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Encyclopedia > Parchment
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German parchmenter, 1568

Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. Cooking parchment paper (see below) is used in baking. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (464x612, 96 KB) Historical Profession Source: de:Eygentliche Beschreibung aller Stände auff Erden, hoher und nidriger, geistlicher und weltlicher, aller Künsten, Handwercken und Händeln . ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (464x612, 96 KB) Historical Profession Source: de:Eygentliche Beschreibung aller Stände auff Erden, hoher und nidriger, geistlicher und weltlicher, aller Künsten, Handwercken und Händeln . ... Look up book in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... first page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for book; plural codices) is a handwritten book from late Antiquity or the Early Middle Ages. ... For the anatomical feature, see calf muscle. ... Species See text. ... This article is about goats, the animals. ...

Contents


History

According to the Roman historian Varro, Pliny's Natural History records (xiii.21), it was invented under the patronage of Eumenes of Pergamum (= modern-day Bergama in Turkey}, whether Eumenes I (ruled 263–241 BCE) or Eumenes II (ruled 197–160), as a substitute for papyrus, which was temporarily not being exported from Alexandria, its only source. Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282... Bergama, Turkey is the modern-day city that was known two millennia ago as Pergamum or Pergamon, home to the great world library. ... Coin struck during the reign of Eumenes I, dipicting the head of Eumenes uncle Philetaerus on the obverse and seated Athena, Greek goddess of war and wisdom, on the reverse. ... Categories: Stub ... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that grows to 5 meters (15 ft) in height and was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ...


Herodotus mentions writing on skins as common in his time, the 5th century BCE; and in his Histories (v.58) he states that the Ionians of Asia Minor had been accustomed to give the name of "skins", diphtherai, to books; this word was adapted by Hellenized Jews to describe scrolls [1]. Parchment (pergaminus in Latin), however, is named after the city where it was perfected. Pergamon had a great library that rivalled the famous Library of Alexandria. As prices rose for papyrus, while the reed was overharvested towards local extinction in the two nomes of the Nile delta that produced it, Pergamon adapted by increasing use of parchment. Writing on prepared animal skins had a long history, however. Some Egyptian Fourth Dynasty texts were written on parchment. Though the Assyrians and the Babylonians impressed their cuneiform on clay tablets, they wrote on parchment also from the 6th century BCE onward. Rabbinic culture equated a "book" with a parchment scroll. Early Islamic texts are also found on parchment. Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ήροδοτος, Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... The Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt was once the largest library in the world. ... The nomes of Ancient Egypt A nome (Greek: district) is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement - this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the...


One sort of parchment is vellum, a word that is used loosely to mean parchment, and especially for fine parchment, but more accurately refers to parchment made from calf skin. The words "vellum" and "veal" come from Latin vitulus = "calf" or its diminutive vitellus. In the Middle Ages calfskin and split sheepskin were the most common materials for making parchment in England and France, while goatskin was more common in Italy. Other skins were also used including large animals such as horse and smaller animals such as squirrel and rabbit. Whether uterine vellum (vellum made from aborted calf fetuses) was ever really used during the medieval period is still a matter of great controversy. Vellum was originally a translucent or opaque material produced from calfskin that had been soaked, limed and unhaired, and then dried at normal temperature under tension, usually on a wooden device called a stretching frame. ... Veal is the meat of young calves, specifically the male offspring of dairy cattle, and is appreciated by people with an appreciation for its delicate taste, tender texture and nutritious qualities. ... A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object named, intimacy, or endearment. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK...

An English deed written on fine parchment or vellum with seal tag dated 1638.
An English deed written on fine parchment or vellum with seal tag dated 1638.

The heyday of parchment use was during the medieval period, but there has been a growing revival of its use among contemporary artists since the late 20th century. Although parchment never stopped being used (primarily for governmental documents and diplomas) it had ceased to be a primary choice for artist’s supports by the end of 15th century Renaissance. This was partly due to its expense and partly due to its unusual working properties. Parchment is mostly made of collagen. When the water in paint media touches parchment’s surface, the collagen melts slightly forming a raise bed for the paint, a quality highly prized by some artists. Parchment is also extremely affected by its environment and changes in humidity which can cause buckling. Some contemporary artists also prize this quality noting that the parchment seems alive and like an active participant in making artwork. To support the needs of the revival of use by artists a revival in the art of making individual skins is also underway. Handmade skins are usually better prepared for artists and have fewer oily spots which can cause long-term cracking of paint that mass produced parchment. Mass-produced parchment is usually made for lamp shades, furniture, or other interior design purposes. For examples of contemporary artists using parchment see: *Contemporary Illumination, *The St. John's Bible, *More Contemporary Illumination. For an example of a contemporary parchment maker see: *Parchmenter. Image File history File linksMetadata 1638vellumlarge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 1638vellumlarge. ... A deed is a legal instrument used to grant a right. ... Vellum (from the Latin for wool or pelt) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, usually made from calf skin. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ...

Main article Gevil.

The way in which parchment was processed (from hide to parchment) has undergone a tremendous evolution based on time and location. Parchment and vellum are not the sole methods of preparing animal skins for writing. In the Babylonian Talmud (Bava Batra 14B) Moses writes the first Torah Scroll on the unsplit cow-hide called gevil. Gevil (often pronounced gewil) is animal hide that has been prepared (as writing material) for use in such works as a Sefer Torah or Mezuzah. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... Bava Batra is the third of the three tractates in the Talmud in the order Nezikin; it deals with a persons responsibilities and rights as the owner of property. ... Gevil (often pronounced gewil) is animal hide that has been prepared (as writing material) for use in such works as a Sefer Torah or Mezuzah. ...

Main article paper.

In the Middle Ages European parchment in turn was largely replaced by paper, a Chinese invention that was being manufactured in Moorish Andalusia in the 11th century. Piece of paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibers (or fibres). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Piece of paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibers (or fibres). ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87 268 km²  17,2% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 1st  7 478 432  17,9%  85,70...

Main article Palimpsest.

During the 7th through the 9th centuries, many earlier parchment manuscripts were scrubbed and scoured to be ready for rewriting. These "recycled" parchments are called palimpsests. Later, more thorough techniques of scouring the surface irretrievably lost the earlier text. A palimpsest is a manuscript page, scroll, or book that has been written on, scraped off, and used again. ... A palimpsest is a manuscript page, scroll, or book that has been written on, scraped off, and used again. ...


The radiocarbon dating techniques that are used on papyrus can be applied to parchment as well. They do not date the age of the writing but the preparation of the parchment itself. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Cooking parchment

Cooking parchment (also parchment paper, kitchen parchment, greaseproof paper and cooking paper) refers to a form of silicone-impregnated paper used as a substitute for parchment in cooking. The silicone renders it grease- and moisture-resistant as well as relatively heat-resistant. A common use is to eliminate the need to grease cookie sheets and the like allowing very rapid turn-around of batches of cookies in a commercial bakery. It can also be folded to make moisture-proof packages in which food items are cooked or steamed. Silicones, or polysiloxanes, are inorganic polymers consisting of a silicon-oxygen backbone (...-Si-O-Si-O-Si-O-...) with side groups attached to the silicon atoms. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food for consumption. ... A chocolate chip cookie In the United States and Canada, a cookie is a small, flat baked cake (Commonwealth English biscuit). ...


See also

A diploma (from Greek diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... A palimpsest is a manuscript page, scroll, or book that has been written on, scraped off, and used again. ... Piece of paper Paper is a thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibers (or fibres). ...

External links

Further reading

  • Dougherty, Raymond P., 1928." Writing upon parchment and papyrus among the Babylonians and the Assyrians," in JAOS 48, pp 109–135.
  • Ryder, Michael L., 1964. Parchment: its history, manufacture and composition.
  • Reed, R. Ancient Skins, Parchments, and Leathers. Seminar Press, 1972. ISBN 0129035505

  Results from FactBites:
 
PARCHMENT (827 words)
In the hellenistic world, the parchment scroll was not known till the first century CE.
The transition to parchment took place in the land of Israel as well, and the Jewish sages of the Roman period were of the opinion that any mention of a 'book' in the Bible exclusively refers to a parchment scroll.
It is not impossible that the parchment surplus was caused by the influence of the hellenistic scribal culture on Judaism, as attested by the contemporary borrowing of over 20 book-culture Greek words, such as diphtera, duchsustos, tomos, tophos, and others.
Untitled Document (279 words)
Parchment was made from the skins of animals such as sheep and cows.
To enable the scribe to write straight lines, the parchment is ruled by a combination of pin pricks and impressed lines.
Parchments are dyed purple, gold is melted into lettering, manuscripts are decked with jewels, while Christ lies at the door naked and dying.
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