FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Parasitism" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Parasitism

Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species in which one, the parasite, benefits from a prolonged, close association with the other, the host, which is harmed. In general, parasites are much smaller than their hosts, show a high degree of specialization for their mode of life and reproduce more quickly and in greater numbers than their hosts. Classic examples of parasitism include the interactions between vertebrate hosts and such diverse animals as the tapeworms, flukes, Plasmodium species and fleas. For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... With its eucalyptus diet, the koala can be considered a specialist species. ... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article contains material from the CDC (Center for Disease Control) website which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... Subclasses Aspidogastrea Digenea The Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes, which contains two groups of parasitic worms. ... Species Plasmodium accipiteris Plasmodium achiotense Plasmodium achromaticum Plasmodium acuminatum Plasmodium adunyinkai Plasmodium aegyptensis Plasmodium aeuminatum Plasmodium agamae Plasmodium alloelongatum Plasmodium anasum Plasmodium anomaluri Plasmodium arachniformis Plasmodium ashfordi Plasmodium atheruri Plasmodium aurulentum Plasmodium australis Plasmodium attenuatum Plasmodium azurophilum Plasmodium balli Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium basilisci Plasmodium beebei Plasmodium beltrani Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium... For the musician, a member of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, see Michael Balzary. ...


The harm and benefit in parasitic interactions concern the biological fitness of the organisms involved. Parasites reduce host fitness in many ways, ranging from general or specialized pathology (such as castration), impairment of secondary sex characteristics, to the modification of host behaviour. Parasites increase their fitness by exploiting hosts for food, habitat and dispersal. Fitness (often denoted in population genetics models) is a central concept in evolutionary theory. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. ...

Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of the mite, Varroa destructor, on a honey bee host
Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of the mite, Varroa destructor, on a honey bee host

Although the concept of parasitism applies unambiguously to many cases in nature, it is best considered part of a continuum of types of interactions between species, rather than an exclusive category. Particular interactions between species may satisfy some but not all parts of the definition. In many cases, it is difficult to demonstrate the host is harmed. In others, there may be no apparent specialization on the part of the parasite, or the interaction between the organisms may be short-lived. For example, because of the episodic nature of its feeding habits, the mosquito is not considered parasitic. In medicine, only eukaryotic organisms are considered parasites, to the exclusion of bacteria and viruses. Some branches of biology, however, do regard members of these groups to be parasitic.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1710 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1710 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Anderson & Trueman, 2000 Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of Varroa destructor on a honey bee host Varroa mites on pupa Varroa destructor on bee larva. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Stop editing pages god ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ...

Mites parasitising a harvestman
Mites parasitising a harvestman

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x1458, 218 KB) Weberknecht mit Milbenbefall, fotografiert im August 2004 von soebe Titel: Weberknecht mit Milbenbefall Foto: soebe, 17. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x1458, 218 KB) Weberknecht mit Milbenbefall, fotografiert im August 2004 von soebe Titel: Weberknecht mit Milbenbefall Foto: soebe, 17. ... Mites, along with ticks, belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari) and the class Arachnida. ... The Phalangids or Opiliones (better known as harvestmen or daddy longlegs) are eight-legged invertebrate animals belonging to the order Opiliones in the class Arachnida, in the subphylum Chelicerata of the phylum Arthropoda. ...

Types of parasitism

Flea bites on a human.
Flea bites on a human.

Parasites are classified based on a variety of aspects of their interactions with their hosts and on their life cycles. Image File history File linksMetadata Fleabite. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Fleabite. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ...


Those that live inside the host are called endoparasites (e.g., hookworms) and those that live on its surface are called ectoparasites (e.g., some mites). Species Species N. americanus and A. duodenale The hookworm is a parasitic nematode worm that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ... Mites, along with ticks, belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari) and the class Arachnida. ...


An epiparasite is one that feeds on another parasite. This relationship is also sometimes referred to as "hyperparasitism".

A female Catolaccus grandis wasp hones in on a boll weevil larva.
A female Catolaccus grandis wasp hones in on a boll weevil larva.

Parasitoids are organisms that cause the host to die as a result of parasitism. Thus, the interaction between the parasitoid and the host is fundamentally different than true parasites and their host, and shares some characteristics with predation Download high resolution version (640x837, 160 KB)Female Catolaccus grandis wasp from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x837, 160 KB)Female Catolaccus grandis wasp from http://www. ... Diversity 15-28 subfamilies c. ... Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... Parasitoids differ from parasites in their relationship with the host. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ...


Social parasites take advantage of interactions between members of social organisms such as ants or termites. In kleptoparasitism, parasites appropriate food gathered by the host. An example is the brood parasitism practiced by many species of cuckoo. Many cuckoos use other bird species as "babysitters", depositing their eggs in the nest of the host species, which raise the cuckoo young as one of their own. For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ... Brood parasites are a sub-category of kleptoparasite occurring among birds or insects, that lay their eggs in the nests of other species to be raised by the host. ... Genera See text. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


Parasitism can take the form of isolated cheating or exploitation among more generalized mutualistic interactions. For example, broad classes of plants and fungi exchange carbon and nutrients in common mutualistic mycorrhizal relationships; however, a few plants species (known as myco-heterotrophs) "cheat" by taking carbon from a fungus rather than donating it. Cheating, also known as exploitation, between organisms is a form of parasitism or specialized predation in which an organism engages in what appears to be a mutualistic relationship with another organism, but does not in fact provide any benefit to the other organism. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... u fuck in ua ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural form mycorrhizae meaning fungus roots) is a distinct type of root symbiosis in which individual hyphae extending from the mycelium of a fungus colonize the roots of a host plant. ... Monotropastrum humile, an obligate myco-heterotroph. ...


For parasitic conjoined twins, see Parasitic twin. A parasitic twin (also known as an asymmetrical or unequal conjoined twin) is the result of the processes that produce vanishing twins and conjoined twins, and may represent a continuum between the two. ...


Evolutionary aspects

Biotrophic parasitism is an extremely common mode of life that has arisen independently many times in the course of evolution. Depending on the definition used, as many as half of all animals have at least one parasitic phase in their life cycles,[1] and it is also frequent in plants and fungi. Moreover, almost all free-living animals are host to one or more parasite taxa.[2] This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


Parasites evolve in response to defense mechanisms of their hosts. Examples of host defenses include the toxins produced by plants to deter parasitic fungi and bacteria, the complex vertebrate immune system, which can target parasites through contact with bodily fluids, and behavioural defenses. An example of the latter is the avoidance by sheep of open pastures during spring, when roundworm eggs accumulated over the previous year hatch en masse. As a result of these and other host defenses, some parasites evolve adaptations that are specific to a particular host taxon and specialize to the point where they infect only a single species. Such narrow host specificity can be costly over evolutionary time, however, if the host species becomes extinct. Thus, many parasites are capable of infecting a variety of host species that are more or less closely related, with varying success. For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Species See text. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ...


Host defenses also evolve in response to attacks by parasites. Theoretically, parasites may have an advantage in this evolutionary arms race because of their more rapid generation time. Hosts reproduce less quickly than parasites, and therefore have fewer chances to adapt than their parasites do over a given span of time. An evolutionary arms race is an evolutionary struggle between a predator species and its prey (including parasitism) that is said to resemble an arms race. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ...


In some cases, a parasite species may coevolve with its host taxa. In theory, long-term coevolution should lead to a relatively stable relationship tending to commensalism or mutualism, in that it is in the evolutionary interest of the parasite that its host thrives. For example, although animals infected with parasitic worms are often clearly harmed, and therefore parasitized, such infections may also reduce the prevalence and effects of autoimmune disorders in animal hosts, including humans.[3] Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate have co-evolved so that both have become dependent on each other for survival. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... In ecology, commensalism is a kind of relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped (like a bird living in a tree). ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... See also Parasitic worm (disambiguation) Parasitic worms or helminths are a division of eukaroytic parasites that, unlike external parasites such as lice and fleas, live inside their host. ... Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts (down to the sub-molecular levels) as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues. ...


The presumption of a shared evolutionary history between parasites and hosts can sometimes elucidate how host taxa are related. For instance, there has been dispute about whether flamingos are more closely related to the storks and their allies or to ducks, geese and their relatives. The fact that flamingos share parasites with ducks and geese is evidence these groups may be more closely related to each other than either is to storks. For the American doo-wop group, best known for I Only Have Eyes for You (1959), see The Flamingos. ... Families Ardeidae Cochlearidae (the Boat-billed Heron) Balaenicipitidae (the Shoebill) Scopidae (the Hammerkop) Ciconiidae Threskiornithidae Cathartidae Traditionally, the order Ciconiiformes has included a variety of large, long-legged wading birds with large bills: storks, herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and several others. ... Families Anhimidae Anseranatidae Anatidae †Dromornithidae †Presbyornithidae The order Anseriformes contains about 150 species of birds in three families: the Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie-goose), and the Anatidae, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans. ...


Parasitism is part of one explanation for the evolution of secondary sex characteristics seen in breeding males throughout the animal world, such as the plumage of male peacocks and manes of male lions. According to this theory, female hosts select males for breeding based on such characteristics because they indicate resistance to parasites and other disease. A peacock displays his long, colored feathers, an example of his secondary sexual characteristics. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Ecology

Because they are small and often hidden from view, parasites are often ignored in ecology. However, parasites are ubiquitous and play important roles in ecosystems and, considered in their own right, pose unique problems in ecology. More recently, therefore, parasite ecology has matured as a discipline and begun to integrate with ecology in the broader sense. For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


Quantitative ecology

When considering the distribution of a single parasite species, one finds that parasite indviduals exhibit an aggregated distribution among host individuals. This means that most hosts harbour a few or no parasites, while a few hosts carry the vast majority of parasite individuals. This poses considerable problems for students of parasite ecology: the use of parametric statistics should be avoided. Log-transformation of data before the application of parametric test, or the use of non-parametric statistics is recommended by several authors; however, these give rise to further problems. Therefore, modern day quantitative parasitology is based on more advanced biostatistical methods. Parametric inferential statistical methods are mathematical procedures for statistical hypothesis testing which assume that the distributions of the variables being assessed belong to known parametrized families of probability distributions. ... Non-Parametric statistics are statistics where it is not assumed that the population fits any parametrized distributions. ...


Diversity ecology

Hosts represent discrete habitat patches that can be occupied by parasites. A hierarchical set of terminology has come into use to describe parasite assemblages at different host scales.


An infrapopulation is all the parasites of one species in a single individual host


A metapopulation is all the parasites of one species in a host population


An infracommunity is all the parasites of all species in a single individual host


A component community is all the parasites of all species in a host population


A compound community is all the parasites of all species in all host species in an ecosystem.


The diversity ecology of parasites differs markedly from that of free-living organisms. That is, the determinants of species richness and relative abundance animals. For free-living organisms, diversity ecology features many strong conceptual frameworks including Macarthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography, Diamond's assembly rules and, more recently, null models such as Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Frameworks are not so well-developed for parasites and in many ways they do not fit the free-living models. For example, island biogeography is predicated on fixed spatial relationships between habitat patches ("sinks"), usually with reference to a mainland ("source"). Parasites inhabit hosts, which represent mobile habitat patches with dynamic spatial relationships. There is no true "mainland" other than the sum of hosts (host population); in this way, parasite component communities in host populations are metacommunities. The study of island biogeography is a field within biogeography that attempts to establish and explain the factors that affect the species diversity of a particular community. ... Community assembly rules are a set of controversial rules first proposed by Jared Diamond [1] The rules were developed after more than a decade of research into the avian assemblages on islands near New Guinea and assert that competition is responsible for determining the patterns of assemblage composition. ... The neutral theory of molecular evolution (also, simply the neutral theory of evolution) is an influential theory that was introduced with provocative effect by Motoo Kimura in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ...


Nonetheless, different types of parasite assemblages have been recognised in host individuals and populations, and many of the patterns observed for free-living organisms are also pervasive among parasite assemblages. The most prominent of these is the interactive-isolationist continuum. This proposes that parasite assemblages occur along a cline from interactive communities, where niches are saturated and interspecific competition is high, to isolationist communities, where there are many vacant niches and interspecific interaction is not as important as stochastic factors in providing structure to the community. Whether this is so, or whether community patterns simply reflect the sum of underlying species distributions (no real "structure" to the community), has not yet been established.


Transmission

Parasites inhabit living organisms, and as a result face problems that free-living organisms do not. Hosts, the only habitats in which parasites can survive, actively try to avoid, repel and destroy parasites. Parasites employ numerous strategies for getting from one host to another, a process sometimes referred to as parasite transmission, or the colonization of new hosts.


Many endoparasites infect their host by penetrating its external surface, while others must be ingested by the host. Once inside the host, adult endoparasites need to shed offspring into the external environment in order to infect other hosts. Many adult endoparasites reside in the host’s gastrointestinal tract, where offspring can be shed along with host excreta. Adult stages of tapeworms, thorny-headed worms and most flukes use this method. Gut redirects here. ... Excreta is a generic term used to refer to any masses or fluids excreted as part of the digestive system of a living organism, usually that of humans. ... This article contains material from the CDC (Center for Disease Control) website which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... Classes Archiacanthocephala Palaeacanthocephala Eoacanthocephala The Acanthocephala (gr. ... Subclasses Aspidogastrea Digenea The Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes, which contains two groups of parasitic worms. ...


Among protozoan endoparasites, such as the malarial parasites and trypanosomes, infective stages in the host’s blood are transported to new hosts by biting-insects, or vectors. Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Genera Blastocrithidia Crithidia Endotrypanum Herpetomonas Leishmania Leptomonas Phytomonas Trypanosoma Wallaceina Trypanosomes are a group of kinetoplastid protozoa distinguished by having only a single flagellum. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ...


Larval stages of endoparasites often infect sites in the host other than the blood or gastrointestinal tract. In many such cases, larval endoparasites require their host to be consumed by the next host in the parasite’s life cycle in order to survive and reproduce. Alternatively, larval endoparasites may shed free-living transmission stages that migrate through the host’s tissue into the external environment, where they actively search for or await ingestion by other hosts. The foregoing strategies are used, variously, by larval stages of tapeworms, thorny-headed worms, flukes and parasitic roundworms. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Gut redirects here. ... Parasite life cycles can take a variety of forms, all involving the exploitation of one more hosts. ... This article contains material from the CDC (Center for Disease Control) website which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... Classes Archiacanthocephala Palaeacanthocephala Eoacanthocephala The Acanthocephala (gr. ... Subclasses Aspidogastrea Digenea The Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes, which contains two groups of parasitic worms. ... Classes Adenophora    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms (Phylum Nematoda) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species. ...


Many ectoparasites, such as monogenean worms, rely on direct contact between hosts to colonize new hosts, but other methods are also used. Ectoparasitic arthropods may rely on host-host contact (e.g. many lice) shed eggs that survive off the host (e.g. fleas) and/or wait in the external environment for an encounter with a host (e.g. ticks). Some aquatic leeches locate hosts by sensing movement and only attach when certain temperature and chemical cues are present. Monogenea (adj. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Families Echinophthiriidae (seal lice) Enderleinellidae Haematopinidae (ungulate lice) Hamophthiriidae Hoplopleuridae (armoured lice) Hybothiridae Linognathidae (pale lice) Microthoraciidae Neolinognathidae Pecaroecidae Pedicinidae Pediculidae (body lice) Phthiridae (public lice) Polyplacidae (spiny rat lice) Ratemiidae Sucking lice (Anoplura) have around 500 species and represent the smaller of the two traditional suborders of lice. ... For the musician, a member of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, see Michael Balzary. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... For other uses, see Leech (disambiguation). ...


Some parasites modify host behaviour to make transmission to other hosts more likely. For example, in California salt marshes, the fluke Euhaplorchis californiensis reduces the ability of its killifish host to avoid predators.[4] This parasite matures in egrets, which are more likely to feed on infected killifish than on uninfected fish. Another example is the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that matures in cats but can be carried by many other mammals. Uninfected rats avoid cat odours, but rats infected with T. gondii are drawn to this scent, a change which may increase transmission to feline hosts.[5] This article is about the U.S. state. ... A bluefin notho killifish, Nothobranchius rachovii, from East Africa. ... an egret and a fish Genera Egretta Ardea An egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes during the breeding season. ... Binomial name (Nicolle & Manceaux, 1908) Toxoplasma gondii is a species of parasitic protozoa in the genus Toxoplasma. ... Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Schreber, 1775 For alternative meanings see cat (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Binomial name Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Black Rat (Rattus rattus, also known as the Ship Rat, Roof Rat or House Rat) is a common long-tailed rodent of the genus Rattus and the subfamily murinae (Old World rodents). ...


Roles in ecosystems

Modifying the behaviour of infected hosts to make transmission to other hosts more likely is one way parasites can affect the structure of ecosystems. For example, in the case of Euhaplorchis californiensis discussed above, it is plausible that the abundance of local predator and prey species would be different if this parasite were absent from the system. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


Although parasites are often omitted in depictions of food webs, they usually occupy the top position. Parasites can function like keystone species, reducing the dominance of superior competitors and allowing competing species to co-exist. Figure 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Many parasites require multiple hosts of different species to complete their life cycles and rely on predator-prey or other stable ecological interactions to get from one host to another. In this sense, the parasites in an ecosystem reflect the “health” of that system.


Disease

Parasitic diseases account for a large proportion of human morbidity and mortality, and doubtlessly contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality among all animal populations as well. In this sense, parasitic disease is an important ecological force shaping the biosphere. For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ...


Some major parasitic diseases of humans include malaria, sleeping sickness, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, ascariasis, enterobiasis, entamoebiasis, elephantiasis, river blindness, giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, as well as minor afflictions like lice, mites, chiggers, bot flies, bed bugs, ticks, eye worms, lung worm, and guinea worm. Humans are also subject to a myriad zoonotic diseases including Diphyllobothrium, hydatid disease, trichinellosis, Taenia infections, and anisakiasis. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ... A genus of trematodes, Schistosoma spp. ... Species Ascaris lumbricoides Ascaris suum Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes. ... The pinworm (Genus Enterobius) is a parasitic roundworm of the phylum Nematoda. ... The entamoebae are a group of parasitic and commensal amoebae which lack mitochondria. ... Elephantiasis (Greek ελεφαντίασις, from ελέφαντας, the elephant) is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. ... Binomial name Onchocerca volvulus Bickel 1982 Onchocerciasis (pronounced ) or river blindness is the worlds second leading infectious cause of blindness. ... Binomial name Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (formerly also Lamblia intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... The term chigger (or jigger) can refer to either of two distinct parasitic arthropods with similar behaviors. ... Subfamilies Cuterebrinae Gasterophilinae Hypodermatinae Oestrinae Oestridae (also called botfly or bot fly) is a family of Oestroidea. ... Genera Genus Cimex Lectularius Hemipterus (Rotundatus) Pilosellus Pipistrella Genus Leptocimex Boueti Genus Haematosiphon Inodora Genus Oeciacus Hirudinis Vicarius Bedbugs (or bed bugs) are small nocturnal insects of the family Cimicidae that feed on the blood of humans and other hosts. ... This article is about the parasitic arachnid. ... Species Paragonimus is an important genus of flatworms, or platyhelminths, that includes Paragonimus westermani, a lung fluke endemic to Asia. ... Dracunculiasis, more commonly known as Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), is a preventable infection caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis. ... Species Diphyllobothriasis is caused by the infestation of tapeworms, of the genus Diphyllobothrium. ... Echinococcosis, also known as hydatid disease, is a potentially fatal parasitic disease that can affect many animals, including wildlife, commercial livestock and humans. ... Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. ... Species Species Taenia crassiceps Species Taenia pisiformis Species Taenia saginata Species Taenia solium Taenia is a genus of tapeworm that includes some important parasites of livestock. ... Species Anisakis is a genus of parasitic nematodes, which have a life cycle involving fish and marine mammals. ...


See also

Parasitism. ... Intestinal parasites are parasites that populate the gastro-intestinal tract. ... Macroparasites are parasites that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye and are the opposite of microparasites which cant. ... Species Plasmodium accipiteris Plasmodium achiotense Plasmodium achromaticum Plasmodium acuminatum Plasmodium adunyinkai Plasmodium aegyptensis Plasmodium aeuminatum Plasmodium agamae Plasmodium alloelongatum Plasmodium anasum Plasmodium anomaluri Plasmodium arachniformis Plasmodium ashfordi Plasmodium atheruri Plasmodium aurulentum Plasmodium australis Plasmodium attenuatum Plasmodium azurophilum Plasmodium balli Plasmodium bambusicolai Plasmodium basilisci Plasmodium beebei Plasmodium beltrani Plasmodium berghei Plasmodium... Monotropastrum humile, an obligate myco-heterotroph. ... About 4,100 species in approximately 19 families of flowering plants are either partly or completely parasitic on other plants [1]. Parasitic plants have a modified root, the haustorium, that penetrates the host plant and connects to the xylem or phloem or both. ... The term parasitic wasp refers to a large, artificial assemblage of Hymenopteran superfamilies which are primarily parasitoids of other animals, mostly other arthropods. ... The pinworm (Genus Enterobius) is a parasitic roundworm of the phylum Nematoda. ... When host larvae, e. ... Teratology (from the Greek (genitive ), meaning monster, or marvel and , meaning word, speech) as early as 17th century referred to a discourse on prodigies and marvels, of anything so extraordinary as to seem abnormal. ... A cathedral termite mount – a small animal with a very noticeable extended phenotype The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene is a 1982 book by British ethologist Richard Dawkins. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • Zimmer, Carl 2001. Parasite Rex. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-0011-X
  • Combes, Claude 2005. The Art of Being a Parasite. The University of Chicago Press. ISBN-10: 0226114384
  • Desowitz, Robert 1998. Who Gave Pinta to the Santa Maria? Harvest Books. ISBN-10: 0156005859

Carl Zimmer Carl Zimmer is a popular science writer and weblogger, especially regarding the study of evolution. ...

External links

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Evolutionary ecology lies at the intersection ecology and evolutionary biology. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Bee hovering in flight In evolutionary biology, parallel evolution refers to the independent evolution of similar traits in closely related lineages of species, while convergent evolution refers to the appearance of striking similarities among lineages of organisms only very distantly related. ... Divergent evolution occurs when two or more biological characteristics have a common evolutionary origin but have diverged over evolutionary time. ... The bright colours of this Yellow-winged Darter dragonfly serve as a warning to predators of its noxious taste. ... For other uses, see Mimic (disambiguation). ... Crypsis is a phenomena where an organisms appearance allows it to blend well into its environment. ... Dusky Toadlet displaying patches normally concealed underside of Yellow-bellied toad Unkenreflex is a passive defense position adopted by toads, frogs and salamanders whereby they twist their bodies, or arch their backs and limbs to expose brightly-coloured parts that are usually concealed (e. ...

References

  1. ^ Price, P.W. 1980. Evolutionary Biology of Parasites. Princeton University Press, Princeton
  2. ^ Price, P.W. 1980. Evolutionary Biology of Parasites. Princeton University Press, Princeton
  3. ^ Rook, G.A.W. (2007). "The hygiene hypothesis and the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory disorders". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101: 1072-4. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.05.014. 
  4. ^ Lafferty, K. D. and A. K. Morris. 1996. Altered behavior of parasitized killifish increases susceptibility to predation by bird final hosts. Ecology 77:1390-1397
  5. ^ Berdoy M, Webster JP, Macdonald DW (2000). "Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii". Proc. Biol. Sci. 267 (1452): 1591-4. doi:10.1098/rspb.2000.1182. PMID 11007336. 
A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parasite (0 words)
Parasite exploded onto the KISS scene with their first live show on February 8th 1997, at Harley’s in Cleethorpes, and have been delighting KISS fans with their powerful, authentic, re-creations of all that is best about KISS ever since.
Parasite are four very talented guys who turned their dream into reality and pay their tribute to KISS with energy and enthusiasm and true style.
Parasite believes wholeheartedly in what they do and put on a good show with the philosophy that both they and the fans are there to have fun.
Parasite - MSN Encarta (1097 words)
Parasitism affects most life forms, from bacteria infected by the viruses known as bacteriophages, to humans, who are subject to more than 100 parasites known to cause disease.
Parasites that live on the inside of the host’s body are known as endoparasites, while those that live on the outer surface of their hosts are known as ectoparasites.
Parasitic worms, including flatworms (soft-bodied worms, such as tapeworms and flukes) and roundworms (thin, unsegmented worms, also called nematodes) are endoparasites, usually living in the intestines, lungs, liver, or other internal organs of their hosts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m