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Encyclopedia > Parietal lobe
Brain: Parietal lobe
Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Parietal Lobe is shown in yellow)
Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side. (Parietal Lobe is in upper right.)
Latin lobus parietalis
Gray's subject #189 822
Part of Cerebrum
Artery Anterior cerebral
Middle cerebral
Vein Superior sagittal sinus
NeuroNames hier-77
MeSH Parietal+Lobe

The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. It is positioned above (superior to) the occipital lobe and behind (posterior to) the frontal lobe. Image File history File links Lobes_of_the_brain_NL.svg‎ Lobes of the brain image without labels. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... The telencephalon (IPA: ) is the name for the forebrain, a large region within the brain to which many functions are attributed. ... Image File history File links Gray726. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The telencephalon (IPA: ) is the name for the forebrain, a large region within the brain to which many functions are attributed. ... The anterior cerebral artery supplies oxygen to most medial portions of frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes. ... The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major arteries that supplies blood to the brain. ... The superior sagittal sinus lies within the superior border of the falx cerebri, a two-layered dural structure separating the two cerebral hemispheres. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ...


The parietal lobe integrates sensory information from different modalities, particularly determining spatial sense and navigation. For example, it comprises somatosensory cortex and the dorsal stream of the visual system. This enables regions of the parietal cortex to map objects perceived visually into body coordinate positions. Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Stimulus modality also sensory modality is one aspect of a stimulus. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... The dorsal stream is a pathway for visual information which flows through the visual cortex, the part of the brain which provides visual processing. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ...

Contents

Anatomy

The parietal lobe is defined by four anatomical boundaries: the central sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe; the parieto-occipital sulcus separates the parietal and occipital lobes; the lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure) is the most lateral boundary separating it from the temporal lobe; and the medial longitudinal fissure divides the two hemispheres. Central sulcus of the human brain. ... {{Infobox Brain| Name = Frontal lobe | Latin = lobus frontalis | GraySubject = 189 | GrayPage = 821 | Map = Cerebrum map| MapPos = | MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. ... Only a small part of the Parietoöccipital Fissure (or parieto-occipital sulcus) is seen on the lateral surface of the hemisphere, its chief part being on the medial surface. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The medial longitudinal fissure is the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain. ...


Immediately posterior to the central sulcus, and the most anterior part of the parietal lobe, is the postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 3), the primary somatosensory cortical area. Dividing this and the posterior parietal cortex is the postcentral sulcus. The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... Postcentral sulcus of the human brain. ...


The posterior parietal cortex can be subdivided into the superior parietal lobule (Brodmann areas 5 + 7) and the inferior parietal lobule (39 + 40), separated by the intraparietal sulcus (IP). The intraparietal sulcus and adjacent gyri are essential in guidance of limb and eye movement, and based on cytoarchitectural and functional differences is further divided into medial (MIP), lateral (LIP), ventral (VIP), and anterior (AIP) areas. The superior parietal lobule is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is usually connected with the posterior central gyrus above the end of the sulcus; behind it is the lateral part of the parietoöccipital fissure, around the end of which it is joined... Brodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The inferior parietal lobule (subparietal district or lobule) lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The lateral surface of the parietal lobe is cleft by a well-marked furrow, the intraparietal sulcus of Turner, which consists of an oblique and a horizontal portion. ... Grays FIG. 726– Lateral surface of left cerebral hemisphere, viewed from the side. ... A saccade is a fast movement of an eye, head, or other part of an animals body or of a device. ...


Function

The parietal lobe plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various parts of the body, knowledge of numbers and their relations[1], and in the manipulation of objects. Portions of the parietal lobe are involved with visuospatial processing. Much less is known about this lobe than the other three in the cerebrum.


Various studies in the 1990s found that different regions of the parietal cortex in Macaques represent different parts of space. For other uses, see Macaca. ...

  • The lateral intraparietal (LIP) contains a 2-dimensional topographic map of retinotopically-coded space representing the saliency of spatial locations. It can be used by the oculomotor system for targeting eye movements, when appropriate.
  • The ventral intraparietal (VIP) area receives input from a number of senses (visual, somatosensory, auditory, and vestibular[2]). Neurons with tactile receptive fields represented space in a head-centered reference frame[2]. The cells with visual receptive fields also fire with head-centered reference frames[3] but possibly also with eye-centered coordinates[2]
  • The medial intraparietal (MIP) area neurons encode the location of a reach target in eye-centered coordinates.[4]
  • The anterior intraparietal (AIP) area contains neurons responsive to shape, size, and orientation of objects to be grasped[5] as well as for manipulation of hands themselves, both to viewed[5] and remembered stimuli. [6]

The somatosensory system is the sensory system of somatic sensation. ... The vestibular system, or balance system, is the sensory system that provides the dominant input about movement and equilibrioception. ... Tactition is the sense of pressure perception. ...

Pathology

Gerstmann's syndrome is associated with lesion to the dominant (usually left) parietal lobe. Balint's syndrome is associated with bilateral lesions. The syndrome of hemispatial neglect is usually associated with large deficits of attention of the non-dominant hemisphere. Gerstmanns syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by four primary symptoms: Agraphia/dysgraphia Acalculia/dyscalculia Finger agnosia Left-right disorientation In adults, the syndrome may occur after a stroke or in association with damage to the parietal lobe. ... Balints syndrome, identified by Rezsö (Rudolf) Bálint in 1909, is the inability to perceive the visual field as a whole, resulting in the unpredictable perception and recognition of only parts of it (simultagnosia). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Unilateral neglect. ...


Additional images

References

  1. ^ Blakemore & Frith (2005). The Learning Brain. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-2401-6
  2. ^ a b c Avillac M, Deneve S, Olivier E, Pouget A, Duhamel JR. (2005) Reference frames for representing visual and tactile locations in parietal cortex. Nat Neurosci. 8(7):941-9.
  3. ^ Zhang T, Heuer HW, Britten KH. (2004) Parietal area VIP neuronal responses to heading stimuli are encoded in head-centered coordinates. Neuron 42(6):993-1001.
  4. ^ Pesaran B, Nelson MJ, Andersen RA. (2006) Dorsal premotor neurons encode the relative position of the hand, eye, and goal during reach planning. Neuron 51(1):125-34.
  5. ^ a b Murata A, Gallese V, Luppino G, Kaseda M, Sakata H. (2000) Selectivity for the shape, size, and orientation of objects for grasping in neurons of monkey parietal area AIP. J Neurophysiol 83(5):2580. PMID 10805659
  6. ^ Murata A, Gallese V, Kaseda M, Sakata H. (1996) Parietal neurons related to memory-guided hand manipulation. J Neurophysiol 75(5):2180-6. PMID 8734616

See also

Lobes of the brain There are five main lobes of the brain. ...

The corpus striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. ... The limbic system is a group of brain structures that are involved in various emotions such as aggression, fear, pleasure and also in the formation of memory. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
parietal lobe - Psychology of parietal lobe | Encyclopedia.com: Dictionary Of Psychology (875 words)
parietal lobe - Psychology of parietal lobe
activity was observed in the parietal cortex, the dlPFC, the medial frontal lobe, the basal ganglia, the thalamus...
The anterior lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, separated on its lateral or outer surface from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and from the temporal lobe by the lateral sulcus, involved in attention...
Parietal lobe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (481 words)
The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain.
The central sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe, and the parieto-occipital sulcus separates the parietal and occipital lobe.
The parietal lobe can be subdivided into the superior parietal lobule and the inferior parietal lobule with the two separated by the intraparietal sulcus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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