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Encyclopedia > Parenting

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Parenting is the process of raising and educating a child from birth until adulthood. Parent may refer to: Parenting, comprising all the tasks involved in raising a child to an independent adult. ... Robert Trivers theory of parental investment predicts that the sex making the largest investment in lactation, nurturing and protecting offspring will be more discriminating in mating and that the sex that invests less in offspring will compete for access to the higher investing sex. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... Parturition redirects here. ... For the adult insect stage, see Imago. ...


Parenting has recently become a very popular topic due to the necessity to clarify the process of upbringing a child at home by parents as the opposite to the formal education of a child at school. A teacher-student relationship is different than the parent-child relationship. Therefore a parent's methods of educating a child must be different than a teacher's. At school teachers give a child general literacy and scientific knowledge; at home parents give a child general wisdom of life as parents themselves understand it.   Parenting is the process of raising and educating a child from birth until adulthood. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... For other uses, see Student (disambiguation). ... Look up relationship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the ability to read and write. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the 1986 American crime film, see Wisdom (film). ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ...


The term "parenting" is a derivative of the word "parent" taken as a verb. When people say "to parent" a child it means "to be a parent," or "to fulfill parental duties." Since everyone who has a child has to parent he or she has their own view on what their parental duties are. Generally, the majority of parents admit that those duties are to provide for the basic needs of a child - the child's need for security and development. This implies security and development of a child's body, mind and psyche. In other words, it is physical, intellectual, and emotional security and development. It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... A need is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a goal and the reason for the action, giving purpose and direction to behavior. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... Look up Development in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Psyche can refer to: In psychology and related fields, the psyche is the entirety of the non-physical aspects of a person. ... Antonym of psychical. ... An intellectual is one who tries to use his or her intellect to work, study, reflect, speculate on, or ask and answer questions with regard to a variety of different ideas. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ...


Parenting is usually done in a child's family by the mother and/or father (i.e., the biological parents). When parents are unable or unwilling to provide this care, it is usually undertaken by close relatives, such as older siblings, aunts and uncles, or grandparents. In other cases, children may be cared for by adoptive parents, foster parents, godparents, or in institutions (such as group homes or orphanages). There are also circumstances, such as on a kibbutz, where parenting is an occupation even when biological parents exist. Parens patriae refers to the public policy power of the state to usurp the rights of the natural parent, legal guardian or informal caregiver, and to act as the parent of any child or individual who is in need of protection (i.e. if the child's caregiver is exceedingly violent or dangerous). a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... For other uses, see Mother (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... A foster parent is an adult guardian to whom one or more children have been legally entrusted. ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ... // The first orphanages, called orphanotrophia, were founded in the 1st century amid various alternative means of orphan support. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים; gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Parens patriae is Latin for parent of the fatherland or parent of the homeland. ... Public policy or ordre public is the body of fundamental principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state. ... For the purposes of Public International Law and Private International Law, a state is a defined group of people, living within defined territorial boundaries and subject, more or less, to an autonomous legal system exercising jurisdiction through properly constituted courts. ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ...


Parental duties

Providing physical security

Providing physical security refers to a safety of a child's body, safety of a child's life.

Warning signs, such as this one, can improve safety awareness. ... -1... (See also List of types of clothing) Introduction Humans often wear articles of clothing (also known as dress, garments or attire) on the body (for the alternative, see nudity). ... Food is any substance, usually composed primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins, that can be eaten or drunk by an animal for nutrition and/or pleasure. ... Protect can mean defend ...

Providing physical development

Developing a child physically refers to providing a conditions to a healthy growth of a child. For other uses, see Health (disambiguation). ... Growth can mean increase in spatial number or complexity for concrete entities in time or increase in some other dimension for abstract or hard-to-measure entities. ...

  • To provide a child with the means to develop physically
  • To train the body of a child, to introduce to sport
  • To develop habits of health
  • Physical games

For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... A habit is the usual condition or state of a person or thing, either natural or acquired, regarded as something had, possessed, and firmly retained. ... Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment. ...

Providing intellectual security

Intellectual security refers to the conditions, in which a child's mind can develop. If the child's dignity is safe, that is nobody encroaches upon a child physically or verbally, then he is able to learn. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about virtue. ... Encroachment is a term which implies advance beyond proper limits, and may have different interpretations depending on the context. ...

A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to involuntarily behave in a certain way (whether through action or inaction) by use of threats, intimidation or some other form of pressure or force. ... For the band, see Verbal Abuse. ...

Providing intellectual development

Intellectual development means providing opportunity to a child to learn - to learn about laws of nature and moral laws. The name Opportunity may refer to: Opportunity Asset Management , a Brazilian investment bank based in Rio de Janeiro Opportunity, Washington, a city in the U.S. Opportunity rover (MER-B), one of the two rovers of NASAs Mars Exploration Rover Mission. ... Learned redirects here. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... “Natural” redirects here. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ...

An intellectual is one who tries to use his or her intellect to work, study, reflect, speculate on, or ask and answer questions with regard to a variety of different ideas. ... Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment. ... Social skills are skills a social animal uses to interact and communicate with others to assist status in the social structure and other motivations. ... It has been suggested that Office etiquette be merged into this article or section. ... -1... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... A value system is in essence the ordering and prioritization of the ethical and ideological values that an individual or society holds. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Providing emotional security

To provide emotional security to a child is to help protect and shield the child's fragile psyche. It is to provide a safe loving environment, give a child a sense of being loved, being needed, welcomed. Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ...

Look up Attachment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Physical intimacy is: Physical closeness Touching, especially tenderly Touching intimate parts, outercourse Sexual penetration The list is logically in order of increasing degree, with each form implying the previous one, but of course, it is not necessarily in order of increasing enjoyment. ... A hug is form of physical intimacy that generally involves closing or holding the arms around another person. ... Haptic means pertaining to the technology of touch. ...

Providing emotional development

Emotional development refers to giving a child an opportunity to love other people, to care, to help.

  • Developing in a child an ability to love through:
    • Showing empathy and compassion to younger and older, weaker and sicker, etc.
    • Caring for others, helping grandparents, etc.

Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... It has been suggested that Idiot compassion be merged into this article or section. ...

Other parental duties

For other uses, see Money (disambiguation). ... In many countries, child support or child maintenance is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, for the care and support of children of a relationship or marriage that has been terminated. ... Child custody and guardianship are legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his or her child, such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child, and the parents duty to care for the child. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ...

Parenting models, tools, philosophies and practices

Conventional models of parenting

  • "Rules of traffic" model

It is an instructional approach to upbringing. Parents explain to children how to behave, assuming that children learn about the rules of behavior just like they learn about the rules of traffic. It is assumed that "saying" the right things to children is equal to real "teaching" children the right things. In practice this parental belief often fails. For example, a teenager was "told thousand times" that stealing is no good and he continues stealing. The problem of parenting in this case is not that they tried to teach the teenager the right thing, the problem is that they considered parenting as a single narrow method of upbringing, without fulfilling the full range of parental duties. Look up instruction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up rule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In jurisprudence and law, a right is the legal or moral entitlement to do or refrain from doing something or to obtain or refrain from obtaining an action, thing or recognition in civil society. ... Look up real in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... null state in Fp code. ... Theft (also known as stealing) is, in general, the wrongful taking of someone elses property without that persons willful consent. ...

  • "Fine gardening" model

Parents believe that children have positive and negative qualities, the latter of which parents should "weed out" or "prune" into an appropriate shape. Parents fight with the faults of their children and this fight may continue through the whole life without success. The problem in this parenting method is that parents get accustomed to "notice" only faults of their child and "ignore" good qualities, development of which are the main sources of parenting success. In common usage positive is sometimes used in affirmation, as a synonym for yes or to express certainty. Look up Positive on Wiktionary, the free dictionary In mathematics, a number is called positive if it is bigger than zero. ... Negative has meaning in several contexts: Look up negative in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There are various types of faults: In document ISO/CD 10303-226, a fault is defined as an abnormal condition or defect at the component, equipment, or sub-system level which may lead to a failure. ... Look up success in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

"The models “rules of traffic” and “fine gardening” are especially dangerous because we, following our best motives, constantly quarrel with our children, destroy relationships, and all our parental work becomes a hopeless effort. Moreover, we don’t understand why this has happened." S.Soloveychik, [1] SIMON LVOVICH SOLOVEICHIK (1930-1996) Simon Lvovich Soloveichik died at the age of 66 on October 18, 1996, following a brief hospitalization for chronic health problems. ...

  • "Reward and punishment" model

Most popular model of parenting based on a logic: for a good action - a reward, praise; for a bad action - a punishment, scolding, reprimand. To teach a child by this logic is relatively easy and even can be effective, especially if it is done consistently. It is because it forms a sense of justice in a child's mind. But, simultaneously it imparts the child's universal image of the reward and punishment and when real life doesn't prove to be just it undermines the child's faith in justice, according to S.Soloveychik. He writes "It is dangerous for the future of children. It may happen that a man, grown up by this model, facing the first serious failure or first trouble, would lift his arms and ask, “Why me?” Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... A bounty is often offered by a group as an incentive for the accomplishment of a task by someone usually not associated with the group. ... In religion, praise is an impassioned exaltation of God (ie. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A reprimand is a police prosecution within the United Kingdom that is given to people 17 years and under who break the law and get arrested for the first time. ... Effect can be used in several different ways: Cause and effect are the relata of causality In movies and other media, sound effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds. ... Look up Consistency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ...


Modern models of parenting

Parenting typically utilizes tools of reward and punishment method, but most child development experts now agree that corporal punishment is not an effective behavior modification tool. In some jurisdictions corporal punishment (e.g., spanking or whipping) has been prohibited by law. Many parents have adopted non-physical approaches to child discipline, for example time-out. The other "civilized" forms of discipline behavioral control, structure, accountability, Parental supervision, etc. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Corporal punishment is forced pain intended to change a persons behaviour or to punish them. ... This article is about the behaviorist technique. ... The term jurisdiction has more than one sense. ... Political cartoon from 1860 depicting Stephen A. Douglas receiving a traditional “over-the-knee” spanking from Columbia as Uncle Sam looks on approvingly. ... Methods of child discipline vary widely between cultures and have in recent times changed considerably in many of them. ... A time-out is an educational (mainly parenting) technique recommended by many pediatrists and developmental psychologists as an alternative to spanking and other traditional forms of discipline. ... Human behavior is the collection of activities performed by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... Look up control in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Accountability is a concept in ethics with several meanings. ... Parental supervision is a parenting technique that involves looking after, or monitoring a childs activities. ...

  • Examples of modern parenting models

"Nurturant parent model"

The nurturant parent model envisions a family model where children are expected to explore their surrounding with protection from their parents. ...

"Strict father model"

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

"Attachment parenting"

Seeks to create strong emotional bonds and avoids physical punishment, with discipline being accomplished through interactions recognizing a child's emotional needs. It focuses on holistic understanding of the child. Attachment parenting, a phrase coined by pediatrician William Sears,[1] is a parenting philosophy based on the principles of the attachment theory in developmental psychology. ... Look up bond in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ... Look up understanding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


"Taking Children Seriously"

Sees both praise and punishment as manipulative and harmful to children and advocates other methods to reach agreement with them. Taking Children Seriously, TCS, is a worldwide parenting movement and educational philosophy based upon the idea that it is possible and desirable to raise and educate children without either doing anything to them against their will, or making them do anything against their will. ... The word manipulation can refer to: Joint manipulation Social influence Sleight of hand tricks in magic or XCM. Abuse Advertising Brainwashing Charisma Fraud Indoctrination Love bombing Machiavellianism Media manipulation Mind control Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) Propaganda Social psychology Puppeteer Photo manipulation Categories: | | ... Harm can be defined as causing physical or psychological/emotional damage or injury to a person, animal or other entity. ... An advocate is one who speaks on behalf of another, especially in a legal context. ... Look up Agreement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary An agreement may be an agreement in beliefs, rules, practices (policies), or conduct. ...


"Parenting For Everyone"

The philosophy of Parenting For Everyone considers parenting from the ethical point of view. It analyses parenting goals, conditions and means of childrearing. It offers to look at a child's internal world (heart, intelligence and spirit of a child) and derive the sources of parenting success from there. The concept of heart implies the child's sense of being loved and his ability to love others. The concept intelligence implies the child's ability to discern between good and bad, his moral intelligence. And the concept of spirit implies the child's desire to do good actions and avoid bad behavior, avoid encroaching upon anybody's dignity. The core concept of the philosophy of Parenting For Everyone is the concept of dignity, the child's sense of worthiness and justice. The philosophy of Parenting For Everyone was created by Simon Soloveychik and expressed in his book Parenting For Everyone. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... An objective or goal is a personal or organizational desired end point in development. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In statistics, mean has two related meanings: the arithmetic mean (and is distinguished from the geometric mean or harmonic mean). ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... // Look up source in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up success in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up good in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up bad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... CORE may refer to: The Congress of Racial Equality in the USA. The Coordinated Online Register of Electors in the United Kingdom. ... Look up Worth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Worth is the name of several places in the United States: Worth in Illinois Worth Township in Cook County, Illinois Worth Township in Woordford County, Illinois Worth Township in Indiana Worth Township in Michigan Worth in Missouri Worth County in Missouri Worth...


Christian parenting

Christian parenting is popular amongst Evangelicals and fundamentalist Christian parents who see it as applying biblical principles to parenting. Information on Christian parenting is found in publications,[2] Christian Parenting websites[3] and in seminars devoted to assisting parents to apply Christian principles to parenting. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Look up fundamentalism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


While some Christian parenting models are strict and authoritarian, others are "grace-based" and share methods advocated in attachment parenting and positive parenting theories. Particularly influential on opposite sides have been James Dobson and his guide "Dare to Discipline".[4] And Dr Sears who has written several parenting books including "The Complete Book of Christian Parenting & Child Care" and "The Discipline Book" Gentle Christian Mothers is an online community for Christian mothers who practice attachment parenting as popularized by Dr. William Sears. ... Attachment parenting, a phrase coined by pediatrician William Sears,[1] is a parenting philosophy based on the principles of the attachment theory in developmental psychology. ... There are many effective non-violent methods of child discipline available to parents. ... James Clayton Jim Dobson, Ph. ...



In a study[5] of Christian parents done by Christian Parenting Today in 2000, 39% have family devotions once a week or more, and 69% of parents consider Sunday school, youth and children's programs extremely important.


Parenting issues across the child's lifespan

Pregnancy and prenatal parenting

During pregnancy the unborn child is affected by many decisions his or her parents make, particularly choices linked to their lifestyle. The health and diet decisions of the mother can have either a positive or negative impact on the child during prenatal parenting. This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ...


Many people believe that parenting begins with birth, but the mother begins raising and nurturing a child well before birth. Scientific evidence indicates that from the fifth month on, the unborn baby is able to hear sound, be aware of motion, and possibly exhibit short-term memory. Several studies (e.g. Kissilevsky et al., 2003) show evidence that the unborn baby can become familiar with his or her parents' voices. Other research indicates that by the seventh month, external schedule cues influence the unborn baby's sleep habits. Based on this evidence, parenting actually begins well before birth. Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary, working, or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a few seconds. ... For schedule in computer science, see schedule (computer science). ...


Depending on how many children the mother carries also determines the amount of care needed during prenatal and post-natal periods.


Infants

Being the parent of an infant is a major responsibility. Infants require dedicated care, including (but not limited to) feeding, bathing, changing diapers, and health care. Because of this, you would be wise to be committed to this child's well-being, since the rest of your life will have to be centered around it. “Baby” redirects here. ...


Toddlers

Parenting a toddler requires time and hard work. Parenting responsibilities during the toddler years include (but are not limited to) feeding, bathing, potty training, ensuring safety, teaching, and attending to the well-being of the child. Parenting toddlers also requires emotionally sound parents and guardians. Toddlers are basically older infants and require the same if not more patience. Boy toddler Toddler is a common term for a a young child who is learning to walk or toddle,[1] generally considered to be the second stage of development after infancy and occurring predominantly during the ages of 12 to 36 months old. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... Toilet training (or potty training) is the process of weaning a young child off diapers (or nappies in the British Isles and many Commonwealth countries) and training the child to use the toilet for urination and defecation. ...


Preschoolers

Parents are expected to make important decisions about preschool education and early childhood education. Preschool is of, relating to, or for a child past infancy but younger than school age, usually between the ages of two and five (or six). ... Infant playing with a book. ...


Elementary and Middle School Years

Parenting issues related to parenting school age children include Education, Kindergarten, Primary education. Parents must also gear them for the school years to come, which require emotional toughness. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ...


Adolescents

During adolescence children are beginning to form their identity and are testing and developing the interpersonal and occupational roles that they will assume as adults. Although adolescents look to peers and adults outside of the family for guidance and models for how to behave, parents remain influential in their development. Parents should make efforts to be aware of their adolescents activities, provide guidance, direction, and consultation. Adolescence can be a time of high risk for children, where newfound freedoms can result in decisions that drastically open up or close off life opportunities. Parental issues at this stage of parenting include dealing with "rebellious" teenagers, who didn't know freedom while they were smaller. Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ... Look up peer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lets talk about risk control strategies, anyone with more information and willing to share, please do so. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Young Men” redirects here. ...


Young Adults

When grown-up children become adults their personalities show the result of successful or unsuccessful parenting. Especially it is noticeable when young adults make their independent life decisions about their education, work and choosing mates for friendship or marriage. A result is the final consequence of a sequence of actions or events (broadly incidents and accidents) expressed qualitatively or quantitatively, being a loss, injury, disadvantage, advantage, gain, victory or simply a value. ... Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a contract (employment), and the employer buys it, often in a labour market. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


Adults and Older Adults

Parenting doesn't stop when children grow up and age. Parents always remain to be parents for old children. Their relationship continues developing if both parties want to keep it or improve. The parenting issues may include the relationship with grandchildren and children-in-law. A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ...


Parenting Styles

Main Article: Parenting styles

There are four universal parenting styles, each with different methods of parenting. Each parenting style has different levels of demand and responsiveness and the resulting child is different for each style. Parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies parents use in raising their children. ... Look up universal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Assistance

Parents may receive assistance from a variety of individuals and organizations. Employers may offer specific benefits or programs for parents. Many governments provide assistance to parents.

Another source of Assistance is other parents. Using the advice of other parents is sometimes the best advice due to the fact that some have lived through exactly what you are experiencing. Lost, see Maternity Leave (Lost). ...


Advocacy

Some organizations are fighting for more parental rights in the United States:

Parenting authorities

  • Benjamin Spock, was an authority on parenting to a generation of North American parents.
  • T. Berry Brazelton, the founder of the Child Development Unit at Children's Hospital, Boston, and Professor of Pediatrics Emeritus at Harvard Medical School.
  • Jesper Juul is a Danish family therapist and author and a renowned international authority on the family.

Dr. Spock with his grand-daughter Susannah in 1967 Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 - March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. ... Thomas Berry Brazelton (born May 10, 1918) is a noted pediatrician and author in the United States. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Jesper Juul (born April 18, 1948)) is a Danish family therapist and author and a renowned international authority on the family. ...

See also

In psychology, the term affectional bond is a type of attachment behavior one individual has for another individual, typically a mother for her child, in which the two partners tend to remain in proximity to one another. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Methods of child discipline vary widely between cultures and have in recent times changed considerably in many of them. ... Empty nest syndrome is a general feeling of depression and loneliness that parents feel when one or more of their children leave home. ... This page is a collection of wikipedia articles about or related to children. ... A mother holds up her child. ... The paternal bond is typically the relationship between a father and his child. ... Parental alienation is any behavior by a parent, a childs mother or father, whether conscious or unconscious, that could create alienation in the relationship between a child and the other parent. ... For other uses, see Parent (disambiguation). ... Pedagogy (IPA: ) , the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek (paidagōgeō; from (child) and (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, was (usually) a slave who supervised the... The Montessori method is a methodology for nursery and elementary school education, first developed by Dr. Maria Montessori. ... Shared parenting refers to a family arrangement in child custody or divorce settlements, in which the care of the children is equal, or more than substantially shared, between the natural parents. ... It has been suggested that Baby mama be merged into this article or section. ... Lost, see Maternity Leave (Lost). ... A helicopter parent is a term for a person who pays extremely close attention to their child or children, particularly at educational institutions. ... Parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies parents use in raising their children. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.parentingforeveryone.com/aboutbook Parenting For Everyone (Педагогика для всех, 2000, ISBN 5-8246-0042-2)
  2. ^ http://www.thomasnelson.com/consumer/
  3. ^ http://www.familiesonlinemagazine.com/christian-parenting/index.html
  4. ^ Dare to Discipline. Bantam, 1982. ISBN 0-553-20346-0
  5. ^ http://www.christianitytoday.com/yc/2001/005/11.128.html

Further reading

  • Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner (eds) (2006). Family in society : essential primary sources.. Thomson Gale. ISBN 1414403305. 
  • Juul, Jesper (2001). Your Competent Child - Towards New Basic Values for the Family. Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, N.Y. ISBN 0374527903. 

External links

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Parenting Help – Free Tips, Advice, Resources And Guidance – Parenting.org (165 words)
We answer your parenting questions with resources and guidance on how to successfully raise, praise, discipline, teach and love your child.
Parenting can be a difficult job, however the valuable parenting tips we provide can make the job easier.
We share the knowledge and skills necessary to successfully raise your child from birth through their senior year in high school.
MedlinePlus: Parenting (674 words)
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