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Encyclopedia > Paratyphoid fever
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Salmonella sp.

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Salmonella
Species
S. bongori
S. enterica

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. It is motile in nature and produces hydrogen sulfide. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1761, 1696 KB) Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH Source: NIAID: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic grouping. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning Is a sexis caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... Motility is the ability to move spontaneously and independently. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs. ...

Contents


History

Salmonella was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon, an American veterinary pathologist who, together with Theobald Smith (better known for his work on anaphylaxis), first described the Salmonella bacterium in 1885 from pigs. [1] [2]. Daniel Elmer Salmon, (1850-1914), was born at Mount Olive, New Jersey. ... Theobald Smith (July 31, 1859 – December 10, 1934) was an American pathologist. ... Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Microbiology

Salmonella are Gram negative bacteria. In a clinical laboratory, they are usually grown isolated on blood agar, CLED agar, XLD agar or DCA agar. On blood agar, they form moist colonies about 2 to 3 mm in diameter. They do not ferment lactose. An agar plate is a sterile Petri dish that contains agar plus nutrients, and is used to culture bacteria or fungi. ...


Classification

Salmonella taxonomy is complicated [1]. Currently (7 Dec 2005), there are two species within the genus: S. bongori (previously subspecies V) and S. enterica (formerly called S. choleraesuis), which is divided into six subspecies: Taxonomy (from Greek verb tassein = to classify and nomos = law, science, cf economy) may refer to: the science of classifying living things (see alpha taxonomy) a classification Initially, taxonomy was only the science of classifying living organisms, but later the word was applied in a wider sense, and may also...

  • I—enterica
  • II—salamae
  • IIIa—arizonae
  • IIIb—diarizonae
  • IV—houtenae
  • V—obsolete (now designated S. bongori)
  • VI—indica

There are also numerous (totalling over 2000) serovars within both species, which are found in a disparate variety of environments and which are associated with many different diseases. The vast majority of human isolates (>99.5%) are subspecies S. enterica. For the sake of simplicity, the CDC recommend that Salmonella species be referred to only by their genus and serovar:
e.g.,
Salmonella Typhi
instead of the more correct designation,
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi. Serovar: A subdivision of a species that is different from other strains. ... CDC is an acronym which can mean any of the following: California Department of Corrections Canadian Dairy Commission Career Development Course Cell Division Cycle Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Century Date Change in reference to the Y2K bug. ...


Salmonella isolates are most usually classified according to serology (Kauffman-White classification) (Salmonella subcommittee, 1900). The main division is first by the somatic O antigen, then by flagellar H antigens. H antigens are further divided into phase 1 and phase 2. The full description of a Salmonella isolate is given as (O antigens, Vi : H antigen phase 1: H antigen phase 2).


Examples:

  • Salmonella Enteritidis (1,9,12:g,m)

(The O antigens present are 1, 9 and 12; the H antigens are g and m)

  • Salmonella Typhi (9,12,Vi:d:−)

(The O antigens are 9, 12, and Vi; the H antigen is d)


In a clinical laboratory, only a small number of serovars are looked for (the remainder being rare or not clinically significant). The HPA recommend testing for the following antigens routinely:

  • O antigens: 2 4 6.7 8 9 and 3.10
  • phase 1 H antigens: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • phase 2 H antigens: a b c d E G i r

Isolates that cannot be identified using this panel are sent to the reference laboratory for identification.


Salmonella Associated Disease

Disease-causing salmonellae have recently been re-classified into a single species, Salmonella enterica, which has numerous strains or serovars. Salmonella Typhi is a well known serovar that causes typhoid fever. Other salmonellae are frequent causes of foodborne illness, and can especially be caught from poultry and raw eggs and more generally from food that has been cooked or frozen, and not eaten straight away. In March 2006, The New York Times reported that the US government said that 16.3% of all chickens were contaminated with salmonella. In the mid to late 20th century, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was a common contaminant of eggs. This is much less common now with the advent of hygiene measures in egg production and the vaccination of laying hens to prevent salmonella colonisation. Many different salmonella serovars also cause severe diseases in animals other than human beings. Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning Is a sexis caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... Duck amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio. ... A carton of free-range chicken eggs Ostrich egg Bird eggs are a common food source. ...


References

  1. Tindall BJ; Grimont PAD, Garrity GM; Euzéby JP (2005). "Nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 55: 521–524.
  • Salmonella Subcommittee of Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Microbiology (1900). "The Genus Salmonella Lignières". J Hyg 34: 333–350.
  • Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Paratyphoid Fever | Principal Health News (598 words)
Paratyphoid fever, which is sometimes called Salmonella paratyphi infection, is a serious contagious disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium.
Paratyphoid fever has three stages: an early stage marked by high fever; a toxic stage with abdominal pain and intestinal symptoms, and a long period of recovery from fever (defervescence).
Paratyphoid fever is marked by high fever, headache, loss of appetite, vomiting, and constipation or diarrhea.
WHO | Water-related Diseases (423 words)
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and bloodstream.
Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi respectively.
Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are common in less-industrialized countries, principally owing to the problem of unsafe drinking-water, inadequate sewage disposal and flooding.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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