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Encyclopedia > Paraxanthine
Paraxanthine
Paraxanthine
General
Systematic name 1,7-dimethylxanthine
Other names paraxanthine
Molecular formula C7H8N4O2
Molar mass 180.16 g/mol
CAS number [611-59-6 ]
Melting point 351-352 °C
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethylxanthine compound structurally related to caffeine. Like caffeine, paraxanthine is a psychoactive central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It possesses a potency roughly equal to that of caffeine and is likely involved in the mediation of the effects of caffeine itself. Image File history File links Paraxanthine. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... Flash point N/A RTECS number EV6475000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Caffeine (sometimes called mateine when found in mate, and theine when found in tea) is a xanthine alkaloid found in the... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... A stimulant is a drug that increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or the feeling of being more awake. ...


Paraxanthine is not produced by plants and is only observed in nature as a metabolite of caffeine in animals. The compound is produced from caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) breakdown. After intake, roughly 80% is demethylated at the 3-position to yield paraxanthine. The drug is by far the chief metabolite of caffeine in the body. A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ...


Certain proposed synthetic pathways of caffeine make use of paraxanthine as a bypass intermediate. However, its absence in plant alkaloid assays implies that these are infrequently, if ever, utilized in nature. An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and animals. ...


Paraxanthine has a number of physiological effects on animals. In humans, the compound acts as a nonselective, competitive inhibitor of adenosine receptors (adenosine receptor). As a result, paraxanthine triggers an elevated diastolic blood pressure and an increase in plasma epinephrine levels. Furthermore, the compound is responsible for the lipolytic properties of caffeine, and its presence in the blood causes an increase in serum free fatty acid concentration. Paraxanthine, unlike caffeine, acts as an enzymatic effector of Na+/K+ATPase. As a result, it is responsible for increased transport of potassium ions into skeletal muscle tissue. Similarly, the compound also stimulates increases in calcium ion concentration in muscle. The chemical structure of adenosine Adenosine is a nucleoside comprised of adenine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Diastolic is the adjective form of diastole referring to relaxation of the heart, between muscle contractions. ... Epinephrine (INN), also epinephrin (both pronounced ep-i-NEF-rin), or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ...


Paraxanthine is believed to exhibit a lower toxicity than caffeine. While blood levels commensurate with average intake appear to be fairly innocuous, high blood concentrations of paraxanthine have been linked to spontaneous abortion in pregnant mothers. Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


 
 

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