (French) Mairie de Paris. "Les égouts parisiens". Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
  46. ^ Mairie de Paris. Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  47. ^ Mairie de Paris. International relations : special partners. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.

The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... The lake Hippodrome de Vincennes The Bois de Vincennes is a park in the English landscape manner to the east of Paris. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Loughborough University is located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire in the East Midlands of England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fortune magazine is Americas second longest-running business magazine after Forbes magazine. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Random House is a publishing division of Bertelsmann AG. It was founded in 1927 by Bennett Cerf and Donald Klopfer, two years after they had acquired the Modern Library imprint. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Vincent Cronin (1989). Paris on the Eve, 1900-1914. (New York:HarperCollins). ISBN 0-312-04876-9. 
  • Vincent Cronin (1994). Paris:City of Light, 1919-1939. (New York:HarperCollins). ISBN 0-00-215191-X. 
  • (French) Jean Favier (April 23, 1997). Paris. Fayard. ISBN 2-213-59874-6. 
  • (French) Jacques Hillairet (April 22, 2005). Connaissance du Vieux Paris. Rivages. ISBN 2-86930-648-2. 
  • Colin Jones (2004). Paris: The Biography of a City. (New York, NY: Penguin Viking). ISBN 0670033936. 

Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer whose works have been widely translated into European languages. ... Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer whose works have been widely translated into European languages. ...

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Image File history File links Flag_of_La_Francophonie. ... This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ordered according to population (as of 2007). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For the town of Yokohama in Aomori Prefecture, see Yokohama, Aomori. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... This article is about the city. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... This article is about the city. ... For the capital city of the Philippines, see Manila. ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453... For other uses, see Lagos (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Karachay-Cherkessia. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Location Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... Saigon redirects here. ... Nickname: Map of the Dem. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Bogota redirects here. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... Essen is a city in the center of the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Madras redirects here. ... CITIC Plaza Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; jyutping : Gwong²zau¹) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... , For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city. ... This article is about the city in South Africa. ... A map of Gauteng, showing the East Rand. ... , For other uses, see Hyderabad. ... Dongguan (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Province Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - MPs List of MPs Dean Allison Chris Charlton David Christopherson Wayne Marston David Sweet  - MPPs List of MPPs Sophia Aggelonitis Andrea... Motto: Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Miami redirects here. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


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